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[25 for, even from the valt numbers Baron Oborne ; Lord Polwarin whu thought themselves officially, (ion to the Earl o Marchmont). or by connection, bound to give Baron Hum'; Lord Mount Stuart a countenance to the war as a fa. (ion to the Earl of Bute) Baron vcarite court measure, nor the fill Cardiff; Sir E ward Ha ke, Ba. greater, of those who profited by its ron Hawke; Mr. Onflow, Baron continuance.
Cranley ; Sir Jeffery Amberit, BaIr. this state of public affairs ron Amberit ; Sir Broivnlow Cutt, acd dispoñition at large, administra- Baron Brownlow; Mr. George tion had acquired such an appear- Pitt, Baron Rivers ; Mr. Rider, ance of ftability, as seemed to Baron Harrowby; and Mr. Foley, render them, for some considerable Baron Foley. The Dutchels of time to come, superior to the frowns Hamilton and Argyll was created of fortune. Supported by an irre- Baroness Hamilton, with descent fiftible majority in parliament, they to her heirs male. Her present were already armed with every husband, the Duke of Argyll, had power which they were capable of some time before obtained the Engdegring or wishing for the establish- lish barony of Sundridge. meat of theis American system ; Of these new creations, two whilft, as the nation was now too were only anticipations of honour, deeply engaged in their measures the Marquis of Carmarthen and to be capable of retracting, it Mr. Onslow being already in imwould be found equally difficult to mediate succession to the peerage, commit the prosecution of them Şome exceptions were taken in dirto any other hands. Thus the courses and writings, on the grantpower which produced the mea- ing of English baronies to the Sures, was insured during their Scotch rability, or the immediate continuаnсе. All apprehension fucceffors in their titles, with a from the opposition of an ill-united view of enabling them to fill seats minority had been long worn off; in parliament. It was urged as a and it seemed now rather necessary very disputable measure, and corto give a colour and sanction to fidered by many as an evasion, if their proceedings, by recording not direct violation of the condithe vait fuperiority which decided tions of union between the two every question in their favour, kingdoms ; yet many consider it as than as at all capable of counter- a proceeding, which may in time acting, or even impeding their be productive rather of secuniy
than danger to the conllitu ion. In this strong state of security, For whatever influence may at pife no changes took place among the sent operate upon those who h ld ministers.
Though the force of themtelves under an immediate government in the House of Lords obligation upon that account, it lee ined to require no addition, will of course wear away in a little several new Peers were called up time with them or their succeflors;
a few days before the and the more numercus they grow, 1776.
The Marquis the less liable to management; so of Carmarthen (son to that they may become in fome dethe Duke of Leeds) was created gree a ballance to the lixteca Peers,
May 14, recess.
who, under the name and form of towards the close of the year, upon an election, are avowedly nomi- the death of Dr. Drummond, the Dated, and virtually appointed by Bishop of Chester was promoted to the Minifter, and accordingly con- the metropolio in fee of York. fidered as a dead weight in the Though the government of Ire. fcale of the crown.
land was not ; et disposed of, means 28th.
Wichin a few days after were used to smooth the way for
the recets, an unexpected the fature Viceroy. A great prochange took place in the depart. motion in point of rank, and an ment for the education of the royal enormous augmentation as to numbrothers, the Prince of Wales and ber, tock place in the peerage of the Bishop of Osnaburgh; the Earl that country. Five Viscounts were of Holdernefie, Governor, the Bi- advanced to earldoms, seven Bashop of Chester, Preceptor, Mr. rons to be Viscounts, and no less Smelt, Sub. Governor, and the than eighteen new Barons created, Rev. Mr. Jackson, Sub-Preceptor, in the course of one day. having all resigned their respective Towards the end of No: July 2d. employments. This measure has vember, the Earl of Buckinghambeen attributed to fome disagree- fhire was appointed Lord-Lieutement between the Governor and nant of that kingdom. Preceptor ; but it feems as if the The melancholy prognofticamules were not thoroughly known. tions, which at the time had been As no new arrangement was in treated rather as chimerical, and readiness, it alfo seems as if the the exaggeration of party, than a court was not prepared for the well-founded deduction drawn from event.
reason and a knowledge of the subLord was first appointed ject, relative to the calamities in Governor, with a promise of be. which the American troubles would ing created Earl of Aylesbury, a involve the Weft-India Isands, beuitle which he had for some time gan already to be too sensibly fulcoveted. But this ofice not suitfilled. Several of the moft essening bis temper or inclination, he tial necessaries of life, particularly in a few days resigned, when his the articles of sustenance used for
brother, the Duke of the support of the negroes, as well
Montague, was ap- as of the poor and laborious whites, pointed Governor to the Princes; had risen from three to four times Dr. Hurd, Bishop of Litchfield, their cufoinary price. Preceptor ; Colonel Hotham, Sub- which in the next degree to food Governor; and the Rev. W. Ar. were an object of the greatest nenold, Sub-Preceptor. Lord Bruce ceflity, were not to be procured in obtained his earldom, the govern a fufficient quantity at any price. ment of Windsor, which had been Other wants and distresses multi. held by the Duke of Montague, plied, and would have been more and was called to the privy coun- sensibly felt, had not the dread of çil; the Marquis of Carmarthen, famine absorbed all leser confiderwho was married to Lord Holder- ations. The prizes taken from neffe's daughter, was appointed a the Americans, and disposed of in Lord of the bed-chamber; and those islands, prevented these dis
trelles from being perfectly ruin- clusive of transports and governods.
ment store-lhips, was estimated As there are seasons in which confiderably higher than a million misfortunes seem to be epidemical, fterling. fo in this period of diftress, a con- In the mean time the French épiracy and insurrection of the Ne- and Spanish ports, in Europe, begroes in Jamaica, though happily gaa, fome time before the close of discovered in good sime, and easily the year, to swarm with Americrushed in the bud, yet in iis con- can privateers, and to be crowdfequences helped much to increase ed with their English prizes, which the general calamities both at home were at first openly fold without and in the ilands. As the small any colour of disguise. On remilitary force in Jamaica had been monftrances from this court, a litweakened for the American ser- tle more decorum was observed ; vice, and that the departure of a fome check was given to the open great feet of merchantmen, amount. and avowed sale of prizes ; but ing to about 120 fail, with a part the practice ftill continued. in of the small squadron on that fta- the present anhappy state of affairs, tion to be their coavoy, would it was thought necessary for a render the island till more naked while to suspend the affertion of and defenceless, the Negroes fixed the national dignity At no time upon that time for carrying their had that dignity suffered such an design into execution.
eclipse. In the Welt-Indies, the The Aeet which was to have American depredations were casfailed in July, was detained in ried on to a much greater extent, consequence of the discovery of the and much more avowedly counteplot, for about a month, when the nanced in all the French colonies. hips were loaded and just ready for Even French Tips took American the sea ; a detention, which though commissions; and with few, and an immediate heavy loss and ex- fometimes no American seamen on pence to the owners, was produc- board, carried on a war upon the tive of much greater misfortune. British commerce with impunity. For they not only met with bad In the mean time the King's weather which scattered the ships fhips, on their parts, took an inand laid them open to danger, but finite multitude of prizes from the the Americans thereby gained time Americans, mostly indeed of small to equip their privateers, and seize value ; but they proved a very timethe critical stations for intercepting ly relief to the suffering islanders. their passage. Some blame was The American declaration of also thrown upon the convoy; but, independency afforded an opporhowever it was, many ships of that tunity to thole to triumph much rich fleet fell into the hands of the in their fagacity, who had at all cnemy. Nor was the trade from times urged and supported the most the other inlands more fortunate. coercive measures, and who now So that though the Americans did infitted that this had been the not begin their diftant depredations grand object and operative motive till late in the year, the British with the colonies during the whole loss in captures during 1776, ex- contest, and the real source of all
the present troubles. The knova visions from Great Britain and Irea ledge of the fact, with thrie and lead; and by a fifth, enjoining the other reasonings upon it, nad alio obiervance of a general fait. an effect upon many others, in re- An hot press had attended the conciling them to the prefent mea- proclamation for the bounty to seafures, and leading them to con- As the public conduct of the sider the disagreeable situation of city of London in political matters, public aff.irs, rather as ariling has or several years past, in vafrom an inevitable necessity, than rious instances, drawn upon it the proceeding from any error in their most marked and unequivocal indisuperintendence or conduct. It will cations of the resentment and inbe casily conceived that the great dignation of government, so the lofies sustained by the capture of present occafion afforded an opporBritih fhips, and which trade oher- tunity for a squabble between that wife fustered by the prodigious rise body and the admiralty. of insurance, (that upon homeward The Lord Mayor claimed an exbound Weft in ia ships now amount- emption for the watermen of his ing to 231. per cent.) must have barge. The city claimed an exexceedingly embittered the minds emption from presling within its of the fufferers againft the Ameri- jurisdiction. The court of King's cans ; nor could it be without ef. Bench held that these claims did fect upon the temper of the nation not appear to them supported by in general.
adequate proof. This dispute conThe great armaments, which tinued very hotly for a time, and were continually increasing, in the ended without any definitive deči. French and Spanish ports, the fion on several of the most material avowed disposition of those states points of law. However, the right with respect to Portugal, and many of pressing seemed to grow in other luspicious appearances, af. itrengtii, and all ideas of local or forded very fufficient grounds of personal exemptions, to lose ground alarm to the ministers during the very considerably. recess. The cause and effect in- Towards the close of the year, creased with the season, until at and in the beginning of the enlength, towards the approach of fuing, much contufion, apprehenwinter, the political horizon ap- fion, and suspicion was excited, peared not a little gloomy.
by the machinery of a wretched In these circumstances, fixteen enchufiaft and incendiary, since well additional ships of the line were known by the appellation of John fuddenly put into commission, and the Painter, but whole real name
a proclamation issued, was James Aitken. This man, Of. 25th. by which the reward to who was born in Edinburgh, and able seamen for entering in the bred a painter, poflefling an exnavy was increased to five pounds traordinary spirit of rambling, with per man. This was followed by a strong propensity to vice, had palianother proclamation, recalling all ed in the course of a few years thro' seamen who were in any foreign an uncommon variety of thote fervice; by two others, laying an seenes, which attend the most proembargo on the exportation of pro. Aigate and abandoned fate of a va
gabond life. A kind of life, for political matters, by that order of which a manual trade, however fol. the people with whom he lived lowed, affords the most perfect op- and conversed, gave birth to that portunity and cover.
madness of enthufiasm in him, Among his other exploits, he which afterwards became so danhad passed through several march- gerous. He accordingly returned ing regiments of foot, from each to England with the most deadly of which he deserted as soon as antipathy to the government and opportunity served, after receiving nation, and soon after, if not orithe bounty money. In his various ginally, adopted the design of peregrinations through the differ- !ubverting, in his own single perent parts of England, he alter- son, that power which he so much dately committed highway robbe. abhorred. ries, burglaries, petty thefts, rapes,
The scheme was as detestable, and worked at his trade, as occa- as could even be expected from fion invited, villainy prompted, or the villainous character of the fear or necessity operated. Whe- framer. It was to destroy the mather it proceeded from the appre- ritime force of this country, as herfion of punishment, or that the well as its internal strength and original bent of his genius led riches, by setting fire to the royal him to new scenes of action, what- dock-yards, and burning the prinever was the operative motive, he cipal trading cities and towns, hipped himself off for America, with their thipping, of whatever where he continued for two or fort, so far as it could poliibly be three years. His being of a me- done. In the prosecution of this lancholy solitary nature, which atrocious design, he traversed the neither fought for associates in kingdom to discover the state of crimes, por admitted of partners the several docks, and the nature in pleasure, as it contributed of the watch by which they were mach to his preservation for lo guarded, which he in general long a time from the justice of found to be as lax and insufficient thole laws which he was conftant- as he could have wished. He ally breaking, served equally to fo took wonderful pains in the throw in utter darkness all those construction of fireworks, maparts of his life, which he did not chines, and combustibles, for the himself think fitting or
neces- purpole, but was ftrangely unsucsary to communicate. His trans- cessful in all his attempts of this a&tions in America are accord. ingly unknown, any further, than It was owing to this unaccountthat he traversed, and worked at able failure in his machines, that . his trade in, several of the colo. the nation was saved from renies,
ceiving some dreadful, if not irAs his pilgrimage on that con- recrievable shock. One of them, tident was in the beginning, and which extinguished of its own acdaring the progress
, of the pre- cord, without any human interfent troubles, it may well be iina- ference, was found, several weeks gined, that the violence of the after it had been laid, in the cenlanguage and sentiments held in ter of a frodigious quantity of