Antonio Gonzales, who had been one of the Aflociates of Gilianes, was sent again (1440) to bring back a Cargo of the Skins of Sea-wolves. He was followed in another Ship by Nunno Trifam. They were now of Strength sufficient to venture upon Violence, they therefore landed, and without either Right or Provocation, made all whom they seized their Prisoners, and brought them to Portugal, with great Commendations both from the Prince and the Nation.

Henry now began to please himself with the Success of his Projects, and as one of his Purposes was the Conversion of Infidels, thought it neceffary to impart bis Undertaking to the Pope, and to obtain the Sanctions of Ecclefiaftical Authority. To this End Fernando Lopez d' Azevedo was dispatched to Rome, who related to the Pope and Cardinals the great Designs of Henry, and magnified his Zeal for the Propagation of Religion. The Pope was pleased with the Narrative, and by a formal Bull conferred upon the Crown of Portugal, all the Countries which should be discovered as far as India, together with India itself, and granted feveral Privileges and Indulgences to the Churches, which Henry had built in his new Regions, and to the Men engaged in the Navigation for Discovery. By this Bull all other Princes are forbidden to encroach upon the Conquests of the Portuguese, on Pain of the Cenfures in-" curred by the Crime of Usurpation.

The Approbation of the Pope, the Sight of Men whose Manners and Appearance were lo different from those of Europeans, and the Hope of Gain from golden Regions, which has been always the great Incentive of Hazard and Discovery, now began to operate with full Force. The Defire of Riches and of Dominion, which is yet more pleafing to the Fancy, filled the Courts of the Portuguese Prince with innumerable Adventurers from very distant Parts


of Europe. Some wanted to be employed in the Search after new Countries, and some to be settled in those which had been already found.

Communities now began to be seized with the Infection of Enterprise, and many Affociations were formed for the Equipment of Ships, and the Acquifation of the Riches of diftant Regions, which perhaps were always supposed to be more wealthy, as more remote. These Undertakers agreed to pay the Prince a fifth Part of the Profit, sometimes a greater Share, and sent out the Armament at their own Expence.

The City of Lagos was the first that carried on this Design by Contribution. The Inhabitants fitted out fix Vefsels, under the Command of Luçarot, one of the Prince's Houshold, and soon after fourteen more were furnished for the fame Purpose, under the same Commander ; to those were added many be. longing to private Men, so that in a short Time, twenty-six Ships put to Sea in quest of whatever For tune should present.

The Ships of Lagos were foon separated by foul Weather, and the rest, taking each its own Course, stopped at different Parts of the African Coast, from Cape Blanco to Cape Verd. Some of them, in 1444, anchored at Gomera, one of the Canaries, where they were kindly treated by the Inhabitants, who took them into their Service, against the People of the Isle of Palma, with whom they were at War ; but the Portuguese at their Return to Gomera, not being made fo rich as they expected, fell upon their Friends, in contempt of all the Laws of Hospitality, and Stipulations of Alliance, and, making several of them Prisoners and Slaves, fet fail for Lisoon. The Canaries are supposed to have been known,

, however imperfectly, to the Antients, but in the Confusion of the subsequent Ages, they were lost and forgotten, till about the Year 1340, the Biscay

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neers found Lugarot, and invading it, for to find a new Country and invade it has always been the same, brought away feventy Captives, and some Commodities of the Place. Louis de la Cerda, Count of Clermont, of the Blood Royal both of France and Spain, Nephew of John de la Cerda, who called himfélf the Prince of Fortune, had once a Mind to settle in those Islands, and applying himself first to the King of Arragon, and then to Clement VI. was by the Pope crowned at Avignon, King of the Canaries, on Condition that he should reduce them to the true Religion ; but the Prince altered his Mind, and went into France to serve against the English. The Kings both of Castile and Portugal, though they did not oppose the papal Grant, yet complained of it, as made without their knowledge, and in Contravention of their Rights.

The first Settlement in the Canaries was made by John de Betancour, a French Gentleman, for whom his Kinsman Robin de Braquement, Admiral of France, begged them, with the Title of King, from Henry the Magnificent of Castile, to whom he had done eminent Services. Join made himself Master of some of the Isles, but could never conquer the Grand Canary, and having spent all that he had, went back to Europe, leaving his Nephew Masiot de Betancour, to take Care of his new Dominion. Mafiot had a Quarrel with the VicarGeneral, and was likewise disgusted by the long Absence of his Uncle, whom the French King de tained in his Service, and being able to keep his Ground no longer, he transferred his Rights to Don Henry, in Exchange for some Districts in the Ma. dera, where he fettled his family.

Don Henry, when he had purchased those Inands, sent thither in 1424, two thousand five hundred Foot, and an hundred and twenty Horse ; but the Army was too numerous to be maintained br the


Country. The King of Castile afterwards claimed them, as conquered by his Subjects under Betancour, and held under the Crown of Castile by Fealty and Homage ; his Claim was allowed, and the Canaries were resigned.

It was the constant Practice of Henry's Navigators, when they stopped at a desert Ifland, to land Cattle upon it, and leave them to breed, where nei ther wanting Room nor Food, they multiplied very fast, and furnished a very commodious Supply to those who came afterwards to the fame Place. This was imitated in fome Degree by Anson, at the Ifle of Juan Fernandez.

The Iflands of Madera he not only filled with Inhabitants, assisted by Artificers of every Kind, but procured such Plants as seemed likely to flourish in that Climate, and introduced the Sugar Canes and Vines, which afterwards produced a very large Re

The Trade of Africa now began to be gainful, but a great Part of the Gain arose from the sale of Slaves, who were annually brought into Portugal by Hundreds, as Lafitau relates, and relates without any Appearance of Indignation or Compassion; they likewise imported Gold Dust in such Quantities, that Alphonfus V. coined it into a new Species of Money called Crusades, which is still continued in Portugal.

In Time they made iheir way along the South Coast of Africa, Eastıvard to the Country of the Negroes, whom they found living in Tents, with out any political Institutions, supporting Life with very little Labour by the Milk of their Kine, and Millet, to which those who inhabited the Coast added Fish dried in the Sun. Having never seen the Jatives or heard of the Arts of Europe, they gazed with Astonishment on the Ships when they approached their Coafts, fometimes thinking them Birds, and sometimes Fishes, according as theft 5




Sails were spread or lowered; and sometimes con

. ceiving them to be only. Phantoms, which played to and fro in the Ocean. Such is the Account given by the Historian, perhaps with too much Prejudice against a Negroe's Understanding ; who thu he might well wonder at the Bulk and Swiftness of the first Ship, would scarcely conceive it to be either à Bird or a Fish ; but having seen many Bodies floating in this Water, would think it what it really is, a large Boat ; and if he had no knowledge of any Means by which separate Pieces of Timber may be joined together, would form very wild Notions concerning its Construction, or perhaps suppose it to be a hollow Trunk of a Tree, from fome Country

a where Trees grow to a much greater Height and Thickness than in his own.

When the Portugueze came to land, they encreal, ed the Astonishment of the poor Inhabitants, who faw Men clad in Iron, with Thunder and Lightning in their Hands. They did not understand each other, and Signs are a very imperfect Mode of Communication even to Men of more Knowledge than the Negroes, so that they could not easily negotiate or traffick: At last the Portugueze laid Hands on some of them to carry them home for a Sample ; and their Dread and Amazement was raised, says Lafiteu, to the highest Pitch, when the Europeans fired their Cannons and Muskets among them, and they faw their Companions fall dead at their Feet without any Enemy at Hand, or any visible Cause of their Destruction.

On what Occasion, or for what Purpose, Cannons and Muskets were discharged among a People harmless and secure, by Strangers.who without any Right visited their Coaft; it is not thought neceffary to inform us.

The Portugueze could fear nothing from them, and had therefore no adequate Provocation ; nor is there any Reason to believe but that they mur


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