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no one.

Among them our author mentions Reynard de St. John de Angely, (the name is Regnaud,) commandant of the cavalry which

owed its establishment and support to this noble-spirited Frenchman, who not only paid a large part of its expenses from his own purse, but laboured incessantly in drilling the men.' Colonel Favier bore a more distinguished part in the war; he is described as an excellent soldier, a strict disciplinarian, brave and hardy, but in the opinion of Dr. Howe he was “no general ;” his mind was not strong and capacious enough to conceive original, or embrace comprehensive ideas; he was so fully satisfied of the infallibility of his own judgment, that he would take advice from

An expedition against Negropont was undertaken by Favier from Athens, at the head of a small body of men, the failure of which elicits a note so spirited, that the account of one may be allowed for the sake of the other.

“Favier determined to attack them, not withstanding the advantage they had of the ground, and their being sheltered by the houses. He brought up his force therefore in a scientific manner, and the infantry marched to the attack in excellent order; they were supported by the fire of six light field-pieces, which were well managed, and made considerable havoc among the Turks, who received the attack of the infantry, with a hot fire of musketry. The Greeks advanced however with much firmness and spirit, and were just on the point of getting possession of some houses in the outskirts, which would have sheltered them, when the fire of their artillery, which for some minutes had been slacken. ing, ceased entirely-the axletrees of the carriages had broken, and the infantry was left exposed to the whole Turkish fire, which was redoubled ;-it was too much for raw troops; they retreated, and the day was lost.” The note is as follows,-and it will excite the blushes of those to whom it relates, if they should happen to read it.

“It was a great fault that these guns had not been sufficiently proved before going into action, but surely there was some excuse for Favier ; they were part of a parc of artillery which had been provided by the Philhellenes of London, and for which a large sum had been paid by the Greeks; but they all proved upon trial, that they had been made merely to sell! This is only one out of a hundred instances, where shameful impositions have been practised upon the Greeks abroad ; not where gifts were sent them,--for then they could not complain of the quality ; but where they have paid, and paid enormous prices too. Let the American or the European, who makes such an outcry against the poor Greek, who, driven to desperation by the cries of his starving children, turns pi. rate to feed them; let him consider, I say, the base frauds which have been prac. tised upon the Greeks in Marseilles, London, and New-York, and he will put his hand on his mouth, and be silent. He will blush to think that his countrymen, to whom Greece in the hour of her agony, was stretching out her hands: to whose honour and honesty she was trusting, and opening wide her purse-strings, that they might take their own just pay ;—these men, these Christians, were coldly speculating on her misery.; they were eagerly grasping at her last dollar, and stopping their ears to the screams of thousands, to whom their frauds might bring captivity or death. For my part, I look with more respect, upon the ignorant but daring pirate, who roams the Archipelago 'in full and free defiance' of law and justice, than upon the sanctimonious Christian merchant, who pirates within the bounds of the law; and whose very Bible is bought with the legal, but unjust spoil of the widow and orphan.”

The laudable animation of Dr. Howe on the subject, is not exYOL. V. -N0. 9.

15

He was

hausted in this note. He subsequently observes with severity on the mercenary and treacherous conduct of some of the leaders of the self-constituted Greek committee in London. A loan of twelve millions of dollars had been effected, for the payment of which Greece was bound. He tells us that their government had hardly been supplied with two millions, when it received the stunning news, that the funds were exhausted. The accounts are inserted in the text, examined by the author, and the cupidity and manæuvres attributed to Mr. Bowring and Joseph Hume, two of the loudest advocates of this suffering people, can only excite disgust. These observations are renewed on the arrival of the frigate built at New-York.-We refer to our first number for the sentiments we entertained on this unfortunate case. They are re-echoed by Dr. Howe. It would be some relief from this dark coloured picture, to turn back to the brilliant though temporary career of Lord Byron, of which many particulars are told, but this again receives a gloom from his sudden death. preparing to go with his corps of Suliotes, raised at his own expense, on an expedition against Lepanto, when he was seized with the fever that in a few days terminated his life. Dr. Howe does not consider the expedition of this nobleman as a mere poetical and thoughtless excursion; he represents him as having taken great pains beforehand, to obtain clear and certain information on the actual state of the country, and as having planned a very judicious mode of proceeding, as well in respect to himself, as to those whom he intended to assist.

Lord Cochrane is represented to have gone to Greece, more to repair his own fortunes, than from that generous enthusiasm for her cause, which should have led him to trust to her gratitude for his after recompense. According to his usual course, the author gives a description of the person and character of Cochrane.

“He is tall, so very tall, than an habitual and copsiderable stoop does not prevent his overtopping all about him; his large, bony, though gaunt frame, exhibits signs of prodigious strength ; his face is long and narrow ; his sandy complexion looks more so, from a large pair of reddish whiskers; and his eyes which are quick and sparkling, indicate rather mildness than ferocity of temper. His manner is polite, and very gentle ; his susceptibilities the most acute, and there can be no one more kind-hearted, none more ready to pity or weep at the sight of distress in others. His passions are quick and violent, yet under the control of his reason ; and there is in his plans a strange mixture of daring and prudence. His talents are of an original, and extraordinary cast; and every question or remark that drops from him, indicates an intelligent and inquisitive mind. To all those high qualities, he adds the must ardent love of enterprise, and a calm indifference to danger.” How ineffectual his efforts have proved, is too well known.

The narrative closes soon after the fall of Athens. Its capitulation, in which General Church was thought by some to have taken too active a part, gave dissatisfaction. Missolonghi had

“Yes,

refused to capitulate, and almost all its garrison and inhabitants were massacred, amidst the tears and praises of their fellow-citi-. zens. Rinieri, the president of the representative body, officially communicated the intelligence of this distressing event, in terms which conveyed an allusion not to be misunderstood. the birth place of the arts and sciences, the venerable Athens, has fallen into the hands of the barbarians. Missolonghi too fell, but she nobly fell. True Greeks will rather die than buy their lives at the price of their honour.” But during the earlier stages' of the war, other capitulations of fortified places had taken place, and we must account for the censures which particularly accompanied this, from the distressing state of their affairs at the time, and the unwillingness that there should appear any symptom of the decline of national spirit.

Ibrahim Pasha had now almost the whole country at his command. The scattered inhabitants, unable to cope with his power, were still unwilling to submit to it; and while the original energy and patriotism remained, hope still remained. A timid submission in some places would depress the courage of others, and therefore, the national assembly, taking a comprehensive view of all their surrounding difficulties, still strove to keep up the principles on which resistance began, and to preserve their fellow-citizens from giving way to despair. It was no small addition to the distresses of the country, that great dissensions among themselves still continued, and that those who were in arms proceeded so far as to shed each other's blood. It was not, as once with us, a case of contest between those who aimed at liberty and independence, and those who were attached to the pre-existent government; between whigs and tories—but they were the blind and jealous conflicts of those, who while they concurred in detesting and resisting their former rulers, aimed at separate mastery among themselves. It has always been the misfortune of Greece, even in her best days, to have so many sectional divisions, engendering as many divisions of interests and feelings. She has never been an entire nation. It not unfrequently happens that a common danger unites for a time, and that when the danger has passed, former feuds revive with their original acrimony; but here, in the worst of its agony, when life and safety could be expected from union alone, the Greek was sometimes seen endeavouring to tear the Greek to pieces, while the bloody scimitar hung over the heads of both. Such an inconceivable, inexplicable being is man! The influence of Capo d'Istria may mitigate or remove these evils.

Col. Miller's is a work of very inferior merit. It is, in fact, a mere transcript from his journal, printed for the satisfaction of those who employed him on the benevolent mission ;-it contains many trifling incidents, not worthy of the notice even of

his employers, and is written in a very bad stile. His pictures of the misery of the country at the places he visited, distress the mind, and perhaps not the less for their being presented in very plain and inelegant language. He saw much to create an opinion unfavourable to the modern Greeks, but he manfully declares that he still considers the people and their cause worthy the risk of his life in order to assist them; for he “ believes that there are many good men and redeeming spirits among them, who have contended, and will continue to contend, until the country is severed from the Ottoman Empire.” The conduct of some of the chiefs in respect to the distribution of those charitable supplies, was inhuman in regard to the poor for whom they were intended, insolent to our countrymen, Col. Miller, Dr. Howe, and Dr. Russ, and ungrateful to our country. It is scarcely possible to conceive, that the starving, naked wretches who surrounded the store-houses, should have been driven away by orders of military chieftains, insisting on having the articles delivered to themselves. Dr. Howe, in a report made to Col. Miller of his agency in respect to a portion of the supplies destined for the poor at Napoli, exhibits the basest conduct on the part of Colocotroni. But, notwithstanding these shameful proceedings, “ Dr. Russ,” of whom he gives a high character, “determined to remain in Greece for some time, taking care of the sick, and doing as much good as the scanty means at his disposal would permit, in hopes, however, that information of the distresses of this country, and the sufferings of a brave and heroic people, conveyed to America, would induce our countrymen to renewed exertions, as their donations had already saved thousands of women and children from nakedness and famine.”

Col. Miller's diary presents to view the existence of greater distress than can probably be elsewhere found on the surface of the globe, and at the same time greater difficulties in the distribution of relief, than perhaps ever existed in similar cases. Not only did the base and avaricious chiefs take means to prevent the distribution of relief among the unhappy sufferers, and secure them to their own use,--and not only was the personal safety of the American agents frequently endangered, but discouragement and repulse were experienced from quarters where it could not have been at all expected. “The English resident at the island of Calamos, refused to permit the landing 130 barrels which I sent there, wherefore Dr. Gosse brought them back to Poros, although the Greeks from the continent, who have taken refuge in that island, are daily dying with hunger.”

Commodore Patterson, who commanded the Constitution, receives the warmest thanks of Col. Miller, for the kindness, protertion and assistance afforded on several occasions; but this is

strongly contrasted with the conduct of the commander of the Erie on an antecedent occasion.

“I had just arrived at Smyrna, in an English frigate, destitute of money, clothes, and passports, having recently lost the two last at the fall of Missolonghi, in the defence of which I had taken a part. Captain Deacon not only gave me to understand that I had lost my right as an American citizen by serving as a volunteer in Greece, but absolutely refused to permit me to comply with a general invitation from all the ward-room officers to accompany them to Candia, or even to give me protection on board his vessel, unless I would say that I considered my life absolutely in danger, a declaration which I could by no means make.” Yet, on his return from Candia, the same gentleman brought “two Turkish officers to Smyrna, in order to forward them on their way to Constantinople, with despatches.”

It is true, that at the time of receiving this repulse, Col. Miller was not engaged in the charitable agency which he afterwards gratuitously assumed, but, by this conduct, the Turks were encouraged to the evil treatment of our countrymen; and the future exertions of Philhellenic charity on our part, were proportionably damped and impeded. Col. Miller's request to the commander of an Austrian armed vessel for permission, in the execution of his mission, to take a passage on board to the port where the ship was destined, was evaded. His meritorious perseverance, during all his difficulties, confers great honour on his character.

According to later accounts, however, appearances are more favourable. Mr. King has been very kindly received by the President Count Capo d'Istria, and by Mavrocordato, who, we are pleased to find, still retains influence and some degree of power among them. Ibrahim Pacha has evacuated Greece; the movements and arrangements of the French force were such that not a single Turk would remain there after the middle of November. Letters a recent date from Dr. Howe announce the probability of a restoration of domestic order and industry. We may presume that the Allies, who have accomplished so much, will never permit the hallowed soil to be again profaned by barbarian conquerors. Some mystery hangs over the French expedition; and some doubt may be indulged as to the ultimate generosity of the views and proceedings of the deliverers; but we may reasonably expect a qualified national independence at least. -a sufficient scope for civilization with all its principal benefits.

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