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even into Eflex county, where, by the beginning, either opposed in seizing Newark, Elizabeth Town, public, or regretted in private, and Woodbridge, they became this war, and that others are now mafiers of the coast opposite to obvious to every body, it may not, Staten Island. Their principal however, be amiss to specify some poits were taken and strengthened of those causes which clogged it with so much judgment, that it was with particular difficulties. not practicable to dislodge them. Among the principal of these The royal army retained only the may be considered the valt extent two polts of Brunswick and Am- of that continent, with its unusual boy, the one ficuated a few miles distribution into great tracts of culup the Rariton, the other on a poiüt tivated and savage territory; the of land at its mouth, and both long extent of sea coast in front, holding an open communication and the boundless wastes at the with New York by sea.

back of the inhabited countries, Thus by a few well conceried affording resource or shelter in all and spirited allians, was Phila- circumstances; the numberless indelphia saved, Pennsylvania freed accelible posts, and itrong frein danger, the jerk ys nearly barriers, 'formed by the various secovered, and a victorious and far combinations of woods, mountains, fupcrior army reduced to act upon rivers, lakes, and marshes. All the desenlive, and for several these properties and circumstances, months reitrained within very.nar- with others appertaining to the ro! and inconvenient limits. climates and seasons, may be said These actions, and the sudden re- to fight the battles of the inhabicovery from the lowest liate of tants of such countries in a defenweakness and diftress, to become live war. To these may be added a formidable enemy in the fieid, others less local. The unexpected raised the characier of General union, and unknown strength of Walington, as a commander, ve- the colonies ; the judicious appliTy high both in Europe and Amc- cation of that strength, by fuiting rica ; and with his preceding and the defence to the nature, genius, subsequent conduct, serve all toge- and ability, of the people, as well ther, io give a sanction to that ap- as to the natural advantages of the pellation, which is now pretty ge- country, thereby rendering it. a nerally applied to him, of the

war of polis, surprizes, and kir. American Fabius,

mihes, instead of a war of battles. Nor was this change of affairs to To all these may be added, the peobe attributed to any error in the ple's not being bridled by strong British Generals, or fault in the cities, nor fettered by luxury to troops which they commanded; those which were otherwise, so but depended entirely upon the that the reduction of a capital had happy application of a number of no effect upon the rest of the propowerful and concurring circum- vince, and the army cpuld retain Itances, which were far beyond no more territory than what it octheir reach or controul. Though cupied, which was again loft as many of these were foreseen and soon as it departed to another pointed out, by those who from quarter.

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EUROPE. [21 During the remaining winter, We have formerly had occasion and the whole of the spring, the to Mew the bad success which inarmy under Lord Cornwallis conti- variably attended the repeated atneed much itraitened at Bruníwick tempts that had been made, of and Amboy, the troops undergo. calling off the attention and force ing, with the greatett perseverance of the southern colonies from the and resolution, the hardships of a support of the general alliance to most severe and unremitting duty, their own immediate defence, by whilft their ranks were thinned by involving them effectually ia civil a continued series of kirmishes, war and domestic contention, either which were productive of no real through the means of the well advantage on either side, other affected in general, the Regulators than that of inuring the Americans and Highland emigrants in the to military service. In a word, Carolina's, or of the Negroes in every load of forage which was Virginia. We have allo taken procured, and every article of pro- fome small notice of the charges vifion, which did not come from made by the insurgents in some of New York, was fought or pur- thefe provinces against their gochased at the price of blood. vernors, of endeavouring to bring

The consequences of the late mi- the favages down to further those litary outrages in the Jerseys were designs. severely felt in the present change The failure in these attempts of circumftances. As soon as for- was not sufficient to damp the zeal tane turned, and the means were of the British agents among the in their power, the sufferers of all Indian nations, nor to render them parties, the well disposed to the hopeless of fill performing some royal caose, as well as the neutrals ellencial service, by engaging these and wavering, now rose as a man people to make a diversion, and to to revenge their personal injuries attack the southern Colonies in and particular oppressions, and be. their back and defenceless parts, ing goaded by a keener (pur, than The Indians, ever light in act and any which a public cause, or gene- faith, greedy of presents, and ral motive, could have excited, be- eager for spoil, were not difficulely came its bitterest and mot deter- induced, by a proper application mined enemies.. Thus the whole of the one, and the hope of the country, with too few exceptions, other, concurring with their own became hoftile; those who were natural disposition, to forget the incapable of arms, acting as spies, treaties which they had lately conand keeping a continual watch for firmed or renewed with the colothose who bore them ; so that the nists, and to engage in the design. smallest motion could not be made, It was held out to them, that a without its being exposed and dif- British army was to land in West covered, before it could produce Florida, and after penetrating its intended effect. Such were the through the Creek, Czickelaw, ugtoward events, that in the winter and Cherokee countries, and bedamped the hopes of a victorious ing joined by the warriors of thole army, and nipped the laurels of a nations, they were jointly to inforegoing prosperous campaign. vade the Carolinas and Virginia,

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whilst another formidable force by wards applied to for afsiftance by fea and land was to make che Cherokees, returned for answer, powerful impression on the coasts. that they, the latter, had placked Circular letters to the fame im. the thorn out of their foot, and port, were sent by Mr. Stuart," the were welcome to keep it. principal agent for Indian affairs, But the" Cherokees fell upon to the inhabitants of the back the adjoining colonies with detersettlements, requiring all ihe well. mined fury, carrying, for a part of affected, as well as all those, who the summer, ruin and desolation were willing to preserve themselves wherever they came, scalping, and and their families from the inevi. Naughtering the people, and totable calamities and deftruction of tally deftroying their settlements. an Indian war, to be' in readinels They were soon, however, checked, to repair to it royal standard, as and severely experienced, that foon as it was erected in the Che. things were much altered, since sokee country, and to bring with the time of their former warfare them their hories, cartle, and upon the same ground, and that provisions, for all of which they the martial spirit now prevalent in were" promised payment. They

the colonies, was extended to their 'were likewise required, for their remoteft frontiers. They were present security, and future dif- not only repulled or defeated in tinction from the King's enemies, every aáion, by the neighbouring to subscribe immediately to militia of Virginia and the Carowritten paper, declaratory of their linas, but pursued into their own allegiance.

country, where their towns were The scheme was so plausible, demolished their corn destroyed, and carried such a probability of and their warriors thinned in re. success, that it seemed to have had peated engagements, until the naa very extensive operation upon tion was nearly exterminated, and the difpofition of the Indians, and the wretched furvivors were obliged to have prepared them in a great to submit to any terms prescribed measure for a general confederacy by the victors; whilft the neighagainft the colonies. Even the bouring nations of Indians were fix nations, who had before agreed filent and paluve spectators of their to the obtervance of a Atrict neutra: calamities. lity, now committed several small Nor was this Indian war more ads of hostility; which were after. fortunate, with respect to its effect wards disowned by their elders on the well-affected in those quarand chiefs. i The Creek Indians, ters; who are not only said, to more violent, began the southern a man, to have expressed the utmost war with all their usual barbarity, avèrsion to the authors, and ab. until ..finding that the expected horrence of the cruelty of that succours did not arrive, they, with measure, but that some of the chief a foresight uncommon among In- leaders of the tories avowed a redians, ftopped suddenly short, and cantation of their former principles, sepenting of what they had done, merely upon that account. were, in the present state of affairs, It was in the midst of the bustle tafily excused ; and being after and danger of the war, and when

the

the scale of fortune seemed to peace or war, and is also extended hang heavily against them, by the to their commerce with foreign defeat on Long Isand, and the re- ftates. This piece, which may duction of New York, at a time be considered as a most dangerous when a great and invincible force supplement to the declaration of by sea and land carried dismay independency, was published under and conqueft wherever it directed the title of articles of confedera. its course, that all the members tion and perpetual union between

of the Congress ventured the thirteen specified fates, and OA. A to sign that remarkable has fince received, as the necessary treaty of Perpetual compact and forms would permit, the separate uoion between the thirteen revolted ratification of each colony. Such colonies, which lays down an in- was in general the state of affairs variable system of rules or laws in America at the close of the for their government in all public year 1776. cases with respect to each other in

CHAP. II.

State of affairs previous to tbe meeting of parliament. New peers. Change

in the department for the education of the Royal Brothers. Extraordinary augmentation of the peerage in Ireland. Difrelses of the West-India islands. Depredations of the American cruizers.

Conduet observed in ibe French and Spanis ports. Armaments. Several mer of war commiffioned. Press. Dispute between the city of London and the Admiralty. Account of John the Painter ; he burns the hemp-house at Portsmouth; fets fire to fome houses at Bristol. Speech from tbe throne. Addresses. Amendments moved. Great debates.

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He interval that elapsed found it aseless to repine. Thus, ment was not mach checkered difcuffion being fwallowed up in with such domestic events as could the final decision, public affairs, greatly excite the attention of the seemed to be scarcely thought of, public. As war seemed now as and a degree of ftillness prevailed inevitable as it was fully provided among the people, perhaps unfor, the narrow alternative which equalled in any country or age, was lodged in the hands of the during the rage of a foreign or Commiffoners affording little room domestic warfare. for other expectation, the attention War is feldom unpopular in of the nation was suspended for this country; and this war was the present, and people only looked attended with some circumftances forward to the consequences of which seldom have accompanied

Those who approved any other. The high language of of hostility, saw their defires now. authority, dignity, and supremacy, gratified to the utmost, and those which had filled the mouths of who differed with them in opinion many for some years, fed the va

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nity of those who could not easily success, which they deemed liable define, or who perhaps had never to more fatal consequences than fally conficered, the extent of the any loss or defeat.

The great terms,

or of the consequences ditance of the seat of waralso which they were capable of pro. rendered its effects less interefting. ducing; and the flattering idea of For distance produces in some lessening the national burthens, degree the effect of time with by an American revenue, woint it respect to sensibility; and the was fitted to the comprehenfion of flaughter, cruelties, and calamities, the meanest capacity, was not less which would wring the heart if effective in iis operation upon those they happened in the next county, of a superior class and order. To are Alightly telt at three or four the powerful principles of national thousand miles distance. The pride and avarice,' was added a diltance also prevented all apprejaudable disposition to support those hention of immediate danger; the national rights which were sup- expences of the conteft were not posed to be invaded, and a proper yet sensibly felt; and the bulk of indignition and resentment to that mankind never think of remote ingratitude and insolence which confequences. were charged upon the Americans, From there, and other causes, and to which 0;ly the present a general, and perhaps blameable, troubles were attributed by those, carelessness and indifference prewho were molt active in fomenting vailed throughout the nation. Nor the princi, les of hoftility, which was it eally roused from this at that ute prevailed, far more drowsy apathy, which like all than they had done at the begin- other habits was confirmed by ning of this content.

time. For when, at length, the in such circumftan es, it is not American cruizers not only scourto he wondered at, if a majority of ed the Atlantic ocean, but spreadthe people gave at least a kind of ing their depredations through the tacit approbation to the war; but European seas, brought alarm and as it was not attended with national hoftility home to our doors ; when antipathy or riva!ship, established the destruction which belel the enmity, or even a present contpe- homeward bound' richly "laden tition for glory, they did not feel Wett-india feets poured equal themselves to 'much' interested in ruin upon one planters in the its success, or altogether fo anxious islands and the merchants at home; about its coniequences, as they when an account of the failure of woald in those of another nature. some capital house in the city On the other hand, that great body was

almost the news of every, of the people, who had at all times morning; even in that state of reprobated the measures which led public loss and private distress, to the present troubles, and who an unusual phlegm prevailed, and considered them as not less dan- the same tranquil countenance and gerous to he confiition, than careless unconcern was preserved, ruinous to the power and glory of by those who had not yet partaken the paljon, could not be lupposed of the calamity. A circumstance fanguine in their wishes for a which is not fufficiently accounted

for,

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