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JUDGES OF PROBATE COURTS IN MASSACHUSETTS.

(CORRECTED 1868.)

Suffolk Co., Isaac Ames, Boston.
Essex Co., Geo. F. Choate, Salem.
Middlesex Co., Wm. A. Richardson, Camb.
Worcester Co., Henry Chapin, Worcester.
Franklin Co., Chas. Mattoon, Greenfield.
Bristol Co., Edm. H. Bennett, Taunton.
Plymouth Co., Win.H.Wood, Middleboro'.

COURTS OF INSOLVENCY IN MASSACHUSETTS.

Thero is in each county a Court of Insolvency, held by the same judge as the
Probate Court, at such times and places as the judge appoints.
While the Bankrupt Law of the United States is in force, the Insolvency Law is
suspended as to new cases, but not as to those previously commenced.

PROBATE COURTS IN MASSACHUSETTS.

(CORRECTED 1868.)

COUNTY OF SUFFOLK. - At Boston, every Mon. in each month, except July.

COUNTY OF ESSEX.-At Salem, 1st Tues. of each month; at Lawrence, 2d Tues. of each month, except April, May, July, Aug., and Oct.; at Gloucester, 2d Tues. of April and Oct.; at Newburyport, 3d Tues. of each month, except March, May, Aug., Sept., and Nov.; at Haverhill, 3d Tues. of May and Nov.; at Ipswich, 3d Tues. of March and Sept.

COUNTY OF MIDDLESEX. At Cambridge, 1st, 2d, and 4th Tues. of each month, except Aug.; at Lowell, 3d Tues. of Jan., March, May, July, Sept., and Nov.

COUNTY OF WORCESTER. - At W.

Brookfield, 2d Tues. of May and Oct.; at
Clinton, 3d Tues. of May and Oct.; at
Templeton, Thurs. next after 3d Tuess of
May and Oct.; at Barre, Friday next after
3d Tues. of May and Oct.; at Milford, 4th
Tues. of May, and Wed. next after 4th
Tues. of Oct.; at Uxbridge, 4th Tucs. of
Oct.; at Fitchburg, Wed. next after 3d
Tues. of May and Oct.; and at Worces-
ter, 1st Tues. of every month.

Barnstable Co., Jos. M. Day, Barnstable
Nantucket Co., Edw. M. Gardner, Nant.
Dukes Co., Th. G. Mayhew, Edgartown.
Hampden Co., W. S. Shurtleff, Springfld,
Hampshire Co., Sam. F. Lyman, Northam.
Norfolk Co., Geo. White, Needham.
Berkshire Co., Jas. T. Robinson, Adams.

ampton, 1st Tues. of every month; at
Amherst, 2d Tues. of Jan. and Aug.; at
Belchertown, 2d Tues. of May and Oct.;
and at Williamsburg, 3d Tues. of May and

Oct.

COUNTY OF HAMPDEN. At Springfield, 1st Tues. of Jan., Feb., March, April, May, June, July, Sept., Nov., and Dec., and 4th Tues. of April, Aug., and Sept.; at Westfield. 3d Tues. of March, June, Sept., and Dec.: at Monson, 2d Tues. of June; and at Palmer, 2d Tues. of Sept.

COUNTY OF FRANKLIN.-At Greenfield, 1st Tues. of every month except Nov.; at Northfield, 2d Tues. of May and Sept.; at Orange, 2d Tues, of March and Dec., and 3d Tues. of June; at Conway, 3d Tues. of May; at Shelburne Falls, 4th Tues. of May, 2d Tues. of Feb., and 4th Tues. of Oct.

COUNTY OF BERKSHIRE.-At Pittsfield, 1st Tues. of Jan., Feb., March, April, May, June, Sept., Oct., and Dec., 3d Tues. of July, and 2d Tues. of Nov.; at Le Wed. next after 1st Tues. of Jan. March, May, July, and Sept.; at Great Barrington, Wed. next after 1st Tues. of Feb., April, June, Oct., and Dec.

COUNTY OF NORFOLK.At Dedham, 1st Tues. of every month, except Aug.; at Dorchester, every Wed., except during August.

COUNTY OF HAMPSHIRE.-At North-water, 3d Mon. of April and Oct.

COUNTY OF BRISTOL.- At Taunton, 1st Frid. of March, June, Sept., and Dec.; at New Bedford, 1st Frid. of Feb., May, Aug., and Nov.; at Fall River, 1st Frid. of

Jan., April, and Oct., and 2d Frid. of July.

COUNTY OF PLYMOUTH.-At Plymouth, 2d Mon. of every month, except July and Aug.; at Wareham, 4th Mon. of Oct.; at East Bridgewater, 4th Mon. of Feb. and Dec.; at Hingham, 4th Mon. of March; at Middleboro', 4th Mon. of April and Jan., and 2d Mon. of July; at Abington, 4th Mon. of May, Aug., and Nov.; at South Scituate, 4th Mon. of June; at Bridgewater, 4th Mon. of Sep.; at North Bridge

COUNTY OF BARNSTABLE.-At Barnstable, 2d Tues. of Jan., Feb., Mar., Aug., and Dec., and 3d Tues. of April, June, and Sept.; at Harwich, 2d Mon. after 1st Tues. of May, and 2d Mon. of Oct.; at Wellfleet, Tues. next after 2d Mon. of Oct.; at Provincetown, Wed. next after 3d Tucs. of May, and Wed. next after 2d Mon. of Oct.; and at Falmouth, 3d Tues. of Nov.

DUKES COUNTY. - At Holmes' Hole village, in Tisbury, on the 3d Mon. of April, and 1st Mon. of Sept.; at Edgartown, 3d Mon. of Jan. and July, and 1st Mon. of March and Dec.; and at West Tisbury, 1st Mon. of June, and 3d Mon. of Oct.

COUNTY OF NANTUCKET. At Nantucket, on the Thurs. next after the 2d Tues. of every month.

QUALITY OF MANURE.

The value of the excrements of an animal depends very largely upon the quality and quantity of food he consumes. The food goes first to sustain the vital powers. If it is just enough to keep the animal along, that is, to sustain life, and no more, the manure would be one thing. If he has, in addition, an extra quantity and quality of food to provide for various secretions, as fat, flesh, milk, or strength to labor, the manure is quite another thing. The former is far less valuable than the latter, because the vital constituents of the food consumed are far more completely exhausted, or absorbed in the body of the animal. The more nutritious and abundant the food, therefore, the greater the value and quantity of the manure.

Food rich in nitrogen and other invigorating materials, as grain, or seeds of plants, may produce a smaller quantity of manure; but this want of bulk is made up by a higher fertilizing quality. The farmer who buys or makes a certain quantity of manure without considering of what it was made, saying to himself, manure is manure, and so many loads are worth so much, anyhow, makes a great mistake. He may get very poor stuff, notwithstanding its great bulk. The manure produced by a food containing but a small amount of nitrogen is comparatively feeble in its action, and inert. Careful experiments showed that the urine of animals fed on grains and hay contained half as much again of solid substance, and nearly two and a half times as much nitrogen, as that produced by feed that was poor in nitrogen, as potatoes, roots, straw, &c.; and the same, or nearly as great a difference would be found in the solid excrements, no doubt.

Then again, it depends a good deal on whether the food is easy of digestion, that is, how much of it is extracted by the animal system as it passes through it. Much of the fibre of our ripened grasses and other food passes through the animal undigested. The manure will, in such cases, contain large amounts of undigested fibre, and be deficient in nitrogen, The animal might furnish large heaps of manure of little fertilizing power.

And so the greater the quantity of water an animal drinks, or the more watery the nature of its food, the more watery or thin will be the character of the solid exerement and the urine. The difference is so great that one hundred pounds of the urine of a horse that took but little water into his system was found to contain twentyone pounds of solid matter, and two and a half pounds of nitrogen; while the same weight of this secretion of another horse that took more liquid in its food, contained only eleven pounds of solid constituents, and one and a quarter pounds of nitrogen. A cow fed on hay and potatoes produced ten pounds in a hundred of solid constituents in the urine; and when fed on clover, the same amount of urine contained but six and a half pounds of solid ingredients. And so manure produced from green food cannot contain anything like the fertilizing elements of that produced from dry fodder. The bulk may be greater, but the quality, and consequently the value, is far inferior.

We need not allude to the other elements which must necessarily enter into the calculation, as the age of animals, the use to which they are put, the manner in which they are taken care of, the amount and kind of litter they have, &c. Young animals use up both organic and inorganic materials in growth, and their manure is consequently, even with the same quality and quantity of fodder, worth less than that of full-grown animals. A thousand pounds of the urine of a calf fed on milk, for instance, contained but one pound of solid ingredients, and only a trace of nitrogen; while the same quantity of the urine of a cow contained eighty pounds of solid matter, and eight pounds of nitrogen. And so a working animal perspires and sweats, and carries off in that way many substances of the food which would otherwise go into the manure. The manure of a working animal is worth less than when the animal is at rest. An animal that is exposed a good deal to cold and rain, uses a larger amount of fodder in keeping up the heat of the body, and hence well-stalled animals produce more manure and better. Again, if straw or some other absorbing litter is used, more of the urine is saved in the manure than if leaves or similar substances, or no litter is used.

RAISING CALVES FOR THE DAIRY.-In most sections, where animals are bred for the dairy at all, the value of the milk, whether to be manufactured into butter or cheese, or to be sold in its natural state, is such as to make it necessary to adopt some system of economy. It is a comparatively easy matter to feed the calf designed for breeding purposes or for beef by letting it run with the dam, taking all the milk it requires; and this method, with high-priced stock, or in raising for beef, is the best economy, no doubt, but it is found to be too expensive where the dairy is an object of attention.

Most dairymen, therefore, have adopted the plan of taking the calf from the cow at an early period and feeding it from the dish by hand up to the time of bringing it to solid food. By this method the food can be easily modified, and the growth is not liable to be checked, as it often is when the calf is allowed to run with the cow to a certain age and finally taken away.

The feeding begins, of course, with the milk as it is taken from the cow, but this is soon gradually withheld, and skimmed milk substituted by degrees. A little bran may be added, or a small quantity of linseed meal, the whole prepared as a sort of gruel, warmed to the natural temperature of milk as it comes from the cow.

35

REQUISITES TO SUCCESS.

Agriculture cannot be made profitable simply by securing good crops and abundant farm products; but it is necessary to take into consideration, also, the judicious employment of the capital invested, the expenses to be incurred, the wages to be paid, the prices, and the varying state of the market. These matters have a most important bearing on the general results, but they do not come directly within the cognizance of science, and actual experience is necessary for the solution of the questions continually arising in regard to them. He who depends wholly upon books, even if he be well read and has thoroughly mastered the general and wellestablished principles of his occupation, may fail from want of this experience. But this is far from showing that no advantage is to be derived from well-selected books. It is unreasonable to expect that tact and business ability can be obtained from any amount of study and reading. Experience itself does not always give them. To a great extent they seem to be intuitive and innate; and though familiarity with business affairs may sharpen the wits and quicken the perceptions, it does not always mature the judgment, or create the skill which commands success in the market.

Practice and experience in the field should, therefore, be regarded as an essential part of an agricultural education. But the farmer should not, for these reasons, depreciate the aid he may gain from the man of science, the man of letters, or the faithful and accurate experimenter. The revelations of science will bring ever new and ever varied instruction to his mind. From year to year he may improve his practice, thus attaining greater and greater results, and no limit can be set to his upward progress. A simple record of experiments, carefully made and well described, will give him material for much improvement. By the exercise of judgment and discrimination he may separate the good and useful from what is of doubtful utility, and whatever he thus gets is so much positive gain. The actual results of an experiment are facts from which truth itself may be extracted. They are not mere vague conclusions, or the opinions or reflections of another; they are what enabled him to reflect.

It must be borne in mind that as scientific investigation has advanced in modern times, it has brought its contributions to agriculture from a great variety of sources, each of which brings something peculiar to itself. Chemistry has explained the composition of soils and manures; botany has solved the mysteries of plant growth; vegetable and animal physiology have lent invaluable aid; geology, mineralogy, and indeed all the sciences, have done their share, and the farmer has only to use the knowledge soʻlavishly thrown out before him.

SEASONED WOOD.

Few farmers are aware of the waste involved in the use of green instead of well seasoned or dry wood. The most thoroughly seasoned wood contains about ten per cent. of water, but green wood contains from thirty-five to forty per cent., and the farmer who hauls twenty cords of green wood has to haul about twenty tons, or one hundred and twenty-five barrels of water, and in burning it green has to use heat enough in evaporating the sap to boil about twelve thousand gallons of water. This heat is, to a large extent, wasted, and it might be saved by the use of dry instead of green wood. Make calculations to have a year's stock of fuel on hand, well housed and dry.

COLORING CHEESE..

One of the means employed to give cheese a rich cream color, is to expose the curd, before and after salting, to the air, instead of hurrying it into the hoop and press, as is usual with the majority of dairymen. Every cheese-maker must have observed the fine golden color acquired by particles of curd that have accidentally remained out of the hoop, and exposed during the day to the atmosphere. This is the precise color desired by the dealers, and in warm weather an exposure long enough for the desired color is practicable, and the appearance of the curd can be materially changed for the better by letting it remain in the vat or tub until it has acquired the proper temperature for the press. It is always preferable to cool the curd in this way, instead of using water or cold whey on the curd, as is sometimes done for this purpose, as these last have a tendency to impoverish the cheese by washing out a portion of its richness, besides injuring somewhat its flavor. Fine flavor, quality, and the proper texture in cheese are important requisites to ready sales and good prices, but all these may be present, and the cheese sell low in market, from its bad appearance. The eye must be suited as well as the taste.

Again, many dairymen are troubled, more or less, in preserving a smooth, elastic rind-the rind checks, and deep cracks are found here and there in the cheese. This results often and for the most part from the air being allowed to blow on the young cheese. Cheese, when it comes from the press, for several days after, or until the rind has a firm consistency, should be kept where the air may not blow directly upon it; and washing the cheese twice a week with hot sweet whey will add much to its outward appearance. Annotto is generally used during the spring and fall for coloring milk for cheese-making, but as much of it is adulterated with poisonous materials, its use should be avoided.

MANURE OF THE HORSE, COW, AND HOG.

Of the three, cow manure contains the least nitrogen and the most water. It is the nitrogen that makes manure pass rapidly into fermentation and putrefaction. The excrement of the cow does not crumble in lying, but remains compact. Hence its uniform distribution in the soil, and its decomposition or dissolution into water, the form in which it must enter the rootlets of plants, are more difficult and slower. Horse manure is richer in nitrogen, and contains less water. Its particles are denser in texture, but hang together more closely. It is therefore more easily distributed, and decays more rapidly. Its fertilizing elements are sooner taken up and appropriated by plants. Its operation is more immediate, but is sooner over.

Hog manure differs widely in quality, because the food consumed is far more varied than that of the horse or cow. If the pig is fed mostly on potatoes and similar watery food, the manure is less valuable than if fed on grains, bones of the slaughter-house, or other highly-nourishing food. An English farmer wanted to try this very question, and applied equal quantities of the manure of cows, horses, sheep, and swine to equal pieces of barley, and obtained the following result:

From the land without manure, 159 pounds; from the land with cow manure, 167 pounds; from the land with horse manure, 226 pounds; from the land with hog manure, 233 pounds; from the land with sheep manure, 244 pounds.

The composition of the fresh excrements of these animals will serve to throw still further light on this question. All were fed in winter. In 1000 pounds of the fresh droppings of cows, there were three pounds of nitrogen; in the same amount of the droppings of horses there were five pounds, and in those of swine, six pounds; while in those of sheep there were seven pounds. Of mineral substances there were in the manure of cows twenty-four pounds, in that of horses thirty pounds, in that of swine thirty pounds, in that of sheep sixty pounds. Of alkalies, potash, and soda, there were in the fresh manure of cows one pound; in that of horses three pounds; in that of hogs five pounds; in that of sheep three pounds. Of phosphoric acid there was found in the manure of cows two and one fourth pounds; in that of horses three and one half pounds; in that of hogs four and one half pounds; in that of sheep six pounds.

The urine of swine is less rich in most of the above ingredients, except the last, phosphoric acid, than that of either of the others.

We must therefore conclude that if the three kinds of manure were taken in a pretty pure state, as they seldom are, the hog manure would be worth the most.

The manure made by hogs fed on slaughter house offal is particularly rich in fertilizing elements, and when properly mixed with absorbents, like muck, leaves, loam, or other substances, it may be safely used under almost any circumstances. The hog-pen should always be liberally supplied with materials to mix in with the manure. We believe generally in mixed manures, and think if the horse, hog, and cow manures were generally more judiciously mixed, we should have better results on the soil, and in the plants we cultivate.

THE COMPOST.

After getting the manure out of the cellar or out of the yard, cart in all the muck, loam, leaves, or any old litter at hand, that is not full of the seeds of weeds. Look out for that. It's bad enough to keep out the weeds that spring up in spite of us, without sowing thousands of others that there is no need of. If there is not sufficient of these substances at hand, get in sand. That is far better than nothing,| and if the land you have to manure is stiff and heavy, it is even better than some of the other stuff, like muck, &c.

Fill in the pig-pens, also, with the same materials. No matter if you get it two or three feet deep; if you have pigs enough they'll work it over and make very respectable manure of it by spring, particularly if you make a practice of scattering a little corn over it occasionally. We don't believe much in working hogs a great deal if we are about to fatten them, but store hogs might as well exercise a little for their living as not. We like to have them work over the horse manure, it makes it so much better.

SAND AS BEDDING.

Get up a lot of sand to use as bedding. If the soil of your farm is strong and good, anything but a light sand or gravel, the use of sand as bedding is first rate for the manure, absorbing a vast amount of liquid that might otherwise be lost, and, excepting in extreme cold weather, it makes a clean and comfortable bedding. We know a great many who are in the habit of using sand exclusively for this purpose, and who like it more and more, the more they use it. Give it a fair trial of a year or two and you won't go back to the use of straw, unless, now and then, from the extreme cold, it seems to be needed. It is a good plan. to keep a supply of it stored away in some convenient place near the cattle stalls, and use it freely. It is better

BRITTANY CATTLE.

The little Breton cows are found scattered over a considerable extent of territory, including no less than five departments in the western part of France. The pure breed is remarkable for its beauty and high milking qualities. This breed is very ancient and it has spread far and wide in every direction, to the north as far as Scotland, where there is good reason for believing it originated the Ayrshire breed. Many of the cattle around Bordeaux are believed to have come originally from Asia, and there are those who think the cattle of Brittany came from the same source. However this may be, they have been remarkable for many years for high dairy qualities, the milk being very rich and making the finest butter.

The true Breton cow is usually black and white. Occasionally a red and white is to be met with, but the prevailing color is black and white. She is small in size, the height varying from thirty-two to forty-two inches, on an average of thirty-six or thirty-eight inches at the period of maturity. The limbs are fine and delicate, in fact, the animal is a perfect dairy cow in miniature, and hence it is very popular among many as a pet, being gentle and docile, and a curiosity on accouut of the small size. The form is remarkably symmetrical, the head short and fine with a sharp outline, the muzzle small, the eye quick and lively, the horn slender, well set, curving outwards and upwards, with the points turned to each other. The color of the horn is white at the root and black towards the tip, sometimes all black, or of a yellowish color. The neck is slender, the crest free, and the dewlap very small. The back is straight, the withers well formed, the loins broad and well formed, the hips prominent, with a large pelvic capacity. The rump is short, the tail long and well attached. The legs are short, the joints small and well defined, the hoofs small, dry and usually black.

The skin is invariably fine and supple, the coat short and shiny. The roof of the mouth and the tongue are always white, though the muzzle is usually black, sometimes black and white, and rarely quite white. The udder is well shaped and compact, though large for so small an animal, the teats pointing inwards. The cows usually belong to the first class of Guenon, or flandrines.

The Breton cow is capable of great endurance, being active and strong, though always gentle and quiet. She is naturally so hardy that she thrives under almost any circumstances, and if stall fed and well cared for she fattens rapidly and well, having in fact the greatest aptitude for taking on flesh as soon as the secretion of milk is suspended.

The Brittany cow always commands the admiration of the ladies wherever she is seen. The Princess Baciocchi, a cousin of the emperor, living at Rennes, in Bretagne, in the heart of the district, is a great fancier of this stock, and has some of the best. Prof. Bellamy of the same city, one of the very best judges of stock in France, is also very fond of these little animals, and has devoted great attention to their history and to the selection of the best specimens.

There are many parts of New England where this small race of cattle, so hardy, so beautiful, and so easily kept, would do remarkably well, where other and larger animals do not thrive so as to yield any profit to their owners.

YOUNG STOCK.

Calves and lambs well treated will make better cows and sheep than if neglected and allowed to shirk for themselves. We know that sheep improve a good deal both in wool and mutton on good keeping. The same is especially the case with calves. What you want is not to fatten, but to keep up a strong healthy growth.

At this season, good tender grass and a little milk, no matter if it is not all sweet, and a little oatmeal mixed in, will pay for itself in the thrifty growth which it will induce. A little extra care at this period of growth is sure to be rewarded at a later age. The treatment of calves which we have often seen, such as turning them out to grass before they are old enough, and requiring them to eat what they know little about, or die, is cruel and wasteful in the extreme. There is no economy in neglecting young stock. They may live through it, but nature will domand her reckoning.

The same may be said of colts. Sweet pure pasture grass is the best, but if this is short, a little oatmeal is excellent for them. Oats make muscle rapidly, and this gives strength, and power, and growth, and this is what all young stock needs to thrive upon.

It is a great mistake to keep any stock short of feed, but especially young, growing stock.

TOADS.

Never kill the toads that frequent your garden. Not by any means remarkable for beauty, they are, nevertheless, very useful in destroying insects, particularly those that fly in the night. Toads feed almost exclusively on insects, and the amount of good they do is immense. If we could always reconcile ourselves to the old adage, Handsome is that handsome does," and conquer our prejudices, we should cherish the toad as a true friend. A young lady once told us that she " perfectly doted on alligators." It would be much more sensible to fix her young affections on toads.

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