kind, and from the coarseft bung- ing quickness of wit, and a happy lers of that vile profession, which turn to the moft amusing and enengaged him to pass most of his tertaining kinds of poetry, as epileisure and jovial hours with peo- grams, ballads, odes, &c. in all ple whose blafted characters re. which he had an uncommon faci. flected upon his own - He was lity. His compositions in that way loved by many, but respected by were sometimes satirical, often linone, his familiar and illiberal centious, but always full of wit. mirth and raillery leaving him no He had a quick and clear condignity-He was not vindi&tive, ception of buliness, could equally but on the contrary very placable deteft and practise fophiftry -- he to those who had injured him the could state and explain the most mol-His good humour, good na. intricate matters, even in figures, ture, and beneficence in the feveral with the utmost perspicuity. His relations of father, husband, maso parts were rather above business, ter, and friend, gained him the and the warmth of his imagination, warmest affections of all within that joined to the impetuofity and reft. circle.

lessness of his temper, made him His name will not be recorded incapable of conducting it long toin hiftory amongst the best Men, gether with prudence and steadior the best Ministers, but much ness. lefs ought it to be ranked amongit He was a most complete orator the worst

and debater in the house of commons, eloquent, entertaining, per.

fuasive, strong, and pathetic, as MR, PULTENEY. occasion required; for he had ar

guments, wit, and tears at his comR.

nature for social and convi- all those passions which degrade our vial pleafures-Resentment made nature and disturb

our reason. him engage in bufiness. He had There they raged in a perpetual thought himself sighted by Sir conflict ; but Avarice, the meanest Robert Walpole, to whom he pub- of them all, generally triumphed, lickly avowed not only revenge, ruled abfolutely, and in many in. but acter destruction. He had stances, which I forbear to mention, lively and fining parts, a surpriz- moft fcandalously.

No minister was ever so liberal in rewarding his authors as W. It has been faid, and I believe proved beyond contradiction, that Arnall, the writer of The British Journal, at different times, had sums from him to the amount of ten thousand pounds. The flightest favour from the press was sure to be amply rewarded ; of which the following is a remarkable instance ----About the year 1735, several very severe pamphlets were published againit Walpole's adminiitra-' tion. Among the rest was a poem called" Are these things fo?" A young gentleman of about nineteen years of age, took it into his head to write an answer to this piece, to which he gave the title of, “ Yes, they are ?" Sir Robert was so pleased with it, though but a flimsy performance, that he sent for Roberts the publisher, and expreffed his great satisfaction at the compliment paid him, by giving a bank note of a hundred pounds; which he defired the publisher to present with his compliments to the author,

His sudden paffion was outrage. his support. In that critical mo. ous, but supported by great person- ment his various jarring paflions al courage.

were in the highest ferment, and for Nothing exceeded his ambition a while fuspended his ruling one. but his avarice ; they often accom. Sense of thame made him hesitate pany and are frequently and reci. at turning courtier on a sudden, procally the causes and the effects after having acted the patriot so of each other, but the latter is al- long and with so much applause ; ways a clog upon the former, and his pride made him declare that

He affected good nature and he would accept of no place, vainiy con passion, and perhaps his heart imagining, that he could by such a might feel the misfortunes and disc fimulated and temporary felf-denial treffes of his fellow-creatures, but preserve his popularity with the his hand was seldom or never people, and his power at court t. Atretched out to relieve them. He was millaken in both. The

Though he was an able actor of king hated him almost as much for truth and fincerity, he could occa. what he might have done, as for fionally lay them aside to serve the what he had done : and a motley purposes of his ambition or ava- miniftry was formed who by no rice*.

means defired his company. He was once in the greatest The nation looked upon him as point of view that I ever saw any a deserter, and he hronk into in. subject in. When the oppofition, fignificancy and an earldom. of which he was the leader in the He made several attempts after. house of commons, prevailed at wards to retrieve the popularity he Jast against Sir Robert Walpole, he had lost, but in vain--his situation became the arbirer between the would not allow it-he was fixed crown and the people: the former in the house of lords, that hospital imploring his protection, the latter of incurables, and his retreat to

* During the course of his long opposition, his animosity to Walpole led him (as we are informed by the ingenious reviewer of Lord Chesterfield's Characters) into that most scandalous practice of betraying private converfation. Mr. Pula teney, in a pamphlet which he published about the year 1735, and which contained a particular defence of himself again a ministerial work called “ Scandal and De. famation displayed,” declared upon his honour, that Sir Robert Walpole had spoken in very flight terms of the king when prince of Wales; he quoted the very words which were fupposed to be made use of by the minister, and which conveyed great marks of contempt. However, he lott his aim ; for the king generously took the part of the person betrayed; and, to thew his indignation against the informer, with his own hand he struck his name from the list of privy counsellors.

+ We are told by the above-mentioned author, that the following accident, which happened during the adjournment of parliament, might possibly accelerate his determination :- As he was riding in Hyde Park, he had an accidental fall from his horse, which gave him a light bruise ; the king happened to come by atthe very instant, and being informed of Mr. Pulteney's misfortune, he immediately went to him, took him into his coach, and thewed such concern for him, as could not but soothe and affect the mind of a person fo publicly distinguished by his sovereign at so critical a time.



popularity was cut off-For the confidence of the people, when once great, and once loft, is never to be LORD HARDWICXE. regained--He lived afterwards in retirement with the wretched com. ORD Hardwicke was perhaps fort of Horace's miser.

the greatest magistrate that

this country ever had. He pre. Populus me fibilat, &c. sided in the court of chancery above

twenty years, and in all that time I may perhaps be suspected to none of his decrees were reversed, have given toó trong colouring to nor the justness of them ever ques. fome features of this portrait ; but tioned. Though avarice was his I folemnly proteft, that I have ruling palion, he was never in the drawn ic conscientiously and to the least suspected of any kind of core best of my knowledge, from very ruprion-a rare and meritorious long acquaintance with and obser- initance of virtue and self-denial, vation of the original. Nay, I under the influence of such a have sather softened than heighien- craving, insatiable, and increasing ed the colouring.t


Upon the death of George the Second, the E. of B. made a tender of his services to his present majesty.—The offer was accepted, so far as to the hear. ing of his advice; but the Great Person knew his character was so disagreeable to all parties, and so odious to the people in general, that he could not think of giving him any post in the administration. It is affirmed with great confidence, that whenever his opinion was asked relating to state-matters, he constantly gavo it against the popular side of the question.

+ In justice to the noble earl's memory, we cannot pass by this opportunity of submitting to the reader's judgment another character, differing in many respects from that which my Lord Chesterfield has given us of him, and drawn by a person of found judgment, striet veracity, and who enjoyed a long and intimate connection with him, Dr. Z. Pearce, late Bishop of Rochester.

“ William Pulteney, Earl of Bath, descen-led from a very ancient family, (the De Paltneys, who, I think, came to England with the Norman Duke, William,) was, by inheritance and prudent æconomy, poflefied of a very large eitate, out of which he yearly bestowed, contrary to the opinion of those who were less acquainted with him, more than a tenth part of his whole income. He was a firm friend to the established religion of his country, and free from all the vices of the age, even in his youth. He conftantly attended the public worship of God, and all the offices of it, in his parish church, while his health permitted it; and when his great age and infirmities prevented him from io doing, he supplied that detect by daily reading over the morning-fervice of the church before he came out of his bedchamber. That he had quick and lively parts, a fine head, and found judgment, the many things which he published occasionally, fufficiently teftify. He had twice, chiefly by his own personal weight, overturned the ministry; viz. in 1741 and 1745; though he kept not in power long at each of these great events, which was occafioned by his ad. ministration ; and hy some other means less creditable to his associates than to himfelf, which the writer of this account is well acquainted with. The Bishop of Rochester had lived near forty years in friendship with him; and for a great part of those years in an intimacy with him.”


He had great and clear parts ; Though he had been solicitor understood, loved, and cultivated and attorney-general, he was by the belles lettres.

no means what is called a preroga. He was an agreeable, eloquent cive lawyer--he loved the constituspeaker in parliament, but not tion, and maintained the just prewithout some little tin&ture of the rogative of the crown, but without pleader.

stretching it to the oppression of the Men are apt to miltake, or at people. least to seem to mistake their own He was naturally humane, mo. talents, in hopes perhaps of mis- derate, and decent, and when by leading others to allow them that his former employmenis he was which they are conscious they do obliged to prosecute state.criminals, not possess. Thus Lord Hardwicke he discharged that duty in a very valued himself more upon being a different manner from most of his great minister of Aate, which he predecessors, who were too juftly certainly was not, than upon being called the Blood-hounds of the a great inagiftrate, which he cera crown. tainly was.

He was a chearful and inftruco All his notions were clear, but tive companion, humane in his nanone of them great. Good order ture, decent in his manners, unand domestic details were his pro- ftained with any vice (avarice ex: per department. The great and cepted) a very great Magiftrate; fhining paris of government, but by no means a great Minister. though not above his parts to conceive, were above his timidity to undertake.

MR. Foz By great and lucrative employ.

TR. years, and by till greater parfimo. brother of the lowest ex: ny, be acquired an immense for- traction +. His father, Sir Stephen tune, and established his numerous Fox, made a considerable fortune, family in profitable pofts, and ad. fome how or other, and left him a vantageous alliances

fair younger brother's portion,

which * The Marriage A&, says the reviewer, was a thing of his own creating, and which he espouted with all his might and vigour : it met with great opposition in the house of commons, and was thought, by all impartial people, a very improper Jaw in a commercial country, where all possible methods should be taken to en. courage a legal commerce between the fexes. However, by his great power and influence, the chancellor carried this bill triumphantly through both houses. Those who pretended to know his real intentions gave out, that, in the prosecution of this business, he had nothing so much at heart as the securing his own children from rash and imprudent marriages.

† The editor of the Characters has corrected this mistake of Lord Chefterfield's, and has given us the following account of Mr. Fox's family.--Mr. Henry Fox was the lecond surviving fon of Sir Stephen Fox. Sir Stephen was one of the younger of many children, and his father, Mr. William Fox, was a gentleman of the county of Wilts, possessing a landed estate of about 300 l. ayear; which estate, upon a moderate computation, must have been at one time

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which he soon spent in the com- warded their attachment and de. mon vices of youth, gaming in- pendance. By these and all other cluded. This obliged him to tra. means that can be imagined, he vel for some time. While abroad, made himself many personal friends he met with a very falacious Eng. and political dependants. lish woman, whose liberality re. He was

a most disagreeable trieved his fortune, with several speaker in parliament, inelegant in circumfances, more to the honour his language, hesitating and unof his vigour than his morals. graceful in his elocution, but kill

When be returned, though by ful in discerning the temper of the education a Jacobite, he attached house, and in knowing when and himself to Sir Robert Walpole, and how to press or to yield. was one of his ableft eleves. He A constant good humour and had no fixed principles either of seeming franknels made him a welreligion or morality, and was too come companion in social life, and unweary in ridiculing and explod. in all domestic relations he was ing them.

good-natured. He had very great abilities and As he advanced in life, his am. indefatigable industry in business, bition became fubfervient to his great skill in managing, that is, avarice. His early profusion and in corrupting the house of com- dislipation had made him feel the mons, and a wonderful dexterity many inconveniences of want, and, in attaching individuals to him. as it often happens, carried him to self. He promoted, encouraged, the contrary, and worse extreme of and praised their vices ; he gra. corruption and rapine. Remi, quotified their avarice, or lupplied cunque modo rem, cccame his maxim, their profusion. He wisely and which he observed (I will not say punctually performed whatever he religiously and scrapulously) but inpromised, and most liberally re- variably and shamefully. in that family from father to son at least two hundred years. The present Earl of Ilchester, heir and elder branch of that family, is the present poffeffor of it. It is at a place called Farley, where the family has been buried, as appears by their monuments in that church, authenticating the facts here advanced. Sir Stephen Fox was in his earliest youth recommended as a compapion to King Charles the Second, then Prince of Wales, by the Earl of Northumberland, who protected and in some fort educated this young person, the son of his friend and neighbour; as was very customary with the gre . 10blemen of that time, who had usually in their houses fome of the fons of the lower nobility and of the gentry to be brought up under their care and infpecfion. Mr. Fox, afterwards Sir Stephen, accompanied his majesty during his exile, and besides receiving distinguishing marks of the royal favour abroad, upon his return to England, and at the restoration, he was made privy counTeilor, paymatter of the army, and was at one time first commissioner of the treasury: Sir Stephen had by his first lady two daughters, the une married to the Earl of Northampton, the other to the Lord' Cornwallis--two families the most unlikely to have condescended to mean or unsuitable alliances. He died at a very advanced age, leaving two sons, who were afterwards the Earl of Ile chester and Lord Holland, and one daughter, the mother of the prelent Lord Digby. VOL, XX.



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