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the minutest particle of conceivable matter, and thence pursue its ramifications through the various objects of thought, till we arrive at Nature's God; where we shall behold it blaze forth in all its glory.
The word Coeval seems to involve the whole difficulty: The complete development of this term will, therefore, unravel the mystery, which, after all, may turn out to be merely verbal. Whatever exists in nature first manifests itself to Sense, by raising sensations which represent the properties of the thing. This sets the mind to work to find out the principle, which enables these properties to constitute a single thing; and this is the procedure of REASON. This process at once solves the difficulty; for it says: There must exist in nature as much principle as is necessary to support nature; and so, of every individual thing there must exist just enough substance to support its properties, neither more nor less. Now, this is only establishing the axiom — that all the parts are equal to the whole. But the parts which constitute a whole must all be COEVAL all exist at the same time. or the whole cannot exist. Hence, there must be as much principle as matter in nature, and these two must be in necessary connexion. The arranging and connecting of the parts
of matter is precisely that which constitutes its form. Thus, we obtain this equation:
Matter + Form + Connexion Thing. The smallest number of parts that can possibly be connected are two, which, with the principle of connexion essentially necessary to constitute one thing, make three elements. Every single thing, therefore, consists of three heterogeneous principles. To build a house we first take one brick (oŬTOS), and then another (frepos), and cement them together; this we call connexion (ouvex's). These three elements only make one thing, which we call the corner-stone of the building : a repetition of this act completes the edifice. The same process takes place also in mental things, as the mathematics; and, lastly, in spiritual things, as religion and morals. If we annul the matter, the thing has vanished ; if we annul the form, the thing is chaotic and unintelligible ; and, lastly, if we deny its connexion, it is disjoined matter, but no specific thing. Consequently, every thing that is cogitable by man must submit to this mental law, and have all its parts in connexion, that is to say, they must be both COEVAL and CORRELATIVE. Thus, man consists of a material body quickened by a living soul; yet, unless these two
elements are in strict connexion, they do not constitute man : for the body without the soul is a corpse, and the soul without the body is an angel. Hence the absolute necessity of their connexion to constitute man, thus
Body + Soul + Connexion = Human Being.
A glance at our Diagram will render the truth of this position more evident than multiplying words will be able to do. It will be abundantly evident to the most uninformed mind that these three elements are absolutely necessary to constitute that reasoning animal, called
It will also be clear that they must exist at the same time, that is, be all COEVAL. The least number of things that can exist at one time, or be coeval, is three - two parts and their connexion; these are absolutely necessary to constitute a thing: ούτος, έτερος, cuvexus, and this is a fundamental law of the mind, which, if abrogated, all nature is destroyed.
We now come to investigate those phenomena of nature where succession is evinced. Thus, to drive a nail we employ a hammer ; the hammer, when impelling the nail, is termed a Cause, and the entering of the nail is called an Effect. Notwithstanding there is
an evident priority in point of time between the Cause and the Effect, with regard to things of SENSE, yet, as a principle of Reason, these two notions can have
For Reason is a faculty of the soul, and an inhabitant of ETERNITY, where the laws of time cannot have place, which an inspection of our table will render intuitive. Consequently, these two notions must be CORRELATIVE, and stand in perpetual Relation to each other. Whatever period of time the natural production may require to evidence its resulting from a Cause as the seed sown to produce the future tree, the oak and the acorn - still this in no way interferes with the law of the mind, called Cause, Effect, and Relation between them.
Who, on beholding that famed pile of antiquity, Stonehenge, but instantly detects his mind at work to account for the origin, use, and erection, of this stupendous ruin, and feels assured that it was constructed for some purpose or other. The incessant restlessness of Reason, in exerting this law of trying to discover a Cause for every Effect, is here strongly evinced. Nor will all the previous accounts furnished by diligent enquirers satisfy the reflective mind, nor arrest its progress in the prosecution of its own indi
Neither will it be satisfied with the
supposition that these ponderous masses of stone were heaped together as a place of worship, a Druid's Temple, or a monument to the renowned Hengist; assume, with the legend, that they were miraculously transported from the Giants’ Causeway by the patron Saint of Ireland. That which has already puzzled so many of the learned will long continue to give exercise to that ever-restless faculty, REASON; and, as this example belongs to the department of History, it will be long, very long, before it produces conviction in favour of any one statement: can it ever!
Thoroughly satisfied that this ceaseless searching after a Cause is an original law of the mind, we cannot wonder at finding it exercised on all occasions, even from the inspection of a mite to the profound investigation of the attributes of the Sublime Author of the Universe. So predominant is this ever-striving faculty, REASON, in its efforts to account for every thing, that we cannot behold the most trifling thing in nature without perceiving its active influence in operation. On seeing that well-known machine and useful time-measurer, a watch, the mind instantly flies to the notion of its Cause, and assures itself at once that there must