the Saracens, were not merely secular conquerors, but were animated with all the wild fanaticism of a false religion. They professed and propagated the same imposture; they injured no less by their doc trines, than by their conquests; and, wherever they established their dominion, the Koran triumphed over the Gospel.

Yet, notwithstanding the signal overthrow of the Constantinopolitan monarchy, the rest of men, who were not killed by these plagues, repented not of their idolatrous worship of mediatory saints and angels, nor of their spiritual sorceries and fornication-Accordingly we find, that in the papal church idolatry was at its height during the sounding of the sixth trumpet; and in the same manner as Mohammedism attained to the zenith of its glory by the subversion of the Greek empire. Previous to this period, the Greek church had struggled successfully with the Roman church for independence and equality but the downfall of Constantinople effectually humbled both the ecclesiastical rival of Popery, and the temporal antagonist of Mohammedism. In the days of the Saracens, the Arabian imposture triumphed over the proud monarchy of Persia; but was only able to torment the declining remains of the once formidable empire of Rome. In the days of the Turks, it beheld the city of Constantine prostrate at its feet, as well as the capital of Chosroes. Still however did the Church of Rome continue her triumphs over sense, humanity, and religion. Unawed by the signal punishment of her

sister of Constantinople, she resolutely set her face against the reformation which commenced under this trumpet, and persecuted those who protested against her superstition and appealed to Scripture: a more tremendous power therefore, than either the Saracens or the Turks, will be summoned against her by the blast of the third woe; which nevertheless will afterwards perish, united with her.

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It is observable, that the precise duration of the second woe-trumpet is not marked by St. John in his prophecy of the Euphratèan horsemen. They are said to be loosed, after having been bound ; and they are represented as attacking after their liberation the third part of men, and as finally slaying this third part: consequently, the second woe-trumpet must have begun to sound at the latter end of the thirteenth century, probably in the year 1281, when the Turks under Ortogrul gained their first victory over the Greek empire by the conquest of Cutahi. But it does not terminate, till the great earthquake in the West has taken place, and till a tenth part of the Roman city has fallen*. Then we are informed, that "the second woe is past, and, "behold, the third woe cometh quickly."

* Rev. xi, 13.




ST. JOHN, having shewn the effects of the two first woe-trumpets in the East, next passes to the collateral and contemporary history of the West : for the same woe-trumpet, which called into action the Mohammedan Apostasy, produced likewise the development of the papal Apostasy.

In order to avoid needless confusion, the Apostle throws the whole history of Popery, during the whole 1260 days, and under all the three woetrumpets*, into a sort of episode to his general series


Bp. Newton is certainly mistaken in saying, that the little book " properly cometh under the sixth trumpet." The little book itself repeatedly declares, that it comprehends all the 1260 years: but the 1260 years extend through the whole period of the three woe-trumpets; or at least through the whole of it, except that part which is included in the effusion of the last vial, and which synchronizes with Daniel's time of the end: whence it is mauifest, that the little book must include, not only the sixth trumpet, but the fifth and seventh also. This is sufficiently evident both


series of prophecies; which he terms a little book, or a codicil to his greater book of the Apocalypse. This little book comprehends the eleventh, twelfth, thirteenth, and fourteenth, chapters of the Revelation and, in point of chronology, all these chapters run parallel to each other, relating severally, though with some variety of circumstances, to the same period and the same events; so as to form jointly a complete history of the western Apostasy, and of all the principal actors in it.

1. The first chapter of the little book* gives an account of the treading of the holy city under foot during forty-two months; of the desolate prophe sying of the witnesses, during the same period of 1260 days; of their being siain by the beast of the abyss; of their lying dead in the broad street of the great city during three days and a half; of their recival; of their triumphant ascent into the sym bolical heaven; and of the earthquake which was

from the date of the fifth trumpet, and from the termination of the seventh for the fifth trumpet begins to sound at the very com. mencement of the 1260 years, namely when the pit of the abyss was opened in the year 606 by the fallen star of Rome; and the seventh trumpet brings us down, through the different stages of its first six viuls, to the end of the 1260 years. Since then the little book comprehends the whole of the 1260 years, it must ne cessarily commence with the sounding of the fifth trumpet, and must likewise include the seventh trumpet. Accordingly we find, that the seventh angel is represented as actually sounding in the little book (Rev. xi. 15.); though a more particular account of the effects of his blast is reserved for a distinct prophecy in the large book. Rev. xv.-xix.

Rev. xi.


to overthrow the tenth part of the city, and to be the last great event under the second woe: and it finally announces the sounding of the seventh trumpet, which brings us down to the end of the 1260 days; but announces it without descending minutely to particularise its effects*. In this chapter (it is to be observed) the beast of the abyss is barely mentioned: and no intimation whatsoever is given, either what this beast is, by whose instigation he acts, or whose minister he is; the prophet reserving these particulars for his two succeeding chapters.

2. The second chapter of the little book↑ lets us into the whole mystery of iniquity, so far as its original mover is concerned. We there learn, that the 1260 years persecution of the true church of Christ is the contrivance of that old serpent, the devil; who is represented under the image of a dragon with seven heads and ten horns, in order to shew us by the instrumentality of what minister he was about to slay the witnesses, and to drive the woman into the wilderness.

3. The third chapter of the little book, passes from the master to the servant; and shews us who is that minister of the dragon, that beast of the abyss, which had already been represented as the murderer of the two witnesses. It describes him as

Its effects are afterwards detailed very circumstantially under the seven vials, and in the chapters subsequent to that which relates to the pouring out of the vials.

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