« ElőzőTovább »
MASSACHUSETTS AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. The Agricultural College is now fairly opened, and it promises to be a success. The large number of students that have presented themselves shows, at least, that there was a want of such an institution in the community. It is, per. haps, too soon to pronounce it a final and complete success till one or more classes have graduated, and chosen their occupations for life. If a large percentage of them should adopt farming as a pursuit, go out into the community, and show that the practical training which they have received is what it purports to be, such a fact would settle the doubts which some have entertained in regard to the value of a careful education for the farm, as well as for the professions.
Perhaps the question of success or failure should not turn upon this point; but it will, undoubtedly, in the minds of many, since there are institutions enough already devoted to the preparation of young men for teaching and the learned professions, and the training requisite for these pursuits might as well have been obtained in them. Besides, the farmer has been inclined to feel that the Agricultural College was an institution peculiarly his own, and if the course of education there should result in leading students away from the farm, instead of attracting them to it, the experiment would be regarded as a failure, whether justly or not. The course of instruction is, in many respects, an excellent one.
It is more practical, and better calculated to prepare the student for the active duties of life, than that pursued in the older institutions of learning. Less time is given to studies designed merely to train the human mind, and more reference is had to the living present. Such sciences as botany, chemistry, geology, and the applied mathematics, like surveying and engineering, may be said to form the basis of the course, while little or no attention is given to the dead languages. German and French are well tanght, as they should be in every school or college.
It must be admitted that the tendency of public sentiment among educated and well-informed men is, at the present time, strongly in this direction. More direct, practical instruction is demanded. Men have come to feel that less time should be given to mere abstractions; that the same discipline may be acquired upon studies that are useful as well as ornamental. So strong has this impression become that the older colleges are fast modifying their classical course, and adapting it to the wants of the age in which we live.
There are now in the College three classes, known as the Freshmen, Sophomore, and Junior, with the same relative grade as in the older colleges. Another year will give it a Senior class, to graduate in 1871.
TIME TO CUT GRASS. One of the most important things in the whole range of practical farming, and one which every farmer must consider, is the best time to cut grass for hay. The hay crop is our chief reliance in this cold climate. To raise and cure the largest amount of the best winter feed is, therefore, the great object, and it so far surpasses all others, that the money value of a farın is estimated in practice, and for the purposes of buying and selling, by the quantity of hay it can raise.
There is a great difference in the actual nutritive value of hay, depending, in a great measure, upon the time at which it was cut, and the condition in which it was cured. The time when it contains the largest amount of rich nutriment, is just when it comes into blossom. Previous to this time it abounds in rich juices, or, in other words, is more succulent. If cut as it is coming into blossom, it will produce more milk when fed to milch cow's, than if it stands longer.
Immediately after coming into blossom, the formation of woody fibre begins, and advances rapidly till the plant arrives at maturity. This process is the change of the rich, nutritive elements, the starch, gum, sugar, &c., whereby they are stored away in the seed, while the stock is changed into a hard, and comparatively indigestible, substance. After this period the nutritive substances are concentrated chiefly in the ripened seed. The object of the farmer should be to arrest this process at the very beginning, when all
the rich juices of the plant are elaborated, and before the formation of this woody fibre.
Practically, however, it is difficult to do this at precisely the right moment, on a large farm, because the grasscs arrive at this stage of growth at so nearly the same period. It is vastly better to cut before this exact period, than it is to follow it- better for the grass, better for the land, and better for the stock which is to consume it. It is plain, therefore, that the rule should be to begin early, that is, take the more advanced pieces, and that, a little before they come into full blossom, or at the latest, as soon as the blossoms appear.
This point is perfectly well settled, by careful, practical experiment, which shows that the actual money value of early cut hay, is very much greater than that of late cut. Early cut, and properly cured hay, that is hay not over cured or exposed too long to a " broiling sun,” is more like green grass, more succulent, juicy, palatable, and nutritious. All stock will thrive better upon it. Many a farmer now begins haying by the 20th or 25th of June, who never used to begin till after the 4th of July. Every one who has tried it carefully will continue it.
POETRY, ANECDOTES, ETC.
THE INDEPENDENT FARMER.
NEWSPAPERS. Let sailors sing of the windy deep,
By the REY. HENRY WARD BEECHER. Let soldiers praise their armor, But in my heart this toast will keep
In the United States every worthy The Independent Farmer.
citizen reads a newspaper, and owns the When first the rose in robe of green
paper which he reads. A newspaper is Unfolds its crimson lining,
a window through which men look out And round his cottage porch is seen
on all that is going on in the world. The honeysuckle twining;
Without a newspaper a man is shut up When banks of blooin their sweetness in a small room, and knows little or yield,
nothing of what is happening outside of To bees that gather honey,
himself. In our day newspapers keep He drives his team across the field,
pace with history and record it. * When skies are soft and sunny.
A good newspaper will keep a sensible
man in sympathy with the world's curTo him the Spring comes dancingly; rent history. It is an ever unfolding
To him the Summer blushes; encyclopædia; an unbound book forever The Autumn smiles with mellów ray; issuing, and never finished.
His sleep old Winter hushes.
No doubts or fears confound him;
Swing on, old pendulum of the world,
Forever and forever,
Keeping the time of suns and stars,
The march that endeth never!
Your monotone speaks joy and grief,
And failure and endeavor;
Swing on, old pendulum, to and fro, FOOD FOR THOUGAT.
Forever and forever! There's food for reflection in the following calculation. If a man buys and Long as you swing shall earth be glad, pays the present price for two glasses of And men be partly good and bad, liquor and two cigars a day, it will And each hour that passes by, amount to 146 dollars a year, which eum
A thousand souls be born and die; will purchase two hats at $6 each, two Die from the earth, to live, we trust, bonnets at $12 each, three barrels of Unshackled, unallied with dust. flour at $14, one hundred pounds of beef Long as you swing shall wrong come at 24 cents, 40 pounds of butter at 45 right, cents, two pairs of boots at $8, and two As sure as morning follows night; pairs ditto for $5 each – which would go The day goes wrong - the ages never — a long way in supplying the needs of a Swing on, old pendulum - swing forever! man and wife.
THE GENEROUS HEART.
SWIMMING WITHOUT BLADDERS. By HENRY ABBEY.
It is an old truth which Dr. Arnold O! cramped and narrow is the man who here states; but it will bear repetition. lives
Many an unwise parent labors hard, Only for self, and pawns his years and lives sparingly all his life, for the
away For gold, nor knows the joy a good deed children a start in the world, as it is
purpose of leaving enough to give his gives; But fecls his heart shrink slowly day the money left him by his relatives, is
called. Setting a young man afloat with by day, And dies at last, his bond of fate out-one who cannot 'swim; ten chances to
like tying bladders under the arms of run;
one he will go to the bottom. Teach No high aim sought, no wortlıy action him to swim, and he will never need the done,
bladders. Give your child a sound eduBut brimmed with molten brightness cation, and you have done enough for like a star,
him. See to it that his morals are pure, And broad and open as the sea or sky, his mind cultivated, and his whole naThe generous heart! its kind deeds ture made subservient to the laws which shinc afar,
govern man, and you have given what And glow in gold, in God's great book will be of more value than the wealth on high,
of the Indies. To be thrown upon one's And he who does what good he can each resources is to be cast into the very lap
of fortune, for our faculties then undergo Makes smooth and green, and strcws a development, and display an energy, of with flowers his way.
which they were before unsusceptible.
UNDER THE CLOUD. Twice in the year the maple tree
BY CHARLES G. AMER. Grows red beneath our northern skies; 0, beauteous things of earth! Once when October lights the lea
I cannot feel your worth
O, kind and constant friend !
Our spirits cannot blend The first faint color rise.
To-day; These morning hours blend joy with grief
0, Lord of truth and grace ! That draw the fuller spring-time near,
I cannot see Thy face And hint the tender opening leaf,
To-day; And pour the robin's carol clear;
A shadow on my heart For not the time of ripened sheaf,
Keeps me from all apart And rainbow woods, is half so dear
To-day; As this, the boyhood, bright and brief,
Yet something in me knows The earliest of the year.
How fair creation glows
And something makes me sure
That love is not less pure Every man has his faults, his failings, his peculiarities. Every one of us finds
To-day; himself crossed by such failings of others
And that th' Eternal Good from hour to hour; and if he were to Minds nothing of my mood resent them all, or even notice all, life
To-day; would be intolerable. If for every out- Fed from a hidden bowl, burst of hasty temper, and for every A lamp burns in my soul rudeness that wounds us in our daily
All days! path, we were to demand an apology, require an explanation, or resent it by re
If thou workest at that which is before taliation, daily intercourse would be impossible. The very science of social | thee, following right reason seriously, life consists in that gliding tact, which vigorously, calmly, without allowing avoids contact with the sharp angulari- anything else to distract thee, but keep. ties of character, which does not argue ing thy divine part pure, as if thou about such things, which does not seek shouldst be bound to give it back immeto adjust or cure them all, but covers diately; if thou holdest to this, expectthem as if it did not see. So a Christian ing nothing, fearing nothing, but satisfied spirit throws a cloak of love over these with thy present activity according to things. It knows when it is wise not to nature, and with heroic truth in every see. That microscopic distinctness in word and sound which thou utterest, which all faults appear to captious men, thou wilt live happy. And there is no who are forever blaming, dissenting, com
man who is able to prevent this. plaining, disappears in the large, calm
The Emperor MARCUS ANTONINUS. gaze of love. And it is this spirit which our Christian society lacks, and which
PITHY CORRESPONDENCE. we shall never get until each one begins with his own heart.
The following is given as the substance of a correspondence between the late W.
H. Crawford, Secretary of the Treasury TRUE COURAGE.
under Monroe, and an agent of the de
partment in the State of Alabama. If, in years of fierce endeavor,
Dear Sir : Please inform this departAll your efforts have been vain,
ment, by return of mail, how far the Struggle on, believing ever
Tombigbee River runs up. That the victory you will gain.
Respectfully, Are you friendless ? you can conquer
W. 1. CRAWFORD, Sec'y, &c. Foes without and foes within;
HON. W. H. CRAWFORD, Dear Sir: In
reply to your letter, just at hand, I have Noble natures prove ascendant
the honor to say that the Tombigbee In the world's ignoble strife
River doesn't run up at all, And true courage is descendant
I have the honor to be, &c. Of the dauntless souls in life.
The agent's joke cost him his place. On life's changeful scene of action Though defeat may oft appear,
FAITH. Laurels, prizes, wealth, and station
Yet love will dream, and faith will trust,
Alas for him who never sees
The stars shine through his cypress trees; When a man says “ I lie," does he lie, Who hath not learned in hours of faith, or does he speak the truth? If he lies, The truth to flesh and sense unknown, he speaks the truth; if he speaks the That life is ever Lord of death,
THE DROWNED AT SEA.
QUESTION IN GEOMETRY. Never bronze or slab of stone
A ship was in a perilous situation, with May their sepulchre denote; a hole in one of her planks of 12 inches O'er their burial-place alone
square; and the only plank that could be Shall the shifting sea-weed float. had was 16 inches long by 9 in breadth. Not for them the quiet grave
Required to know how this said piece Underneath the daisied turf; must be cut into four pieces, so as to They rest below the restless wave, repair the hole perfectly, and without
They sleep below the sleepless surf. waste. O'er them shall the waters wrestle
With the whirlwind from the land,
Rethe si a rowd ni veyer limec,
Ot voel dan rinfedspih read; Loud or low, shall be their dirge; Ni Gisheln 'sit “torfeg em ton,” And each idle wave that breaks,
Ni Hrenfc 'its " vensuior."
I am composed of 22 letters.
My 14, 11, 22, 16, 17 is used to separate
bran from meal. If you wish to be happy, and to make My 13, 15, 3 is what people are often glad others so, always be cheerful, and look to do. upon the bright side of everything. It My 18, 12, 11,5, 7 is a very common name. is just as cheap, and three times as good My 12, 1, 10, 13 is an officer of a ship. for digestion.
My 6, 15, 10 is a domestic animal.
My 12, 20, 19, 17 is under ground.
My 6, 7, 20, 9 is a part of the face.
My 8,5 is one of the most common words Be like the promontory, against which of the English language. the waves continually beat, but it stands My !5, 2, 4, 1 is a grand division, firm, and tames the fury of the waters My whole is an old saying. about it.
ANSWERS TO PROBLEMS, AND
1. A country seat. ANSWER TO MATHEMATICAL QUES
3. To spring back. TION. - The numbers are, 64, 25, and 1.
4. A great river in the United States, ANSWER TO PROBLEM.- The farmer 5. A fertile piece of land, bought 63 tons on the forenoon of April 6. A race of people. 3d. In the calculation, the months are 7. A weight. supposed to be of equal length.
give one of the United States. ANSWER TO ENIGMA. – The borrower My finals a county in the same. is servant to the lender. ANSWER TO RIDDLE. - Drouth.
PUZZLE. ANSWER TO CHARADE.- Mosquito,
Take away three lines, so as to leave In my first is found water.
three perfect squares.
I am composed of 6 parts. As a whole
I am a uscful implement, or a means of A man hired out for a year for $200 conveyance; take away my 1st and I am and a suit of clothes; at the end of nine broken and rough; remove my 2d and I months he got $ 140 and the suit of clothes. become a plant; remove both 1st and 20 What was the suit worth?
and I can either divide or mark division.
[Preserve this Schedule for future reference.)
SCHEDULE OF STAMP DUTIES,
IMPOSED BY ACT OF CONGRESS.
acting as such, for a sum not exceeding $100
.02; exceeding $100, .05. Certificate of record of AGREEMENT OR APPRAISEMENT.
a deed, or other instrument in writing, or of the Agreement or contract other than those men
acknowledgment or proof thereof by attesting tioned in this schedule (or any appraisement), for
witnesses, exempt; certiticates other than those every sheet or piece of paper on which it is
mentioned, .05. writien, .05. If more than one agreement or appraisement is written on one sheet of paper, .05 CHARTER PARTY, or any letter or memoranon each. Renewal of agreement, same stamp
dum relating to the charter of any vessel: if the as original instrument.
registered tonnage does not exceed one hundred
and titty tons, $1.00; from one hundred and fifty BANK CHECKS, DRAFTS, OR ORDERS, to three hundred tons, $3.00; from three hundred
for any amount, on any bank, banker, or trust to six hundred tons, $5.00; over six hundred company, at sight or on demand,' .02; for tons, $10.00. Renewal of charter, same stainp as amount exceeding 810, on any person other than original instrument. a bank, banker, or trust company, at sight or on CIGAR LIGHTS, made in part of wood, wax, demand, .02.
glass, paper, or other materials, in parcels or BILL OF EXCHANGE (foreign), or letter. packages containing twenty-five lights or less, of credit, drawn in but payable out of the United
.01; iu packages of more than twenty-five and States, if drawn singly or otherwise than in a set
not more than fifty, .02; for every additional of three or more - same as inland bills of ex twenty-five lights, or fraction, .01. change or promissory notes; drawn in sets of CONTRACTS. - Broker's note or memorandum three or more, for every bill of each set, where
of sale of any goods or merchandise, exchange, the sum made payable shall not exceed $100, or the equivalent thereof, in any foreign currency,
real estate, or property of any kind or descrip
tion issued by brokers, or persons acting as such, .02; for every additional $100, or fractional part for each note or memorandum of sale,.10. (See thereof in excess of $100, .02.
SALES and AGREEMENT.) BILL OF EXCHANGE (inland), draft, or CONVEYANCE OR DEED OF GRANT,
order for the payment of any sum of money, not where the consideration, or value does not ex exceeding 8100, otherwise than at sight or on de ceed $500, .50; from $500 to 81000, 81.00; and for mand, or Promissory Notes (except bank notes every additional $500, or fraction, .50. and checks), or any memorandum, check, re- ENTRY OF GOODS, at Custom House, not ceipt, or other written or printed evidence of an amount of money to be paid on demand or at a
exceeding in value $100, 25; not exceeding $500, time designated, for a sum not exceeding, $100,
.50; exceeding 8500, $1.00; for the withdrawal of .03; for every additional $100, or fractional part
goods from bonded warehouse, .50. in excess of $100, .05.
FRICTION MATCHES, in parcels or packages
of 100 or less, .01; in packages of more than BILL OF LADING, or receipt other than char 100, and not more than 200, for each parcel or ter party, for goods and merchandise exported to package, .02; and for every additional 100, or fracforeign port, each, .10. (To British No. Am., ex tional part thereof, .01. For wax tapers, double empt.)
the rates herein imposed upon friction matches. BILL OF SALE. – Bills of sale, by which any FISH, SAUCES, JELLIES, &c. - For and
ship or vessel, or any part thereof shall be con upon every can, bottle, or other single package, veyed to or vested in any other person or persons, containing fish (ex. shell-fish), sauces, sirups, prewhen the consideration shall not exceed $500, pared mustard, jams or jellies, contained therein, stamp duty, .50; do., when the consideration and packed or sealed, made, prepared, and sold, exceeds $500, and does not exceed $1000, $1.00; or offered for sale, or removed for consumption exceeding $1000, for every additional amount of in the United States, on or after the first day of $500, or fractional part thereof, .50; personal October, 1866, when such can, bottle, or other property other than ships or vessels, .05.
single package with its contents, shall not exceed BONDS, of indemnity where the money ulti
two pounds in weight, .01; for every additional
pound or fractional part, .01. mately recoverable thereupon is $1000 or less, .50; when in excess of $1000, for every $1000, INSURANCE POLICY, on any life or lives, or fraction, .50; for the due execution of the du
when the amount insured does not exceed $1000, ties of any office, $1.00; of any description other
.25 ; not exceeding $5000, .50; exceeding 9.5000, than such as may be required in legal proceed
$1.00; fire, inland, and marine policies, or renewal inge, or used in connection with mortgage deeds,
of the same, premium not exceeding $10, .10; and not otherwise charged in this schedule, 25.
premium not exceeding $50, 25; exceeding $50, Bond of administrator or guardian, where value
.50. Accident insurance policies are exempt. of estate is $1000, or less, exempt; exceeding LEASE, where annual rent is $300 or less, .50; $1000, $1.00.
where the rent exceeds $300, for each additional
$200, or fraction in excess of $300, .50. AssignCERTIFICATES, of measurement or weight ment of a lease, same stamp as original, and ad
of animals, wood, coal, or hav, exempt of ditional stamp upon the value or consideration measurement of other articles, .05; of stock in of transfer according to the rates on deeds. any incorporated company, .25; of profits, or any (See CONVEYANCE). certificate or memorandum showing an interest in the property or accumulations of any incorpo- LETTERS TESTAMENTARY, if value of rated company, for an amount not less than $10,
estate does not exceed $1000, exempt; exceeding nor exceeding $50, .10; from $50 to $1000, .25;
$1000, .05. exceeding $1000, for every additional $1000, or MANIFEST FOR ENTRY, or clearance of carfraction, 25. Certificate of damage or otherwise, and all other documents issued by any port war
go of vessel for foreign port, if registered tonnage
does not exceed three hundred tons, $1.00; from den or marine surveyor, or person acting as such, .25. Certfficate of deposit in any bank or
three hundred to six hundred tons. 83.00; extrust company, or with any banker, or person
ceeding six hundred tons, 85.00. (To Brit. No. Am., exempt.)