done upon their other vessels. executed this design with equal Being now fully fenfible of their resolution and dexterity, and run inferiority, chey took the oppor- the Congress galley, in which himtunity which the darkness of the self was, with the five gondolas, on sight afforded, of endeavouring more in such a manner, as to land to escape from their present immi- his men safely and blow up the nent danger, hoping to obtain vessels, in spite of every effort that Abelter and protection at Crowa was used to prevent both. Point. Arnold concerted and ex- Loss and defeat were so far from ecuted this deliga with ability, producing their usual effect with and fortune seemed at fort so fa- respect to Arnold, that his conduct vourable to his purpose, that they in this command raised his chawere oui of light by the next racer ftill higher than it was bemorning. The chace being, how- fore with his countrymen. They ever, continued without intermif- faid that he not only acted the hon both on that and the succeed. part of a brave soldier, but that he ing day, the wind, and other cir. also amply filled that of an able cumstances peculiar to the naviga. naval commander. That the most cion of the Lake, which had been experienced seaman could not have at firdt in favour of the Ameri. found a greater variety of resources, cans, became at length otherwise, by the dexterity of maneuvre, evoto that they were overtaken and lution, and the most advantageous brought to adion a few leagues choice of Atuation, to compensate Ahort of Crown Point, about noon for the want of force, than he on the 13th.

did ; that when his vessels were A very warm engagement en- torn almost to pieces, he retreated fued, and continued about two with the same resolution that he hours, during 'which those vessels fought, and by the happieft and ibar were must a-head, pulhed on most critical judgment, prevented with the utmost speed, and palling his people and them from falling Crown Point, eicaped to Ticoninto the hands of the enemy. But deroga ; but two gallies and five they chiefly gloried in the dangondolas woich remained with Ar- gerous attention he paid to a nice nold made a desperate resistance. point of honour, in keeping his Daring this ation, the Washing. flag Aying, and not quitting his ton gailey, with Waterburg, a Brio galley vill she was in Hames, left gadier General, and the fecond in the enemy should have boarded and command, on board, ftruck, and Itruck it. was taken. Arnold, at length, Thus was Lake Champlain reSinding it was impossible to with covered, and the enemy's force fand the fuperiority of force, kill, nearly destroyed, a galley, and and weight of metal, with which three small vessels being all that he was overborne, and finding escaped to Ticondercga. The himself but ill feconded by the enemy, upon the rout of their Caprains of fome of his vessels, feet, having set fire to the houses, determined that his people lould and destroyed every thing which not become prisoners," nor the they could not carry off, at Crown vessels a prey to the enemy. He Point, evacuated that place, and

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retired to their main body at Ti. be obftinate, although the army
conderoga. Gen. Carleton took were in the end fuccefsful, it would
pofseflion of the ruins, where he probably thereby be so much weak-
was soon joined by the army. As ened, that all prospea of advantage
he continued there till towards the in the future campaign would, in a
end of the month, and, besides great measure, be annihilated. The
several reconnoitring parties, push- difficulty, perhaps imposibility, of
ed on at one time strong detach- keeping open the communication
menis on both sides of the Lake, with Canada, and subfitting the ar-
who approached within a small my during the winter, was obvi-
aillance of Ticonderoga, at the ous. General Carleton therefore
same time that vessels appeared reinbarked the army without mak-
within cannon hot of the works, ing any attempt, and returning to
to examine the nature of the chan- Canada, cantoned them for the win-
nel, and found iss di pih, little ter in the best manner the country
doubt can be entertained that he afforded.
had it in contemplation to attempt It is fit that we should now turn
that place. The strength of the our attention to the important
works, the difficulty of approach, transactions in the South. We
the countenance of the enemy, law towards the conclusion of the
and the ignorance of their num- lalt campaign, that Lord Corn-
ber, with other cogent reasons, wallis had not only overrun the
prevented this design from taking Jerseys, but that the Delaware was

the only apparent obstacle, which It was evident that this poft seemed capable of retarding the could not be forced in its present progress of his army, in the re. itate, without a very considerable duction of Philadelphia and the loss of blood, whilst the benefit adjoining provinces.

adjoining provinces. The Amearising from lu cels would be com- rican army was indeed no more. paratively nothing. The season It is said that the greateft numwas now too far advanced to think ber which remained embodied did of pafling Lake George, and of not exceed 2500 or 3000 men. exposing the army to the perils of This was a'l that remained of an

a winter campaign, in the inhof- army, which at the opening of the pitable, and impracticabie wilds campaign amounted, as it is said, to the southward. As Ticonde. to at least twenty - five thousand. roga could not be kept during the There are some who represent it winter, the most that could be ex- as baving been at that time much pected from success, would be the stronger. The term of their enseduction of works, moje indebe: gagement being expired, which, ed to nature than art for their along with the obligation of duty, strength, and perhaps the taking discharged all apprehension of dis. of some cannon ; whilst the for- grace, there was no keeping tomer would be restored, and the gether, at the heel of a ruinous Jatter replaced by the enemy, be- campaign, troops broken and dis. fore the army could interrupt their pirited, equally unaccuftomed to proceedings in the ensuing fumfubordination, and to a long abmer. But if the defence Aould sence from their countries and fa


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milies. Those small bodies, who part of the country was in his from personal attachment, local favour, and that several guarded, circomítances, or a superior per posts, and armed patrols, lay in the feverance and bravery, still con- way. tinued with the Generals Wach- The making of a fingle officer ington and Lee, were too inconfi- prisoner, in other circumstances, derable in force, to demand much would have been a matter of little attention on the one side, or to in- moment; but in the present state {pire confidence on the other ; whilft of the raw American forces, where the fupport to be derived from new a general deficiency of military levies, not yet formed, was too re- kill prevailed, and the inexpemote and precarious, to afford rience of the officers was even a much present consolation to the greater grievance than the lack of Americans.

discipline in the soldiers, the loss In this critical, fitu- of a commander, whose spirit of Dec. 13th. ation of their affairs, enterprize was directed by great the capture of Gen. Lee seemed to knowledge in his profeflion acrender them ftill more hopeless. quired by actual service, was of That officer, at the head of all the the utmost importance, and the men which he could collect or more diftrefsing, as there was little keep cogether, being on his march room to hope it could be soon fupto join General Washington, who plied. had assembled the Pensylvania mi- The rejoicing in Great Britain litia to secure the banks of the on this occasion was equal at least Delaware, was, from the distance to the dejection of the Americans. of the British cantonments, be. It was conjectured, that some pertrayed into a fatal security, by fonal animouties between this Ge. which, in crosling the upper partneral and several officers in the of New Jersey from the North army, as well as persons of power river, he fixed his quarters, and at court, contributed not a little lay carelessiy guarded, at some dif- to the triumph and exultation of tance from the main body. The that time. operation of zeal, or desire of The capture of Gen. Lee was reward in an inhabitant, having also attended with a circumstance, communicated this situation to Col. which has fince been productive Harcourt, who commanded the of much inconvenience to both light horse, and had then made a fides, and of much calamity to indelu.tory excurfion at the head of dividuals. A carcel, or something a small detachment to observe the of that nature, had some time bemotions of that body, he conduct- fore been eltablished for the excd bis measures with such address change of prisoners between the and activity, and they were so well Generals Howe and Washington, feconded by the boldness and ra- which had hitherto been carried pidity of motion which distinguish into execution, to far as time and that corps, that the guard was other circumstances would admit. evaded, the ceneries seized without As Lee was particularly obnoxious noise, che quarters forced, and to government, it was said, and is Lee carried off, though all that suppoted, that Gen. Howe was

[A] 4


tied down by his instructions from cartel, but induced retaliation or parting with him upon any terms, the other fide, and Colonel Campif the fortune of war fhould throw bell, who had hitherto enjoyed. him into his power. Gen. Wah- every degree of liberty confiftens ington not having at this time any with his condition, and had been prisoner of equal rank with Lee, treated with great humanity by the proposed to exchange fix field of- people of Boston, was now thrown ficers for him, the number being into a dungeon, and treated with intended to balance that disparity; a rigour equal to the indulgence or if this was not accepted, he he had before experienced. Those required that he fould be treated officers who were prisoners in the and considered suitably to his fta. Southern colonies, though not treattion, according to the practice efta- ed with equal rigour, were, howblished among polished nations, and ever, abridged of their parole lithe precedent already set by the berty, and deprived of other comAmericans in regard to the British forts and satisfactions, which had officers in their hands, until an op- hitherto rendered their condition portunity offered for a direct and uncommonly easy. It was at the cqual exchange.

same time declared, that their fu. To this it was answered, that ture treatment should in every deas Mr. Lee was a deserter from his gree be regulated by that which Majesty's service, he was not to Gen. Lee experienced, and that be confidered as a prisoner of war, their persons should be answerthat he did not at all come with- able, in the utmost extent, for in the conditions of the cartel, any violence that was offered to ner could he receive any of its him. benefits. This brought on a fruit- This was not the only instance less discussion, whether Gen. Lee, in which the Congress manifefted who had resigned his half pay at a árm and undaunted resolution, the beginning of the troubles, In the midt of the dangers with could be considered as a deserter, which they were environed, far or whether he could with justice from giving way to any thing like be excluded from the general be. unconditional submission, they made nehts of a cartel, in which no no overtures towards any kind of particular exception of person had accommodation. On the other side been made

i the affirmative in none were made to them. They both these positions being treated prepared to renew the war, and to by Washington with the utmost in- repair their shattered forces with dignation.

ali diligence. They were now In the mean time Lee was con- convinced of the inefficacy of temfined in the closest manner, being porary armies, engaged only for watched and guarded with all that a short term, and calculated mereftrictness and jealousy, which a ly to repel a sudden invasion, when Itate criminal of the first magni- opposed to che constant war of a tude could have experienced in powerful enemy, and the incerthe most dangerous political con- fant efforts of regular forces. It juncture. This conduct not only could never be hoped, with new {uspended the operation of the men tbus cbauged every year to


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make any effectual stand against ment of a Colonel, to 150, which Veteran troops, and theis present was that of an Ensign; the private critical situation afforded too alarm- men, and non-commiffioned offiing an experience, of the fatal con- cers, were to have 100 acres each. sequences which might aftend that As a bar to the thoughtlefiness and period of utter imbecility, between prodigality incident to foldiers, and the extinction of the old army, and to prevent the moft worthless and the eftablishment of the new. To undeserving from obtaining for guard against this evil in future, trifles, those rewards due to the which could not be remedied for the brave for their blood and services, present, they issued orders about the all these lands were rendered ungmiddle of September, for the le- lienable during the war, no aflignvying of 88 battalions, the foldiers ment or transfer being to be adbeing bound by the terms of enlist- mitted at its conclusion. ment to serve during the continue The Congress had before, as an ance of the war.

encouragement to their forces by The number of battalions which fea and land, decreed that all offi. each colony was by this ordinance cers, foldiers, and seamen, who appointed to raise and support, were or might be disabled in acmay be considered as a pretty tion, should receive, during life, exact political scale of their com. one half of the monthly pay to parative Arength, framed by those which they were entitled by their who were interested in its correct. rank in the service, at the time of pels, and well acquainted with their meeting with the misfortune. Nos. respective circumstances. Mafla. withstanding these encouragements, chofert's Bay and Virginia were the it seems as if the condition of higheit on this scale, being to fur- ferving during the indefinite term pith i; battalions each ; Pensylva- of the continuance of the war, nia came next, and was rated at was not generally agreeable, to a twelve; North Carolina 9, Connec- people so little accutomed to any ticut and Maryland 8 each, New kind of subordination or refraint; York, and the Jerseys, the latter fo that in the month of November, considered as one government, were, the Congress found it necessary to in consequence of their present fitue admit of another mode of enlistment a:ion, fet no higher than 4 batta- for the term of three years, the follions each.

diers under this compact receiving The liberality of the Congress the same bounty in money with the in its encouragement to the troops, others, but being cut out from any was propertioned to the necesity allotment of lands. of speedily compleating the new With all these encouragements army. Besides a bounty of twenty given by the Congress, the business dollars to each soldier as the time of recruiting went on, however, bug of enlifting, lands were to be al- heavily ; and it mutt not be imalotted at the end of the war to gined, that the army actually raited, the furvivors, and to the represen- did at any time bear any proportion tatives of all who were slain in ac- in effective men to that which was tion, io different stated propor

voted. tions, from 500 acres, the allor- The holding out a promise of


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