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сн А Р. I.
Retrospełtive view of American affairs in tbe year 1776. Preparation in

Canada for the armament on Lake Champlain. State of the American
force. Engagement near the isle Valcour. Arnold retires ; pursuit ;
overtaken ; burns his vessels, Crown Point destroyed and abandoned.
General Garleron lands there with the army. Motives for not attacking
Ficonderoga. General Carleton returns with the army 10 Canada.
Situation of affairs to the southward. General Lee taken. Perseverance
of the Congres. Measures for renewing their armies. Lands allotted
for serving during the war. Morey borrowed. Address to the people.
Petitions from the inhabitants of New York, and from those of Queen's
county in Long Ifan?, to obe Commissioners. Critical fate of Phila-
delphia. Congress retire to Baltimore. Divisions in Pennsylvanis.
Desertions. Surprize at Trenton. Lord Cornwallis returns

to the
Jerseys. Prevenied fron etracking the enemy at Trenton by impediments
of situation. General Wahington quits his camp, and attacks Colonel
Mawhood, near Princetoru'n. Lard Cornwallis returns from the Delaware
to Brunswick. Americans over-run the Jerseys. British and Auxiliary
forces keep poffeffion of Brunswick and Amboy, during the remainder of
the winter. Indian war. Articles of confederation and perpetual union
between the thirteen revolted Colonies.


Slate of affairs previous to the meeting of parliament. New peers. Change

in the department for the education of ibe Royal Brothers. 'Extraordinary
augmentation of the peerage in Ireland. Diftrefes of the Wej - India
islands. Depredations of tbe American cruizers.

Conduct observed in
ibe French and Spanit ports. Armaments. Several mer: of war com-

wifinedPres. Difpute between the city of London and the Admirals.
riccount of John the Painter ; he burns the bemp-house at Porfymsub;
fets fire io jeme houses at Bristol. Speich from the throne. idárele
Amendments 719-ved. Greut debates.


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Motion by the minister for the pa;ment of a demand made by the

Landgrave of Hille, on an unliquidated bopilal account of the half


Debates. Motion carried in the committee of supply upon a divifion.
Debate renemuid on receiving the report. Qurftior carried upon a divi-
fion. Morion for an addre's to the throne relative 10 the Royal Bro-
thers. Previous question carried on a division. Debate on the jjeaker's
speech. Mr. Fox's motion. Motion of outeurnment. The latter cwith-
drawn, and the former carried. Pcte of thanks to the Speaker for
his speech. Revolution at Madrass

. Tranjations previous or relative to
the deposing and imprisonment of Lord Pigot. Tranjactions in Leadenhall.
Areet. Rejolutions on India nfairs, moved in the House of Commons by Go.

vernor Johnsione. Dzbates. The reclutions i cjuted upon a dizisin. Earl of

Chatham's motion for an addrejs relative to a reconciliation with America.

Motion rejected. Speech from the r brune.

{ (88


State of affairs at New-York previous to be opening of : be campaign. Lozal

provincials embodiid, and placed under the command of Governor Tryon.

Expedition 10 Perk's Kl.' To Danbury, under Goncial Tryan. Maga-

zines destroyed. General W'cofler kilied. Vebels and provisions destroyed

at Sagg Harbour, by a detach.nent from Connecticut under Colonel Meigs.

Advamages dirived by General Wahingon from the detention of ihe

army at New-York through the wount of tenis. D Different jcheines juga

gested for conducting the operations of the campaigi, chi rending to one object.

General Sir William Howe takes ihe field' ; fuiis in his attempts to bring

Walisington to an action; resires to imbo;'. Turns findenly and advances

upon the enemy. Skirmishes. American: under Lórd Sterling defeated.

Vi’a hington regains his itrung camp. Royal army pass over 10 Staten.

Tiand. dlom excited by the preparations for the grand expedition.

General Prescot carrier of from Rhode Island. Rate of intereft upon the

public loan, advanced by the Congress. Monuments decreed for the Geue-

rais Warren ana Merier. Fleet and arony deport from Sandy Hook,

Force embarked on the expedition. Cowgress and Walisington alarmed by

the loss of Ticonderoga. Fleet arrives at the River Eli, afier a tedio's

voyage, and difficult palage up Compeole Fr. Army lands at Elk

Ferry. Declaration ifued by ihe General. Whiagron ratvus to the

defence of Philade! lic. Advances 10 the Brandywine, and to Red-Clay

Creek. Various movements on bo'b fides. rition at the Brandywine.

General Kn; hausen makes an attack at (ha!'s Ford. Lord Corzaailis

marches round to the forks oj' the Binney.wine, zvhere he palles, in order

to attack the enemy's right. Defears General Sullivan. Penfies his ad.

vantages until flopped by night. General knyphouen palés et Ciud's

Ford. Enemy e very where defeated. Los on both fontis. Reflections on

the action. Victory not dreifive. Foreign officers in the American jervice.

Moriins of ihe armies. Engagement prevenied by a great fall of ra ..

Major General Grey surprizes and deficts a party of Americans un

General Wayne. Royal army polies the Schayikiil, anit adr ances to Ger-

man-Town. Lord Cornwallis takes polition of Philide pia. Some of

the principal irhabitants font prifoners in Virginia, upon the approach

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of the army. Attack on the new batteries at Philadelphia. Dela-
ware frigate taken. Works constructed by the Americans to render the
passage of the Delaware impraticable

. Successful expedition to Billing's
Fort, and a pasjage made through the lower barrier. Royal army free
prized and attacked by the Americans at German-Town, Americari re.
pulsed with loss and pursued. Brigadier-General Agnew, and Colonel Bird
killed. Army removes to Philadelphia. Unsuccessful attack upon rbe ere-
my's works on the Delaware. Hesians repuljed with great lofs at Red
Bank. Colonel Donop killed. Augija man of war and Merlin floop de
stroyed. New and effettual measures taken for forcing the enemy's works.
Mud Ifand, and Red Bank, abandoned, and taken with beir artillery
and fores. Americans burn their gallies and other sipping. Paljage of
the Delaware opened to Philadelphia. General Sir William Howe, finding
all bis efforts to bring Washington to a general a&tia fruitless, returns
with the army to Philadelphia. Americans but their camp at Valley Forge
for the winter.


Canada. Conduct of the northern expedition committed to General Burgoyre.

Preparations made by General Carleton. Line of conduct pursued by bint
upon the new arrangement. Different opinions upon the utility and pro-
priety of employing the Savages. State of the force under the command of
General Burgoyne. Canadians obliged to contribute largely ro the service.
Expedition under Colonel St. Leger. War feast, and speech to the Indiani
at the river Bouquet. Manifesto. Royal arity inveft Ticonderoga and
Mount Independence. Council of war held, and the forts abandoned by
the Americans. Boom and bridge cut through. Pursuit by land and
water. American gallies and batteaux destroyed near Skenesborough Wa-
ter falls. Americans set fire to, and abandon their works. Rear of the
Americans overtaken by General Frazer near Hubberton, Colonel Francis
defeated and killed. General St. Clair, with the remains of his army,
take to the woods; and arrive at length at Fort Edward.. Enemy bravely
repulfed by Colonel Hill, and the gth regiment, who are obliged to engage
under a vast superiority of force. Americans fet fire to, and abandon Fort
Anne. Extraordinary difficulties encountered by the royal army in the marcb
to Fort Edward. American Army retires to Saratoga.


General terror excited by the loss of Ticonderoga, and the expected pro-

gress of the Javages. New England governments notwithstanding bewed
appearance of submisfion. Arnold sent with a reinforcement to be
northern army. Ill effe&ts produced by the cruelties of the Indians. Dif.
ficulties experienced by the royal army in the neighbourhood of Fort Ede
ward, and in the conveyance of provisions and stores from Lake George.
Movement made down the North River, and a bridge of rajis thrown
over near Saratoga, in order to facilitate the operations of Colonel Sf.
beger. Expedition 10 furprize the magazines ai Bennington; under the


rican army.

condud of Colonel Baum. Colonel Breyman ordered forward to support the expedition. Baum defeated and taken prisoner ; Breyman also defeas. ed. ill consequences. Fort Stanwix obftinately defended against Colonel St. Leger. - General Harkimer attempts to relieve the fort with a body of militia, who are mostly cut 10 pieces. Cruelty, and ill conduct of the savages ; grow fullen and intractable ; oblige Colonel St. Leger to raise the fiege with precipitation and loss. Villainy of their behaviour on ibe retreat. Siege raised before the arrival of Arnold and his detachment to the relief of the fort. General Gates takes the command of the Ame

General Burgoyne with the royal army pass the North River at Saratoga, and advance to attack the enemy near Still Water. Difference of opinion upon that measure, as well as the motivos which led to its being adopred. Severe and beavy action on the nineteenth of September. Both armies fortify their camps. Unfortunate attion on the seventh of Oktober. Camp stormed. Death of General Frazer, Co

lonel Breyman, and Sir James Clarke. Disfrefjed, situation of the royal army. Masterly movement made, and an entire new position taken in the night. New engagement eagerly fought, but refufid on the next day by the enemy. Retreat to Saratoga. Previous defertion of the Indians and others. Royal army reduced to the utmost streights. Nearly surrounded on all fides. Cut off from all means of jubijlence, and posibility of retreat. Councils of war.

Convention concluded with General Gates. Terms of the convention. State of the army. Successful expedition by Sir Henry Clinton and General Vaughan up ibe North River. Several forts taken ; Ejopus and other places destroyed. Colonel Campbell, with the Majors Sill and Grant, and Count Grabousie, a Polish nobleman, killed in this expedition. Some observations on campaign.



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Amicable change of disposition in the courts of Madrid and Lisbon, upor

the death of ihe King of Portugal. Some account of that Monarch. S4C-
ceeded by his daughter the Princess of Brazil. Marquis of Pombal re-
moved from power. Public joy upon that occafion. Some account of
that minifter. Stafe prisoners enlarged, and popularity acquired by that
a&t. Orders fent 10 Scuth America for a cessation of koftilities. Account
of the ftate and progress of the armament which had been sent out from
Cadiz in the latter end of the preceding year. Takes the island of St.
Catharine's. Reduces the colony of St. Sacrament. Preliminaries of peace,
and a treaty of limits concluded between Spain and Portugal. Objerva-
tions on that event. Arntaments fill continued in Spain. Diferences be-
tween Russia and the Porie. Rival Chans. Petty war in the Crimea.
Both sides unwilling to proceed to extremities. War berween the Turks and
Persians. State of Rusia King of Sweden visits that court. Dreadful
inundation at Peterfourg. Emperor vifits France. Treaty between France
And Switzerland. Death of the Elector of Bavaria.



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