wishes to act independently of an oecumenical council, contrary to the usage of the church : the second is a more direct attack on the infallibility of the Pope, and reduces his primacy to merely a primacy of honour; and he urges many arguments against the assumed power of the

pope which are perfectly cousistent with the opinions on which the reformers afterwards proceeded. These treatises, Du Pin says, are written with method, perspicuity, and learning. They were at first printed at London in Greek, without date, according to Du Pin, but we have not been able to discover this edition. They were, however, published in English at London, in 1560; or at least the latter of them, under the title “A Treatise containing a declaration of the Pope's usurped primacie; written in Greek above seven hundred yeares since by Nilus archbishop of Thessalonica. Translated by Thomas Gressop, student in Oxford,” 8vo. There are also editions in Greek and Latin at Basil, 1544, Francfort, 1555, and with Salmasius's notes, 1608. Our author also wrote a large work on the procession of the Holy Ghost, in opposition to the Latins.

CABASILAS (NICHOLAS), nephew of the preceding, and successor in the archbishopric of Thessalonica, flourished under the reign of Cantacuzenus, and had all his uncle's prejudices against the Latins. He also wrote “ On the procession of the Holy Ghost; and an exposition of the Liturgy,” in which he delivers the doctrine of the Greek church concerning the mass; and which was printed in Latin at Venice, in 1545, and at Antwerp in 1560; and in Greek and Latin in the “ Bibliotheca Patrum," Paris, 1624. In the same “ Bibliotheca," is also included his “ Life of Jesus Christ,” translated into Latin, and separately printed at Ingolstadt, in 1604. A translation of his work “ against Usury,” is also contained in the “ Bibliotheca.” In the sciences of mathematics and astronomy, he is said to have surpassed all his contemporaries.”

CABASSOLE (PHILIP DE) was a native of Cavaillon, in Provence, where he became a canon of the cathedral, archdeacon and bishop in 1331. He was also honoured with the rank of chancellor to Sancha, queen of Sicily, by her husband Robert, in 1341, and jointly with that princess was regent during the minority of Joan her grand-daughter.

Du Pin.- Leo Allatius in Diatribe de Nilis et eorum scriptis.-Care, vol. II, -Saxii Onomast.

i lbid.


In 1366, be was appointed patriarch of Jerusalem, and had the charge of the bishopric of Marseilles; and at last pope Urban V. raised him to the rank of cardinal, and vicar-general spiritual and temporal in the diocese of Avignon, and while the popes resided at Avignon, Gregory XI. made him superintendant of the papal territory in Italy. He died at Perugia in 1372. He wrote a treatise De Nugis Curialium, some sermons, and two books on the life and miracles of St. Mary Magdalen. Petrarch was his particular friend, and dedicated to bim his treatise on a solitary life; and many of his letters are addressed to him. He is likewise mentioned with high praise by other learned contemporaries.

CABASSUT (JOHN), of Aix, was a celebrated priest of the oratory, who taught the canon law at Avignon, and died September 25, 1685, at Aix, aged eighty one. His chief works are: “Juris Canonici theoria, et praxis," a new edition of which was published by M. Gibert, 1738, fol. with notes; an “ Account of the Ecclesiastical History of the Councils and Canons,” in Latin, the best edition of which is 1680, fol. In the edition of 1670, 8vo, are some Dissertations not to be found in that of 1680. Few ecclesi. astics have been more praised for excellence of private character than Cabassut."

CABEL, or KABEL (ADRIAN VANDER), a painter of landscape, sea-ports, and cattle, was born at Ryswick, in 1631, and became a disciple of John Van Goyen, under whose instruction and example he made a rapid progress in his profession, and by whom his name was changed from Vander Touw to Vander Cabel. He copied nature and designed every object before he inserted any in his compositions. His taste in designing animals and figures was formed after that of Castiglione ; and in landscape his model was the style of Salvator Rosa. His manner is great, and much after the goút of the Italian school. The touchings of his trees are excellent; his figures and animals are very correct, and marked with spirit. Although his different pictures have unequal merit, they are all distinguished by the freedom of his hand, and the fine touch of his pencil. In his colouring he was solicitous to imitate the Caracci and Mola; but the beauty of his design and composition is often injured by too dark and deep tone of

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colouring. His etchings, of which some few remain, are performed in a slight, free style. He died in 1695.'

CABOT (SEBASTIAN), a navigator of great eminence and abilities, was born at Bristol about the year 1477. He was son of John Cabot, a Venetian pilot, who resided much in England, and particularly in the city of Bristol ; and who was greatly celebrated for his skill in navigation. Young Cabot was early instructed by his father in arithmetic, geometry, geography, and those branches of knowledge which were best

calculated to form an able and skilful seaman; and by the time he was seventeen years of age, he had already made several trips to sea, in order to add to the theoretical knowledge which he had acquired, a competent skill in the practical part of navigation. The first voyage of any importance in which he was engaged, appears to have been that made by his father, for the disa covery of unknown lands; and also, as it is said, of a northwest passage to the East Indies. John Cabot was encouraged to this attempt by the discoveries of Columbus. It was in 1493 that Columbus returned from his first expedition; and in 1495, John Cabot obtained from king Henry VII. letters patent, empowering bim and his three sons, Lewis, Sebastian, and Sanctius, to discover unknown lands, and to conquer and settle them, for which they were to be admitted to many privileges; the king reserving to hiinself one-fifth part of the neat profits; and with this single restraint, that the ships they fitted out should be obliged to return to the port of Bristol. It was not till the year after these letters patent were granted, that any preparations were made for fitting out vessels for the intended voyage; and then John Cabot bad a permission from his majesty, to take six English ships in any haven of the realm, of the burden of two hundred tons and under, with as many mariners as should be willing to go with him. Accordingly, one ship was equipped at Bristol, at the king's expence; and to this the merchants of that city, and of London, added three or four small vessels, freighted with proper commodities.

John Cabot, attended by his son Sebastian, set sail with this feet in the spring of the year 1497. They sailed happily on their north west course, till the 24th of June, in the same year, about five in the morning, when they

D'Argenyille.—Pilkington and Strutt's Dictionaries.

discovered the island of Baccalaos, now much better known by the name of Newfoundland. The very day on which they made this important discovery, is known by a large map, drawn by Sebastian Cabot, and cut by Clement Adams, which hung in the privy gallery at Whitehall; wbereon was this inscription, under the author's picture : “ Effigies Seb. Caboti, Angli, Filii Jo. Caboti, Venetiani, Militis Aurati, &c." and on this map was likewise the folJowing account of the discovery, the original of which was in Latin : “ In the year of our Lord 1497, John Cabot, a Venetian, and Iris son Sebastian, with an English fleet, set out from Bristol, and discovered that island which no man before had attempted. This discovery was made on the four and twentieth of June, about five o'clock in the inorning. This land he called Prima Vista (or First Seen), because it was that part of which they had the first sight from the sea. The island, which lies out before the land, he called the island of St. John, probably because it was discovered on the festival of St. John the Baptist. The inhabitants of this island wore beasts' skins, and esteemed them as the finest garments.” To this Purchas adds, “In their wars they used bows, arrows, pikes, darts, wooden clubs, and slings. They found the soil barren in some places, and yielding little fruit; but it was full of white bears and stags, far larger than those of Europe. It yielded plenty of fish, and those of the larger kind, as seals and salmon. They found soles there above a yard in length, and great abundance of that kind of fish which the savages called baccalaos. They also observed there partridges, as likewise hawks and eagles; but what was remarkable in them, they were all as black as ravens.”

The accounts of this voyage made by John Cabot, accompanied by his son Sebastian, are, in some respects, involved in much obscurity; and Sebastian is supposed to have made some voyages of discovery without his father, in the reign of Henry VII. of which no narrations have been preserved. However, it appears that John Cabot, after the discovery of Newfoundland, sailed down to Cape Florida, and then returned with three Indians, and a good cargo, to England, where he was well received. The discovery that he and his son had made, was, indeed, as Dr. Campbell observes, very important; “ since, in truthy it was the first time the continent of America had been seen ; Columbus being unacquainted therewith till his

last voyage, which was the year following, when he coasted along a part of the isthmus of Darien.”

After the voyage in which Newfoundland was discovered, there is a considerable chasm in the life of Sebastian Cabot; for we have no distinct accounts of what he performed for the space of twenty years together, though he probably performed several voyages during that period. Nor have we any account at what time, or in what place, his father John Cabot died; though it is supposed to have been in England. The next transaction concerning Sebastian Cabot, of which we meet with any mention, was in the eighth year of the reign of King Henry VIII. and our accounts relative to this are not very clear. But it seems he had entered into a close connexion with sir Thomas Pert, then vice-admiral of England, and who procured bim a good ship of the king's, in order to make discoveries. It is supposed, however, that he had now changed his route, and intended to have passed by the South to the East Indies; for he sailed first to Brazil, and missing there of his purpose, shaped his course for the islands of Hispaniola and Porto Rico, where he carried on some traffic, and then returned, failing absolutely in the design upon which he went; not through any want either of courage or of conduct in himself, but from the timidity of his coadjutor, sir Thomas Pert.

It was this disappointment which is supposed to have induced Sebastian, Cabot to leave England, and go over into Spain. There he was treated with great respect, and appointed pilot-major, or chief pilot of Spain ; and by his office entrusted with the reviewing of all projects for discovery; which at that period were numerous and import

His great capacity and reputation as a navigator, induced many opulent merchants to treat with hiin, in 1524, about a voyage to be undertaken at their expence by the new-found passage of Magellan to the Moluccos; avd Cabot accordingly agreed to engage in the voyage. He set sail from Cadiz, with four ships, about the beginning of April 1525, first to the Canaries, then to the Cape Verd islands, and from thence to Cape St. Augustine, and the island of Patos, or Geese; and near Bahia de Todos los Santos, or the bay of All Saints, he met a French ship. When he came to the island just mentioned, he was in great want of provisions ; but the Indians treated him with much kindness, and supplied him with provisions for all his


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