The subversion of the kingdom of Lombardy in the year 774 made Charlemagne, already king of France, the undisputed master of Italy under the title of Patrician of Rome. In this capacity, he granted to the Pope the fiefs of a certain part of Lombardy and of the whole state of Rome, confirming at the same time the former grant made by his father Pipin. Here then, in the regular chronological order of prophecy, after the beast had been wounded to death under his sixth head, and after his deadly wound had been healed, we behold the rise of the Carlovingian Patriciate, or the seventh independent temporal head of the beast. This head however, when it came, was to continue only a short space; for it was almost immediately to be absorbed in the eighth head, which (the Apostle informs us) is in reality one of the seven although styled the eighth, and which (I have shewn) can only be identified with the seventh head: consequently we are led to expect, that the two heads are to be so intimately blended with each other, as to form jointly only one septimo-octave head. Accordingly we find, that, just 26 years after its rise, the seventh head was for ever lost in the eighth head. In the year 774*, the Carlovin


* I date the rise of the Patrician head at the era of the conquest of Lombardy, because the mere titular Patriciate of Charles Martel and Pipin then first became a real form of government. Should the reader however be disposed rather to date its rise at the time when the title was conferred upon Charles Martel,


gian government of Italy commenced; in the year 800, Charlemagne assumed the imperial dignity, which has ever since been borne by a prince within the limits of the old Roman empire, and which has ever since given him precedence over the ten horns by constituting him in a manner their head *.


the prophecy respecting the shortness of its duration will be no less accomplished. In that case, it will have continued about 50 years instead of 26; either of which periods may justly be termed a short time. As for the Patriciate of the Exarchs, it resembled in name alone the Patriciate of Charlemagne. They bore the title of Patrician as dependent viceroys; he bore it as an independent prince, while the reign of the Greek Emperors was sus pended, and during what Mr. Gibbon styles "the vacancy of "the Empire."

From the days of Charlemagne, the Emperor has always claimed, and has always been allowed, precedence over every one of the ten horns: and as such he has invariably been considered as the head of the great European commonwealth. This point however is best decided by a professed writer upon Heraldry. In his chapter upon the precedency of kings and commonwealths, Sir George Mackenzie has the following observations. Amongst those who are supreme, kings have the "preference from commonwealths; and, amongst kings, the "Emperor is allowed the first place by the famous ceremonial "of Rome, as succeeding to the Roman Emperors-And there"fore the German and Italian lawyers, who are subject to the "Empire, have with much flattery asserted, that the Emperor "is the Vicar of God in temporals" (manifestly in contradis tinction to the Pope, who claimed and was allowed to be the Vicar of Christ in spirituals)," and that jurisdictions are de"rived from him, as from the fountain, calling him dominum "et caput totius orbis" (Mackenzie's Observations on Precedency. Chap. 1.). This last matter Sir George naturally enough refuses



Here then we behold the rise of the septimo-octave head of the beast*: a matter so evident, that a writer, in this respect certainly unprejudiced, was naturally led by circumstances to bestow this very title upon Charlemagne. Pointing out the motives, by which the Popes were induced to espouse the cause of the French monarch in preference to that of the By

refuses to allow, though he readily concedes a precedency of rank to the Emperor. His whole treatise may be found in Guillim's Display of Heraldry. See also Mod. Univ. Hist. vol. xlii. p. 80-105.

* It is not unworthy of notice, that Cardinal Baronius speaks of the coronation of Charlemagne in language, which strongly though undesignedly marks the rise of a new head of the Roman beast. "Quod autem ejusmodi translatio imperii "ab Oriente in Occidentem, ubi posthac semper stetit et hac


tenus perseverat, divino consilio facta fuerit magno reipub"licæ Christianæ emolumento, et imperii Orientalis desolatio,


et alia eventa, satis superque demonstrârunt. Nec vero id "potuisse convenientius fieri quam per Romanum Pontificem "totius Christianæ religionis antistitem, et summum Ecclesiæ "catholicæ visibile caput, pastoremque universi gregis Chris"tiani; nec decentius quam in Carolum magnum, regem totius "Occidentis potentissimum, cumdemque Christianissimum,

piissimum, justissimum, fortissimum, doctissimum, de religione Christiana, ecclesia catholica, sede apostolica, statu "publico, semper in omnibus optimè meritum; nec denique "opportuniori tempore, quàm cum jacerent absque possessore

jura Orientalis Imperii, et periculum immineret ne caderent "in schismaticos principes a fide catholica extorres, aut in "Christianæ religionis infestissimos hostes Saracenos, nemo “prudens et rerum æquus æstimator non affirinabit, nec in"ficias ire poterit, totum id Dei opus fuisse, ejusque mira"bili consilio sapientissimè dispositum." Annal. Eccles.

A. D. SUO.




zantine emperors, he observes, that "the name of "Charlemagne was stained by the polemic acri

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mony of his scribes: but the conqueror himself "conformed, with the temper of a statesman, to "the various practice of France and Italy. In his "four pilgrimages or visits to the Vatican, he em"braced the Popes in the communion of friendship and piety; knelt before the tomb, and conquently before the image, of the Apostle; and "joined, without scruple in all the prayers and processions of the Roman liturgy. Would pru"dence or gratitude allow the pontiff's to renounce "their benefactor? Had they a right to alienate "his gift of the exarchate? Had they a power to "abolish his government of Rome? The title of "Patrician was below the merit and greatness of "Charlemagne ; and it was only by reviving "the Western empire, that they could pay their

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obligations or secure their establishment. By "this decisive measure they would finally eradi(C cate the claims of the Greeks: from the debasement of a provincial town the majesty of Rome "would be restored: the Latin Christians would "be united under a supreme head in their ancient metropolis and the conquerors of the West "would



Though Charlemagne in a great measure united the Latin Christians under one head, by reigning at the same time in France, part of Spain, Italy, Germany, and Hungary, yet he never made Rome his metropolis; nor can I think with Mr. Gibbon that the Popes ever wished him to do it. Those subtle


"would receive their crown from the successors of "St. Peter. The Roman church would acquire a "zealous and respectable advocate; and, under the "shadow of the Carlovingian power, the bishop might exercise, with honour and safety, the government of the city

* ""

6. To this interpretation of the prophecy respecting the septimo-octave head of the beast, it is possible, that three objections may be urgedFirst, that it does not accord with my own plan of exposition to suppose, that a king of France. should be a head of the beast, because France is one of the ten horns: consequently, in making the patricio-imperial dignity of Charlemagne to be the last head, I make that prince at once both a head and a horn, the very error with which I charge Bp. Newton in the case of the Exarchate



politicians were too well aware, that the immediate presence of a sovereign prince would grievously impede their schemes of aggrandisement, ever to desire that Rome should behold any other masters than themselves. With the title of Emperor of the Romans they were perfectly satisfied, so long as the Emperor remained at a respectful distance from the seven-hilled city.

* Hist. of Decline and Fall. vol. ix. p. 170, 171. Charle magne's devotion to the Papacy appears from this passage in his laws. "In memoriam beati Petri apostoli, honoremus sanctam "Romanam et apostolicam sedem; ut quæ nobis sacerdotalis 66 mater est dignitatis, esse debeat ecclesiastica magistra rationis. "Quare servanda est cum mansuetudine humilitas; ut, licet "vix ferendum ab illa sancta sede imponatur jugum, tamen "feramus, et pia devotione toleremus." A sentence, says Baronius, worthy of being inscribed in letters of gold! Eccles. Annal. A. D. 801.


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