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people, for his own glory, and the publick good ; and, to this end, hath armed them with the power of the sword, for the defence and encouragement of them that are good, and for the punishment of evil-doers a.
II. It is lawful for Christians to accept and execute thé office of a magistrate, when called thereunto 6: in the managing whereof, as they ought especially to maintain piety, justice, and peace, according to the wholesome laws of each commonwealth o; so, for that end, they may lawfully, now under the New Testament, wage war upon just and necessary occasions.
Ver. 4. Deliver the
I. a Rom. xiii. 1. Let every soul
c Psal. ii. 10. Be wise now there's be subject unto the higher powers.
fore, ye kings : be instructed, ye For there is no power but of God: judges of the earth. Ver. 11. Serve the powers that be are ordained the Lord with fear, and rejoice with of God. Ver. 2. Whosoever there- trembling. Ver. 12. Kiss the Son, fore resisteth the power, resisteth
lest he be angry, and ye perish from the ordinance of God: and they that
the way, when his wrath resist sirail receive to themselves
but a little : blessed are all they damnation. Ver. 3. For rulers are
that put their trust in him. 1 Tim. not a terror to good works, but
ii. 2. For kings, and for all that to the evil. Wilt thou then not be
are in authority; that we may afraid of the power? do that which
lead a quiet and peaceable life is good, and thou shalt have praise in all godliness and honesty. Psal. of the same :
Ver. 4. For he is the lxxxii. 3. Defend the poor and fa. minister of God to thee for good therless : do justice to the afflicted But if thou do that which is evil, and niedy. be afraid : for he beareth not the
poor and needy; rid them out of sword in vain : for he is the minister
the hand of the wicked. of God, a revenger to execute wrath
xxiii. 3. The God of Israel said, upon him that doeth evil. 1 Pet.-ii. 13.
the Rock of Israel spake to me, He Submit yourselves to every ordinance
that ruleth over men must be just, of man for the Lord's sake : whether ruling in the fear of God. 1 Pet. ii. 13. it be to the king, as supreme; V. 14.
ESee in letter a.] Or unto governors, as unto them
d Luke iii. 14. And the soldiers that are sent by him for the punishe likewise demanded of him, saying, ment of evil-doers, and
for the praise And what shall we do? And he said of them that do well.
unto them, Do violence to no man, II. Prov. viii. 15. By me kings neither accuse any falsely, and be con. reign, and princes decree justice. Ver. 16. By me princes rule, and [See letter a.]
tent with your wages. Rom. xiii
. 4, nobles, even all the judges of the earth. Rom. xiii. 1, 2, 4. [See in
am a man under authority, having
soldiers under me: and I say to this letter.]
man, Go, and he goeth; and to ano
Matth. viii. 9. For I
III. The civil magistrate may not assume to himself the administration of the word and sacraments, or the power of the keys of the kingdom of heaven: yet he hath authority, and it is his duty, to take order, that unity and peace be preserved in the church, that the truth of God be kept pure and entire, that all blasphemies and heresies be suppressed, all corruptions and abuses in worship and
ther, Come, and he cometh: and to the church, let him be unto thee
my servant, Do this, and he doeth as an heathen man, and a publi1. Ver. 10. When Jesus 'heard it,
And Matth. xvi. 19. And I he marvelled, and said to them will give unto thee the keys of that followed, Verily I say unto
the kingdom of heaven : and you, I have not found so great
whatsoever thou shalt bind faith, no, not in Israel. Acts X. 1, earth, shall be bound in heaven : There was a certain man in Cesarea
and whatsoever thou shalt loose called Cornelius, a centurion of the
on earth, shall be loosed in heaven, band called the Italian band, Ver. 2.
1 Cor. xii. 28. And God hath set A devout
man, and one that feared some in the church; first, apostless God with all his house, which gave secondarily, prophets; thirdly, teach
much alms to the people, and pray. Tuled to God alway.
ers; after that miracles; then gifts Rev. xvii. 14. of healings, helps, governments, These shall make, war with the
diversities of tongues.
Are all apostles ? are all prophets ? come them: for he is Lord of lords,
are all teachers ? are all workers and King of kings: and they that
of miracles? Eph. iv. 11. And are with him are called, and chosen,
he gave some apostles, and some Ver. 16. And the
prophets, and some evangelists, ten horns which thou sawest upon
and some pastors and teachers; the beast, these shall hate the
Ver. 12. For the perfecting of the whore, and shall make her desolate saints, for the work of the miniand naked, and shall eat her flesh, stry, for the edifying of the body and burn her with fire.
of Christ. 1 Cor. iv. l. Let a III. € 2 Chron. xxvi, 18. And
man so account of us as of the
Rom. x. 15. And how shall they that are consecrated to burn in- preach, except they be sent ? as it cense : ' go out of the sanctuary,
is written, How beautiful are the for thou hast trespassed; neither
feet of them that preach the gospel
of peace, and bring glad tidings
of good things ! Heb. v. 4. 'And
no man taketh this · honour unto to hear them, tell it unto the himself, but he that is called of church ; but if he neglect to hear God, as was Aaron.
the Lord God.
discipline prevented or reformed, and all the ordinances of God duly settled, administered, and observed'. For the
f Isa. xlix. 23. And kings shall he shall surely be put to death : be thy nursing-fathers, and their and all the congregation shall cerqueens thy nursing-mothers : they tainly stone him: as well the stranshall bow down to thee with their
ger, as he that is born in the land, face toward the earth, and lick up when he blasphemeth the name of sin, dit the dust of thy feet, and thou shalt the Lord, shall be put to death. know that I am the Lord : for Deut. xiii. 5. And that prophet, or they shall not be ashamed that that dreamer of dreams, shall be wait for nie. Psal. cxxii. 9. Be
put to death, (because he hath cause of the house of the Lord spoken to
turn you away from our God, I will seek thy good. the Lord your God, which brought Ezra vii. 23. Whatsoever is com
you out of the land of Egypt, and manded by the God of heaven, let
redeemed you out of the house of it be diligently done for the house bondage, to thrust thee out of the of the God of heaven : for why
way which the Lord thy God com. should there be wrath against the
manded thee to walk in,) so shalt realm of the king and his sons ?
thou put the evil away from the Ver. 25. And thou, Ezra, after the midst of thee. Ver. 6. If thy broe wisdom of thy God that is in thine ther, the son of thy mother, or hand, set magistrates and judges, thy son, or thy daughter, or the which may judge all the people wife of thy bosom, or thy friend, that are beyond the river, all such which is as thine own soul, enas know the laws of thy God; and
tice thee secretly, saying, Let us teach ye them that know them not.
go and serve other gods, which Ver. 26. And whosoever will not thou hast not known, thou, nor do the law of thy God, and the
thy fathers : Ver. 12. If thou shalt law of the king, let judgment be
hear say in one of thy cities, which executed speedily upon him, whether
the Lord thy God hath given it be unto death, or to banishment, thee to dwell there, saying, &c. or to confiscation of goods, or to
2 Kings xviii. 4. He removed the imprisonment. Ver. 27. Blessed be
high places, and brake the images, the Lord God of our fathers, which
and cut down the groves, and brake hath put such a thing as this in
in pieces the brasen serpent that the king's heart, to beautify the
Moses had made: for unto those house of the Lord which is in Jerusalem : Ver. 28. And hath
days the children of Israel did burn
incense to it, and he called it Ne. extended mercy unto me before the hushtan. king and his counsellors, and before
[1 Chron. xiii. 1. to the
9th Verse. all the king's mighty princes; and 26th Verse]
2 Chron. xxxiv, 33. I was strengthened, as the hand of And Josiah took away all the the Lord my God was upon me,
abominations out of all the countries and I gathered together out of Israel chief men to go up with me.
that pertained to the children of Lev. xxiv. 16. And he that blas
Israel, and made all that were phemeth the name of the Lord,
present in Israel to serve, even to
2 Kings xxiii. 1. to the
Lord; and Zebadiah, the son of
better effecting whereof, he hath power to call synods, to
be present at them, and to provide that whatsoever is 18 transacted in them be according to the mind of God .
IV. It is the duty of people to pray for magistrates ", to honour their persons', to pay them tribute and other dues", to obey their lawful commands, and to be subject to their authority for conscience sake'. Infidelity, or difference in religion, doth not make void the magistrate's just and legal authority, nor free the people from their due obe
dience all his days they departed not from
ters: also the Levites shall be of following the Lord, the God of their ficers before you.
Deal courage fathers.
2 Chron. xv. 12. And ously, and the Lord shall be with they entered into a covenant, to
the good. [2 Chron. Chapters seek the Lord God of their fathers, xxix. and xxx.] Matth. ii. 4. And
with all their heart and with all when he had gathered all the chief Gtheir soul ; Ver. 13. That who- priests and scribes of the people
soever would not seek the Lord together, he demanded of theni where fima * God of Israel should be put to
Christ should be born. Ver. 5. And its death, whether small or great, whe
they said unto him, in Bethlehem Liether, ther man or woman.
of Judea': for thus it is written' by 62 Chron. xix. 8. Moreover, the prophet. pots in Jerusalem did Jehoshaphat set
IV.hl Tim. ii. 1. I exhort there. of the Levites, and of the priests, fore, that, first of all, supplications,
and of the chief of the fathers of prayers, intercessions, and giving of idas Israel , for the judgment of the
thanks, be made for all men : Ver. 2. ..om Lord, and for controversies, when
For kings, and for all that are in they returned to Jerusalem. Ver. 9.
authority; that we may lead a quiet And he charged them, saying, and peaceable life in all godliness ob Thus shall ye do in the fear of and honesty: the Lord, faithfully, and with a
il Pet. ii. 17. Honour all men.
Love the brotherhood. Fear God.
k Rom. xiii, 6. For, for this cause
God's ministers, attending continual.
Řender therefore to all their dues; pass not against the Lord, and 50
tribute to whom tribute is due, wrath come upon you, and upon
custom to whom custom, fear to
whom fear, honour to whom hom
I Rom. xiii. 5. Wherefore ye
must needs be subject, not only Ishmael, the ruler of the house
for wrath, but also for conscience
sake. Tit. j. 1. Put them in of Judah, for all the king's mat
mind to be subject to principali.
shall not trespass.
dience to himm: from which ecclesiastical persons are not exempted"; much less hath the Pope any power or jurisdiction over them in their dominions, or over any of their people; and least of all to deprive them of their dominions or lives, if he shall judge them to be hereticks, or upon any other pretence whatsoever o.
ties and powers, to obey magi- people, even as there shall be false strates, to be ready to every good teachers among you, who privily work.
shall bring in damnable heresies
, m 1 Pet. ii. 13. Submit yourselves
even denying the Lord that bought to every ordinance of man for the
them, and bring upon themselves Lord's sake : whether it be to the swift destruction. Ver. 10. But king, as supreme; Ver. 14. Or chiefly them that walk after the unto governors, as unto them that ftesh, in the lust of uncleanness, and are sent by him for the punishment despise government: presumptuous of evil doers, and for the praise of
are they, self-willed, they are not them that do well. Ver.' 16. As afraid to speak eyil of dignities. free, and not using your liberty for Ver. 11. Whereas angels, which a cloak of maliciousness, but as the
are greater in power and might, servants of God.
bring not railing accusation against * Rom. xiii. 1. Let every soul be
them before the Lord. Jude, ver. 8. subject unto the higher powers.
Likewise also these filthy dreamers For there is no power but of God;
defile the flesh, despise dominion, the powers that be are ordained of
and speak evil of dignities. Ver. 9. God. 1 Kings ii. 35. And the king Yet Michael the archangel
, when put Benaiah, the son of Jehoiada, in contending with the devil, (he dishis room, over the host; and Zadok puted about the body of Moses, the priest did the king put in the
durst not bring against him a rail. room of Abiathar. Acts xxv. 9. But
ing accusation, but said, The Lord Festus, willing to do the Jews a rebuke thee.
Ver. 10. But these pleasure, answered Paul, and said, speak evil of those things which Wilt thou go up to Jerusalem, and they know not : but what they there be judged of these things be
know naturally, as brute beasts, fore me : Ver. 10. Then said Paul, in those things they corrupt them; I stand at Cesar's judgment-seat, selves.
Ver. 11. Woe. unto them! where I ought to be judged ; to the Jews have I done no wrong;
for they have gone in the way as thou very well knowest. Ver. 11.
of Cain, and ran greedily after For if I be an offender, or have
the error of Balaam for reward, committed any thing worthy of
and perished in the gainsaying
Core. death, I refuse not to die : but if there be none of these things where.
2 Thess. ii. 4. Who opposeth of these accuse me, no man may
and exalteth himself above all deliver me unto them.
that is called God, or that is worunto Cesar. 2 Pet. ii. 1. But there
appeal shipped; so that he, as God, sitteth were false prophets also among the himself that he is God.
in the temple of God, shewing
Rev. xii. 15.