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tracted by water is so large that the hay loses one-third of its original value, and probably more, if we consider the fact that after soaking it contains no alkaline salts or phosphates, which act a very important part in assimilation. An animal cannot live on such hay exclusively. It will produce disease and general sickness.

We have also an analysis by Stockhardt, of a hay crop raised near Tha. rand, in 1854, which was left to lie on the meadow 13 days, in alternately wet and dry weatber. Another sample from the same meadow was housed very dry within, three days. The following analyses give a comparison of both: PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION OF THE SUBSTANCE OF HAY FREE OF WATER.

Loss compated

Good bay. Hay rained upon. per 100 lbs. hay Protein substances...



2.1 per cent Sagar ............................... 0.71

0.6 Non. Nitrogenous combinations


9.8 * Woody fibre...


0.0 « 6.1

7.2 100.0 100.02

12.5 Ritthausen analyzed a sample of clover hay on which rain had also fallen several times, and which was saved by being dried on clover racks.


Clover hay Loss calculated clover hay rained upon. per 100 lbs hay. 16.00 16 03

.... per cento Asbes ............

7.50 Woody fibre..


37.24 Protein substance........


15.85 Hydrates of carbon.......


- 100.00

27.4 Assuming the most favorable estimate, 146 lbs. of the hay on which rain fell, are worth as much as 100 lbs. well cured and housed.

OTHER FORAGE PLANTS. There are many other forage plants well worthy of our attention. Men. tion may be made of green rye, vetches, green oats, corn, lupines, kale and cabbage, &c., which are used as substitutes when clover and grass do not suffice, or cannot be had at the right time. Of what are they composed; what is their value as fodder? These natural questions are answered in the following table:

Water .........



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4.3 3.8 9.7) 5.3 ......

7.0 8.6 13.7 5.8

1.2 Emil Wolll. 2.4 Lebmann. 1.4 Eichborn. 3 1 Ritthausen. 2.0 Grouven.

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July 5th Polyganum Siboldii, 2 feet high ...... Plantago lanceolata (Rile grass, English plantain)

28th May ..........: jij 28th May.... Poterium Sanguisorba (Pimpernell) 28th May.... Sinapis arvensis (Charlock, Wild Mustard).... Rumex acetosa (Sorrell) .. Thistles, 1 foot high.... Nettles, Holcus saccharatas.... Sorghum vulgare ........

saccharatum Artichoke leaf (ripe)...... Bragsica napus

to May 22d ........
Kohlrabi leaves
Foderkale 6 lbs..

open .......
closed ...................
outer leaves..

aarvooviOswitcoin: 00 900

2.2 6.6 5.11 1 4 Way. 2.4 7.4 3.4 1.2

7.3 4.4 1.91 8.113.0! 1.6! "

... Pierre 6.3 .. ...

1.3 Moser. 2.9 11.9 6.7 1. " 1.9 12.3 ... 1 7 R. Hoffman. 1.7) 19.2 8 61 0.6 Grouven. 3.3 10.6 3.4 2.7 Boussingault. 3.1 4.6 3.6 1.6 Voelker. 3.1 7.6 3.8 2 Ritthaugen. 2.8 8.9 1.5 1.8 R. Hoffman. 1.8 4.71 2.7 1.3 Ritthausen. 1.4 7.6 2.1 1.3 Kayser.

1.6 Anderson.


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Black vetches, 23d May...

" " 12th July.. Vicia sepium, June 9th. Lentils, end of blooming... Faba vulgaris )Horse bean). Pisum (Field peas) July 9th..

“ Aug. 6th....
" (Garden peas), end of bloom..
Green Oats, July 11th........

a beginning to head ...
16 June 16th.....

1 in full head.............. Rye, June 2d..................

'' May............: Indian Corn in bloom, 31 feet high...... American Indian Corn before bloom 71 feet high.. Austrian " " just done blooming 8 ft.bigb Baden " in bloom ......

85.7) Austrian " " After blooming .......

76.8 Hungarian " " July 16th........... 78.0 Indian Corn cobs ..........

9.2 1. 8.8

QUNnaco Grosso do conto O SINO D

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This table shows the great nutritive value of many forage plants. Acoording to analyses, the grain and pulse plants, (green rye, oats, vetches, lupines), cut before the heads are formed, and also the kale plants, (rape, green kale), must, at least, have as much nutritive value as clover, at the beginning of blooming. This conclusion is very evident to every farmer, from his own experience.

It is an interesting fact, established by Ritthausen's analyses of luxarient and stunted young grain plants, namely: that the dark-green, vigorous forage plants possess more nutritive power than the pale and stunted ones. Liberal manuring and cultivation, therefore, will not only increase the quantity, but also improve the quality, of green fodder.

While clover, meadow grasses, oats, green rape, fodder kale, green vetches and lupines, each present a perfect fodder, since they contain, in a certain quantity of digestible matter, destitute of nitrogen, a sufficient amount of protein necessary for animal life and its practical purposes, may be wholly consumed, and require, except in special cases, no admixture of any other feeding material. This can not be said of corn fodder, an accurate analysis of which is also given in the table. According to analy. ses, corn contains too little nitrogen ; it contains, mostly, in 10 parts of non-nitrogenous matter orly 1 part of protein, while clover, or vetches, possesses from 2 to 3 parts. When, therefore, a milch cow does quite well on clover alone, she will, if fed on green corn alone, lack plastic nutritive matter, which she can equalize only by consuming an abnormal volume, i. e., by an immediate useless secretion of half the amount of sugar and dextrine contained in corn. But it will be difficult, if not altogether impossible, for a cow to consume twice or thrice as much fodder as she gen. erally eats. If she cannot consume such a quantity, her production of milk and meat, and her strength will soon be reduced to its minimum, if she feeds on corn alone. At all events, the feeding on corn alone is wasteful...

This may be avoided, when the daily rations of the animals consist only one-half of corn, and the other half of good green clover or vetch fodder. If this is not to be had, every full adult animal requires, daily, a peck (German peck) of bean meal or pulverized oil cake, for a dry admix. ture. Under these conditions, corn becomes a most excellent fodder for milch cows.

For raising corn, the early varieties are commended by many, such as the Redish and Upper Austrian corn. They are said to yield better crops than the late American varieties, if the former are cut and fed to animals two and a half months after planting, or before the middle of August. But I cannot accede to this opinion, for a comparative analysis which I

instituted this year with two samples of corn, grown side by side of each other, on the same field, at Salzmuende, and planted on the same day, showed the following results :


Amer Corn. Hungar. Corn. Water.........


86.36 Fat and wax........


0.81 Protein substances.


0.96 Sugar .........


1.01 Starch,...


2.28 Woody fibre .....

2.97 Orgunic acids and unknown non-nitrogenous combinations.... 3.81

4.37 Ashes ..................................................



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Thus the economical value of both samples was nearly equal, and the value of the whole crop, therefore, proportionate to its amount.

But the parcel of ground planted in American corn yielded at least onethird more of green fodder than the parcel of the same area, planted in Hungarian corn.

STRAW AND CHAFF OF RIPE GRAIN. Although these productions are far less nutritious than the forage plants already described, yet they are of some importance, since there still are many farms where cattle do not receive any other food during the winter but straw and chaff, i. e., where the farmer is satisfied if it brings them barely alive through the winter.

It is true, cattle may be kept alive on straw and a few turnips, but that is all; for it is out of the question for the animal to produce any ibing, or to be used for any purpose. This may be proved best by a chemical-physiological examination of such forage substances, and is proposed here to be submitted for an examination for the benefit of those cattle raisers who, still adhering to the ancient custom, will not acknowledge that straw oc. cupies a low place among the forage substances.

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Wbeat straw, heads, 6 per cent..................

leaves and leaf sheaths, 26 per cent..
upper half of stalk, 6 per cent ......

lower half of stalk, 62 per oent.... Winter wheat straw..........................


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Pierre. 17.1 301........

Pierre, 14.61 2:4....

Pierre. 15.6 1.5...

Pierre. 14:3 4:0 29.845.0 6.9 Wolf Dietlen. 12:01 1.9 32.5| 48.4 5.3 Rittbausen. 13.3 1.5.... J.... 6.8 Anderson. 26.

0 1.938.1 28.9 5.1 Boussingault.
13.51 3.2 33.1) 443 5.9 Stohmann,
14:31 1.5 26.752 6 4.9 Wolff Dietlen.
14:3 2.2 27.4 50.2 5-9 Wolff Dietlen.
14:3 2.1 25.6 54.9 3.1 Wolff Dietlen.
18.6 1.5| 44.5 32.4 3.0 Boussin gault
17.0 4.1 35.4 39.0 4.5 Grouren.
14:3 1.921.7 54.0 8.1 Wolff Dietlen.
14:3 2.6 23.0523 78 Wolff Dietlen
13.51 371330|42-61 6.5 Ritthausen.
11.7 2.9 40.0 46.3 6.1 Knop.
16.6/ 6.2 30 0 41.11 7.0 Ritthausen.

1.9 32.6 48.4 5.3 Rittbausen.
1.9 45.6) 344 4.0 Boussingault

7.7 24.9 48.3 4.8 Wolff Dietlen.
14:31 2.6 27.5 50 2 54 Wolff Dietlen.
21.2 1.3 27.045.2 5.3 Crusius.
12.01 3.0 33.1| 47.4 4.5 Horsfall.
21.0 1.9 435 30-0 3-6 Boussiogault.
12:11 1.5........ 4.8 Anderson.
16.0 2.8/ 27.1 48.2 5.9 Grouven.
12:61 3:3 42:136.11 5.9 Henneberg.


mixed with clover.
without clover...

Oat straw, mixed with clover..


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Considerable differences are observed in the results of the various analy. ses of straw, and also in the nutritive effect. This may partly be ex plained:

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