now dead. I there compofed the I commenced with the acceffion fecond part of my Essays, which I of the House of Stuart, an epoch called Political Discourses, and also when, I thought, the misrepre, my Enquiry concerning the Prin- sentations of faction began chiefly ciples of Morals, which is another to take place. I was, I own, fanpart of my Treatise that I caft guine in my expectations of the

Meanwhile, my booksel- fuccefs of this work. I thought Jer, A. Miliar, informed me that that I was the only historian, that my former publications (all but had once neglected present the unfortunate Treatise) were be- power, interest, and authority, and ginning to be the subject of con. the cry of popular prejudices; and versation ; that the sale of them as the subject was suited to every was gradually increasing, and that capacity, I expected proportional new editions were demanded. An- applause. But miserable was my fwers by Reverends, and Right disappointment : I was assailed by Reverends, came out two or three one cry of reproach, disapproba. in a year; and I found, by Dr. tion, and even deteftation; Eng Warburton's railing, that the books lith, Scotch, and Irish, Whig and were beginning to be esteemed in Tory, churchman and fe&tary, freegood company.

thinker and religionist, patriot and In 11, I removed from the courtier, united in their rage againft country to the town, the true scene the man who had presumed to for a nian of letters. In 1752, shed a generous tear for the fate of were published at Edinburgh, where Charles I. and the Earl of Straf. I then lived, my Political Dif- ford; and after the first ebullitions courses, the only work of mine of their fury were over, what was that was successful on the first ftill more mortifying, the book publication. It was well received seemed to fink into oblivion, Mr. abroad and at home. In the same Millar told me, that in a twelve. year was published at London, my month he fold only forty-five coEnquiry concerning the Principles pies of it. I scarcely, indeed, of Morals; which, in my own opi. heard of one man in the three nion (who ought not to judge on kingdoms, considerable for rank that subjekt), is of all my writings, or letters, that could endure the historical, philosophical, or lite book. I muft only except the pri. rary, incomparably the best. It mate of Englar.d, Dr. Herring, and came unnoticed and unobserved the primate of Ireland, Dr. Stone, into the orld.

which seemed two odd exceptions. In 1762, the Faculty of Advo- These dignified prelates separately cates chose me their Librarian, an sent me messages not to be discog. office from which I received little raged. or no emolument, but which gave I was, however, I confess, dis, me the command of a large libra- couraged; and had not the war sy. I then formed the plan of been at that time breaking out writing the History of England; between France and England, I but being frightened with the had certainly retired to some pro. notion of continuing a narrative vincial town of the former king; through a period of 1700 years, dom, have changed my name, and 8


never more have returned to my char in above a hundred alterations, native country. But as this scheme which farther ftudy, reading, or was not now practicable, and the reflection engaged me to make in fubsequent volume was considerably the reigns of the two firft Stuarts, advanced, I resolved to pick up I have made all of them invariably Courage and to persevere.

to the Tory side. It is ridiculous In this interval, I published at to consider the Engiil conftitution London my Natural History of Re. before that period as a regular plan ligion, along with some other small of liberty. pieces : its public entry was rather In 1759, I published my History obscure, except only that Dr.Hurd* of the House of Tudor. The clae wrote a pamphlet against it, with mour against this performance was all the illiberal petulance, arrogance, almost equal to that against the and fcurrility, which distinguish History of the two filt Stuarts, the Warburtonian school. This The reign of Elisabeth was parpamphlet gave me some consola. ticularly obnoxious. But I was now tion for the otherwise indifferent callous against the impressions of reception of my performance. public folly, and continued very

In 1756, two years after the fall peaceably and contentedly in my of the Art volume, was published retreat at Edinburgh, to finish, in the second volume of my History, two volumes, the more early part containing the period from the of the English History, which I death of Charles I. till the Revo- gave to the public in 1761, with Jution. This performance hap- toierable, and but tolerable, fucpened to give less displeasure to cess. the Whigs, and was better re- The author being now, as he in. ceived. It not only rose itself, but form sus, turned of fifty, and havhelped to buoy op its unfortunate ing obtained by the sale of his brothers.

books, a competent and indepenBut though I had been taught by dent fortune, he retired into his experience, that the Whig party native country of Scotland, deterwere in possesion of bestowing all mined never more to set his foot out of places, both in the state and in lie it. lirom this resolution he was terature; I was so little inclined to however diverted by the Earl of yield to their senseless clamour, Hertford, whom he attended, as

The title of the pamphlet alluded to is-Remarks on Mr. David Hume's Ejay on the Natural History of Religion. riddrejed to the Rev. Dr. Warburton.

-Since the appearance of Mi. Hume's Life, a new edition of this performance has been published, with the following advertisement from the bookseller to the reader.

“ The following is supposed to be the pamphlet referred to by the late Mr. David Hume, in page zi, of his Life, as being written by Dr. Hurd. Upon my applying to the bishop of Litchfield and Coventry for his permillion to republish it, he very readily gave me his consent. His Lordihip only adıled, he was forry he could not take himself the WHOLE infany of the charge brought again him; but that he hould hereafter, if he thought it worth his while, explain himself more particularly on that subject.

T. CADELL." !! Strand, March, 1777.


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fecretary, on his embaffy to Paris what stricken in years, with the in the year 1763. He gives us the prospect of enjoying long my eale, following account of his reception and of seeing the increase of my in that capital.

reputation. Those who have not seen the In spring, 1775, I was ftruck strange effects of modes, will ne. with a disorder in my bowels, ver imagine the reception I met which at first gave me no alarm, with at Paris, from men and wo. but has fince, as I apprehend it, men of all ranks and ftations. The become mortal and incurable. I more I refiled from their exceflive now reckon upon a speedy diffocivilities, the more I was loaded lution. I have suffered very little with them. There is, however, pain from my disorder; and, what a real fatisfa&tion ja living at Paris, is more ftrange, have, notwith. from the great number of sensible, standing the great decline of my knowing, and polite company with person, never suffered a moment's which ihat city abounds above abatement of my spirits; infoall places in the universe. I much, that were I to name the thought once of fertling there for period of my life, which I should life.

most choose to pass over again, I I was appointed fecretary to the might be tempted to point to this embassy ; and, in summer 1765, later period. I poffess the same Lord Hertford left me, being ap- ardour as ever in ftudy, and the pointed Lord Lieutenant of Ire. fame gaiety in company. I conland. I was chargé d'affaires till fider, besides, that a man of fixtythe arrival of the Duke of Rich. five, by dying, cuts off only a few mond, towards the end of the year. years of infirmities; and though In the beginning of 1766, I left I see many symptoms of my litera. Paris, and next summer went to ry reputation's breaking out at laft Edinburgh with the same view as with additional luftre, I know that formerly, of burying myself in a I could have but few years to en. philosophical retreat. I returned joy it. It is difficult io be more to that place, not richer, but with detached from life than I am at much more money, and a much lar, present, ger income, by means of Lord Herta To conclude historically with tord's friendship, than I left it; my own character. I am, or ra. and I was desirous of trying what ther was (for that is the style Superfluity could produce, as I had I must now use in speaking of formerly made an experiment of a myself, which emboldens me the competency. Bui, in 1767, I re- more to speak my fentiments) ; ceived from Mr. Conway an invi. I was, I say, a man of mild tation to be Under secretary; and dispositions, of command of remthis invitation, both the character per, of an open, social, and cheerof the person, and my connexions ful humour, capable of attach. with Lord Hertford, prevented me ment, but little susceptible of from declining. I returned to enmity, and of great moderation Edinburgh in 1769, very opulent in all my passions. Even my (for I poftefied a revenue of ioool. love of literary fame, my ruling a year), healthy, and though some. paflion, never foured my tem


per, notwithstanding my frequent the late Lord Chesterfield. In ordisappointments. My company der to make the Groupe complete, we was not unacceptable to the young have added that of Lord Chester. and careless, as well as to the ftua field himself, by another Hand. dious and literary'; and as I took a particular pleasure in the company SIR ROBERT WALPOLE. of womenhad to be displeased with the reception I Much question, whether an imI met with from them. In a word, Walpole will or can be transmitted though moft men any wise eminent, to pofterity: for he governed this have found reason to complain of kingdom so long, that the various calumny, I never was touched, or paflions of mankind mingled and even attacked by her baleful tooth: in a manner incorporated themand though I wantonly exposed felves with every thing that was myself to the rage of both civil and said or written concerning him. religious factions, they seemed to Never was man more Aattered or be disarmed in my behalf of their more abused; and his long power wonted fury. My friends never

was probably the cause of both. I had occasion to vindicate any one

was much acquainted with hirë circumstance of my character and both in his public and private life. conduct : not but that the zealots, I mean to do impartial justice to we may well suppose, would have his character, and therefore my been glad to invent and propagate picture of him will perhaps be any story to my disadvantage, but more like him, than it will be like they could never find any which any of the other pictures drawn of they thought would wear the face him. of probability. I cannot say there In private life he was good.na. is no vanity in making this funeral tured, chearful, social; inelegant oration of myself, but I hope it is in his manners, loose in his mo. not a misplaced one ; and this is a rals, he had a coarse strong wit, matter of fact which is easily cleared which he was too free of for a man and ascertained.

in his fation, as it is always in. consistent with dignity. He was

very able as a minister, but wichThe following Sketches are faid 10 out a certain elevation of mind,

have been delineated by the Pen of necessary for great good, or great

The author of a letter addressed to Dr. Smith, and said to have been written by a dignitary of the University of Oxford, puts the following queries to him, upon this point Was there, then, any fülpicion in Scotland, that he might « not, at times, be quite to compoled and easy as he Thould have been? Was “ there any particular book ever written against him, that shcok his nyttein to “ pieces about his ears, and reduced it to a heap of ruins, the success and eclat of “ which might be supposed to have hurt his mind, and to have affected his health? “ Was there any author, whose name his friends never dared mention before him, " and warned all ftrangers, that were introduced to him, against doing it, because “ he never failed, when by any accident it was done, to fly out into a transport of « passion and swearing ?"


mischief. Profuse and appetent,

Besides this powerful engine of his ambition was subservient to his government, he had a moft extra design of making a great fortune- ordinary talent of persuading and He had more of the Mazarin than working men up to his purpose of the Richelieu---He would do A hearty kind of frankness, which mean things for profit, and never sometimes seemed imprudence, thought of doing great ones for made people think that he let them glory. He was both the best par- into his secrets, whilft the ima Jiament man, and the ableit ma- politeness of his manners seemed to nager of parliament, that I believe attest his fincerity. When he ever lived. An artful rather than found any body proof against peeloquent speaker, he faw, as by cuniary temptations, which, alas! intuition, the difpofition of the was but seldom, he had recourse house, and pressed or receded ac- to a still worse art: for he laughed cordingly, 'So clear in ftating the at and ridiculed all notions of pub. most intricate matters, especially lic virtue and the love of one's in the finances, that, whilst he was country, calling them “ The chi. speaking, the most ignorant thought merical school-boy frights of claffical that they understood what they learning;” declaring himself at the really did not. Money, not pre- same time “ No Saint, no Spartan, sogative, was the chief engine of no Reformer.” He would frequenta his adminiftration ; and he em- ly ask young fellows at their first ployed it with a success, which in a

appearance in the world, while manner disgraced humanity #. He their honest hearts were yet un. was not, it is true, the inventor tainted." Well, are you to be an of that hameful method of go. old Roman? a patriot? You'll foon verning, which had been gaining come off of that and grow wifer.ground insensibly ever since Charles And thus he was more dangerous to the Second, but with uncommon the morals, than to the liberties of kill and unbounded profusion he his country, to which I am perbrought it to that perfection which foaded that he meant no ill in his at this time dishonours and disc heart t. tresses this country, and which, (if He was the easy and profuse du pe pot checked, and God knows how of women, and in some instances it can be now checked) must ruin indecently fo-He was excessively it.

open to flattery, even of the groffeft

Notwithstanding his avowed principles of venality, it is a well known truth, that he fometimes checked the mean fervility of members of Parliament, especially those from North Britain.

+ Though it cannot be denied that Sir Robert ruled this country by general corruption, and succeeded in his plans of government by temporary expedients, there was a decency in his parliamentary conduct, of which we now kament the total absence.

Every motion during his administration was treated with respect, and every question discussed with let ming fairness and impartiality. The parliamentary chiefs were ranged on both sides, according to their supposed merit; and engaged each other, not only with vigour, but with that liberaliiy which becomes citizens, There was then no rude and boisterous uproar, no boyith and tumultuous clamaar of The question! the question !

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