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On the Formation of Orchards. 559 be deeplý trenched all over. The surface was set out in strips or lifts, of the average breadth of four yards and a half; each trench was marked two feet wide. The whole piece was covered with inferior grass land clover, but the upper soil was an excellent mellow sandy Ioam, a quality calculated to help the working of the young fibrous roots: the second spit was good, but more adhesive in its texture; the third approached to the nature of red-brick earth; under that, there was either chalky marl, or a strong adhesive soil, abounding with Aints. The turf of the trenches was pared off to the thickness of two or three inches : the upper stratum of soil was dug out to the depth of nine or ten inches, and removed to the end of the lift; the second and third spits were then taken out and deposited by the side of the first; this trench was clear to the full depth of two feet; the bottom was then dug and turned, and upon this loosened sub-stratum, the turf was placed in an inverted position, the grass downwards, and the roots uppermost; and upon this inverted turf, common salt, to the extent of at least one pound per trench, was sprinkled: thus, a store of * vegetable manure was provided at the depth of nearly two feet below the surface of the soil. A second trench was then prepared in the same way, its turf reserved, and its upper earth removed and placed by the heaps from the first trench. The intermediate and sub-soil of the second trench were now dug out and transferred to the first trench, and finally, the turf besing pared off a third trench, its upper soil was thrown ngper, the now empty second trench, upon the soil already within the first, and thus, that trench was completed. The surface-earth was left as rough as possible, that it might be benefited by the air and frost. The trees are Gifty-six in number, and planted at the average distances of twelve feet from row to row, and ten or twelve feet apart in the rows, as indicated by the breadth and figure of the ground. The soil within the rows is planted with early and winter potatoes. The trees should be maiden plants ; that is, one year's growth from the graft, that the roots may adapt themselves at as early a period as possible to the soil where they are to remain ; and that the pruner may be enabled to give his trees the form he intends them to assume without difficulty, or the risk of straining their branches. The seasons of planting ought to be limited either to the two last weeks in September, or at latest to the first week in October; or to be deferred till about the middle of March : and the earth should be in rather à moist, but easily pulverised condition. Mr. Reid recommends that the orchard should be " of dwarfs and half standards, and that the trees be cut down “s about half the head." If the planting be done in the spring, the heading-down ought to be performed inmediately, or as soon as the buds begin to swell; but in autumn-planting it will be prudent to defer the operation till the spring. I would urge the planter never wholly to remove a shoot after it has pushed in the spring ; but in preparing for half standards, to train upright, and preserve entire the best leading shoot: then, about the middle of June, to prune, just above a bud, the side shoots, to about half their length, and so to leave the trees during the following winter. In the ensuing spring, just before the buds break, the tier of shortened shoots may be carefully cut down to the stem, but not so low as to injure its bark; it would be better to cut them off with a very sharp knife, close to the level of the bark, and then to gouge out the wood of the shoot to the depth nearly of the bark of the stem, which will soon close the wound. If dwarf-trees are to be formed, four diverging shoots may be selected, and the middle one, if such there be, curtailed in June to one-half, and afterwards treated according to the foregoing directions.

G.J.T.

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VERY bad consequences are likely to arise from drinking cold water when a person is hot, and when bad diseases are prevailing, or are feared, a caution against this practice is particularly needed. The fear of the cholera morbus reaching this country has excited much interest as to the best methods of putting the body into such a state as to guard it as much as possible from liability to disease. In very hot weather, or at any time when the body is much heated, and there is a great desire to drink, it is far better to wait a little while than to swallow a quantity of cold liquid. Indeed, a quantity of liquid does not much quench the thirst, though it fills the stomach: it is far better to wash the mouth with a little water, or to swallow a very little after holding it in the mouth for a time. Some people take a small piece of biscuit, or crust of bread, and the chewing this, and working it about the mouth, is found to excite the saliva, and thus to remove the feeling of thirst.

E. S.

RECEIPTS.

British Herb Tea. Betony, gathered just before flowering.

Another. Balm, alone, or with sage, with a few flowers of lavender. It has a most delicious flavour and taste, but is most agreeable when green.

Another. Ground-ivy, fresh or dry, with a drop or two of lemon juice and a few flowers of lavender.

. . Economical mode of cutting Cauliflowers.

Leave a part on, of the size of a gooseberry, and all the leaves. Second and even third heads will be formed, and thus may be eaten for three or four months. They should be planted in good moist ground, and

U TIIV treated like celery.

QB, JacobTo prevent injury to Stacks by Lightnings VIIT * Place an inverted broken glass bottle on the point where the thatch ends, instead of the spar or pinnacle of reed usually placed there, and which is, except iron, the best conductor of the electric fluid, and the general cause of the accidents from lightning to hay and corn stacks. Whereas glass and sealing wax are non-conductors, and therefore repel the fluid instead of attracting it. See the County Chronicle, quoted in the Times of Aug. 30. 1$31.

ps D 1931 i is van

REFORM.

Ibis druk dira (The following is an abridgment of a Paper on Reform, which has

been sent us. It is written by the Author of Bible Stories," The Empty and Full Loom,&c.)

in "},71? " REFORM !"—Yes, from my heart I desire it; the present order of things has endured too long, it must be brought to a conclusion. Affliction is bowing us to the ground, poverty and “ complaining are in our streets,” sorrow is on every countenance: the time for introducing a better rule is now come ; let us be determined, vigorous, and prompt in laying hold of it.

But what sort of a reform is this which is so much needed? Who are they that are to effect it? and how may we, through God's mercy, engage confidently that it shall be brought about?

My beloved friends and fellow-countrymen, the change I so much long for is nothing less than a gene

in *. Reform. in 15 563 ral reform ; it is the introduction of a new dominion, which shall bring God's blessing upon our country; which shall make the rich friendly and pitiful towards, the poor ; which shall bring the poor into affectionate, dutiful, and happy service towards the rich; and shall unite all classes and all hearts in one love, and in one spirit; a spirit that shall desire England's true prosperity, and ensure it, by engaging the Lord on our sides, with this comfortable reflection, that, “ if God be for is, who" or what “ can be against us.”

Now, what has principally and grievously been against us hitherto has been Sin: our sins as a nation, our sins as rulers and subjects; our sins as private individuals.“ God has noť been in all our thoughts," and because we have not liked “ to retain him in our knowledge,” all have gone, more or less, in the ways. of foolishness, ruin, and misery

But let these things come to an end, for we see and. feel their evils; and may the good Spirit of our heavenly Father give us such grace, that each man, woman, and child," high and low, rich and poor, one with another," may earnestly desire a real, thorough Reformation, and do what in him lies to ensure it to himself! It must be with his own heart that this great work must begin, and, so beginning with one consent, and spreading from breast to breast, families, streets, towns, neighbourhoods, and the whole kingdom, would partake of the benefit. "We hear much of the pride of rulers, of the extravagance of those in high places, of hardness and oppression amongst the great, of caring little for others, and grasping eagerly at power and dominion for themselves. If it be so, it is an evil-by them to be repented of, and amended: by us to be mourned and prayed over.

But as to the pride, the extravagance, the selfishness, and love of power, in those that rule, of which we hear so much,—which of us, my friends, cannot find too much of these within his own heart? which of

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