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T is the Fate of those who coil at the lower Em
ployments of Life, to be rather driven by the Fear of Evil, than attracted by the Prospect of Good; to be exposed to Censure, without Hope or Praise ; to be disgraced by Miscarriage, or punished for Neglect, where Success would have been without Applause, and Diligence without Reward.
Among these unhappy Mortals is the Writer of Dictionaries; whom Mankind have considered, not 28 the Pupil, but the Slave of Science, the Pioneer of Literature, doomed only to remove Rubbish and clear Obstructions from the Paths of Learning and Genius, who press forward to Conquest and Glory, without bestowing a Smile on the humble Drudge who facilitates their Progress. Every other Author may aspire to Praise ; the Lexicographer can only hope to escape Reproach, and even this negative Recorz pence has been yet granted to very few.
I have, notwithstanding this Discouragement, attempted a Dictionary of the English Language, which, while it was employed in the Cultivation of every Species of Literature, has itself been hitherto neglected, suffered to spread, under the Direction of Chance, into wild Exuberance, resigned to the Tyranny of Time and Fashion, and exposed to the Corruptions of Ignorance, and Caprices of Innovasion.
When I took the first Survey of my Undertaking, I found our Speech copious without Order, and energetic without Rules : wherever I turned my View, there was Perplexity to be disentangled, and Confusion to be regulated ; Choice was to be made out of boundless Variety, without any established Principle of Selection ; Adulterations were to be detected, without a settled Test of Purity ; and Modes of Expression to be rejected or received, without the Suffrages of any Writers of classical Reputation or acknowledged Authority.
Having therefore no Aslistance but from general Grammar, I applied myself to the Perufal of our Writers; and noting whatever might be of Use to ascertain or illustrate
Word or Phrase, accumulated in Time the Materials of a Dictionary, which, by Degrees, I reduced to Method, establishing to myself, in the Progress of the Work, such Rules as Experience and Analogy suggested to me ; Experience, which Practice and Observation were continually increasing ; and Analogy, which, though in some Words obscure, was evident in others.
In adjusting the Orthography, which has been to this Time unsettled and fortuitous, I found it neceffary to distinguish those Irregularities that are inherent in our Tongue, and perhaps coeval with it, from others which the Ignorance or Negligence of later Writers has produced. Every Language has its Anomalies, which, though inconvenient,
and in themselves once unneceffary, must be tolerated among the Imperfections of human Things, and which require only to be registered, that they may not be increased ; and ascertained, that they may not be confounded : But every Language has likewife its Improprieties and Absurdities, which it is the Duty of the Lexicographer to correct or proscribe.
As Language was at its Beginning merely oral, all Words of necessary or common Use were spoken be
fore they were written ; and while they were unfixed by any visible Signs, muft have been spoken with great Diversity, as we now observe those who cannot read to catch Sounds imperfe&ly, and utter them negligently. When this wild and barbarous Jargon was first reduced to an Alphabet, every Penman endeavoured to express, as he could, the Sounds which he was accustomed to pronounce or to receive, and vitiated in Writing
such Words as were already vitiated in Speech. The Powers of the Letters, when they were applied to a new Language, must have been vague and unsettled ; and therefore different Hands would exhibit the fame Sound by different Combinations.
From this uncertain Pronunciation arise, in a great Part, the various Dialects of the same Country, which will always be observed to grow fewer, and less different, as Books are multiplied ; and from this arbitrary Representation of Sounds by Letters, proceeds that Diversity of Spelling observable in the Saxon Remains, and I suppose in the first Books of every Nation, which perplexes or destroys Analogy, and produces anomalous Formations; which, being once incorporated, can never be afterwards dismissed or reformed.
Of this Kind are the Derivatives Length from long, Strength from strong, Darling from dear, Breadth from broad ; from dry, Drought, and from high, Height; which Milton, in Zeal for Analogy, writes Highth : Quid te exempta juvat spinis de pluribus una; to change all would be too much, and to change one is nothing.
This Uncertainty is moft frequent in the Vowels, which are fo capriciously pronounced, and so differently modified, by Accident or Affectation, not only in every Province, but in every Mouth, that to them, as is well known to Etymologists, little Regard is to
be shewn in the Deduction of one Language from another.
Such Defects are not Errours in Orthography, but Spots of Barbarity impressed so deep in the Engliso Language, that Criticism can never wash them away; these, therefore, must be permitted to remain untouched: but many Words have likewise been altered by Accident, or depraved by Ignorance, as the Pronunciation of the Vulgar has been weakly followed : and some ftill continue to be variously written, as Authours differ in their Care or Skill : Of these it was proper to enquire the true Orthography, which I have always considered as depending on their Derivation, and have therefore referred them to their ori, ginal Languages: Thus I write enchant, Enchantment, Enchanter, after the French, and Incantation after the Latin; thus entire is choíen rather than intire, because it passed to us not from the Latin integer, but from the French entier.
Of many Words it is difficult to say whether they were immediately received from the Latin or the French; since at the Time when we had Dominions in France, we had Latin Service in our Churches. It is, however, my Opinion, that the French generally supplied us: for we have few Latin Words, among the Terms of domestick Use, which are not French
i but many French, which are very remote from Latin.
Even in Words of which the Derivation is apparent, I have been often obliged to sacrifice Uniformity to Custom : Thus I write, in Compliance with a numberless Majority, convey and inveigh, Deceit and Receipt, Fancy and Phantom; fometimes the Derivative varies from the Primitive, as explain and Explanation, repeat and Repetition.
Some Combinations of Letters having the fame Power, are used indifferently without any discoverable Reason of Choice; as in choak, choke; Soap, Sope;
Fewel, Fuel, and many others; which I have some
; times inserted twice, that those who fearch for them under either Form, may not search in vain.
In examining the Orthography of any doubtful Word, the Mode of Spelling by which it is inserted in the Series of the Dictionary, is to be considered as that to which I give, perhaps not often rafhly, the Preference. I have left, in the Examples, to every Authour his own Practice unmolested, that the Reader may balance Suffrages, and judge between us : But this Question is not always to be determined by reputed or by real Learning ; some Men, intent upon greater Things, have thought little on Sounds and Derivations; some, knowing in the ancient Tongues, have neglected those in which our Words are commonly to be sought. Thus Hammond writes Fecibleness for Feasibleness, because I suppose he imagined it derived immediately from the Latin; and some Words, such as dependant, dependent; Dependance, Dependence, vary their final Syllable, as one or other Language is present to the Writer.
In this Part of the Work, where Caprice has long wantoned without Controul, and Vanity fought Praise by petty Reformation, I have endeavoured to proceed with a Scholar's Reverence for Antiquity, and a Grammarian's Regard to the Genius of our Tongue, I have attempted few Alterations, and among those few, perhaps the greater Part is from the modern to the ancient Practice ; and I hope I may be allowed to recommend to those, whose Thoughts have been, perhaps, employed too anxiously on verbal Singularities, not to disturb, upon narrow Views, or for minute Propriety, the Orthography of their Fathers. It has been asserted, that for the Law to be known, is of more Importance than to be right.
Change,' says Hooker, is not made without In? convenience, even from worse to better. There is in Constancy and Stability a general and lasting Ad