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The Camel and the Dromedary.


HESEnames do not make two diftinct Camel.

kinds, but are only given to a variety of the fame animal, which has, however, fub- dromedary. fifted time in memorial. The principal, and perhaps the only sensible difference, by which immemorial? those two races are distinguished, consists in this, that the camel has two bunches apon his principal. back, whereas the dromedary has but one; the latter also, is neither fo large nor lo strong as the camel.

2. These two races, however, produce with patient. each other, and the mixed breed formed between them, is considered the beit the most indefatigapatient, and the most indefatigable of all the ble ? kind. Of the two varieties, the dromedary is, by far, the most numerous: the camel be- Turkey. ing scarcely found, except in Turkey, and the countries of the Levant, while the other is Indies. found spread over all the deserts of Arabia, the southern parts of Africa, Persia, Tartary, and a great part of the eastern Indies,

3. Neither, however, can subsist, or propa. travel. gate, in the variable climates towards the north ; they seem formed for those countries where shrubs are plenty and water Ycarce; impeded ? where they can travel along the sandy defert, without being impeded by rivers, and find food at expected distances ; such a coun- adapted ? try is Arabia, and this of all others, seems the most adapted to the support and produce tion of this animal. 4.

The camel is the most temperate of all temperate ? animals, and it can continue to tiavel several days without drinking. In those vast deserts, where the earth is every where dry and fandy, where there are neither birds nor beasts, nei- vegetables ? ther infests nor vegetables, where nothing is

Pasure. to be seen but bills of fand and heaps of bones

there the camel travels, posting forward, suflenance? without requiring either drink or pasture,

and is often found fix or seven days without

any sustenance whatsoever. travelling 5. Its feet are formed for travelling upon

sand, and utterly unfit for moist or marthy: animal ? places; the inhabitants, therefore, find a most

useful assistant in this animal, where no other conveyance? could fubfilt, and by its means, cross those

deserts with safety, which would be unpala

ble by any other method of conveyance. propagate ? 6. An animal, thus formed for a fandy and

desert region, cannot be propagated in one', of a different nature.

Many vain efforts transported ? have been tried to propagate the camel in

Spain ; they have been transported into A.

merica, but have multiplied in neither. changeable 7. It is true, indeed, that they may be Thes.

brought into these countries, and may, perhaps, be found to produce there, but the care of keeping them is so great, and the accidents:

to which they are exposed, from the changedogonerate ? ableness of the climate, are fo many, that

they c.innot answer the care of keeping. In a few years also, they are seen to degenerate ;

their strength and their patience forsake patience. them ; and, instead of making the riches,they

become the burden of their Keepers.

8. But it is very different in Arabia, and

those countries where the camel is turned to traffic. useful purposes.

It is there considered as a sacred animal, without whose help, the na. tives could neither subsist, traffic, nor travel ;

its milk makes a part of their nourishment clothe.

they feed upon its fleth, particularly when joung ; they cloilie themselves with its hair, which it is seen to moult regularly once a

year, and if they fcar an invading eremy, mou!!? their canıels serve them in flight, and in a

single day, they are known to travel above a bundred miles.


9. Thus by means of the camel, an Ara. Pursuit. bian finds safety in his deserts; all the armies upon earth might be lost in the pursuit of a refuge? flying squadron of this country, mounted upon their camels, and taking refuge in foli. interposes? tudes, where nothing interpoies to stop their flight, or to force them to await the invader.

10. Nothing can be more dreary than the drcary? aspect of the e fandy plains, that feem entirely forsaken of life and vegetation : wherever the eye turns, nothing is presented but a sterilo effet? and duity soil, fometimes torn up by the. winds, and moving in great waves along, which, when viewed from an eminence, re- ftride? fembles lets the earth than the ocean.

11. Here and there a few shrubs appear: that only teach us to wish for the grove, that grove? reminds us of the thade in these lultry climates, without affording its refreshnient ; the return of morning, which, in other places, sultry?. carries an idea of cheerfulness,here lei ves only, to enlighten the endless and dreary: waiteg, forlorn... and to present the traveller with an unfinished prospect of his forlornfituation ; yet, in. this chalın of narure by the heip of the camel, chasm? the Arabian finds safety and subsistence.

12. Thus these deserts, which present the stranger with nothing but objects of danger sterility? and iterility, afford the inhabitant protection, food and liberty. The Arabian lives independent and tranquil in the midit of his fol. tranquil ? itudes , and inftead of considering the vast iol. itudes spread around him as a reltraint upon: his happiness, he is, by experience, taught to ramparts? regard them as

the ramparts of his freedoin. 13. The camel is eally instructed in the methods of taking up and supporting his burden ; their legs, a few days after they are prc- weighs. duced, are bent under their belly; they are in this manner loaded, and taught to rise ; their burden is every day thus increased, by


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Adequate? infenfible degrees, till the animal is capable of

supporting a weight adequate to its force. patient. 14. The fame care is taken in making them

patient of hunger and thirit : while other anithirfi. mals receive their food at stated times, the

camel is restrained for days together, and these Sustaining? intervals of famine are increased in propore

tion as the animal feems capable of sustaining

ftomach. 15. By this method of education, they

live five or fix days without food or water;
and their ftomach is formed most admirably
by nature, to fit them for long abstinence :

besides the four Romachs, which all animals abflinence ? have, that chew the cud, ( and the can el is

of the number ) it has it fth stomach, which
serves as a reservoir, to hold a greater quanti-
ty of water than the animal has an immedia

ate occasion for. reservoir ?

16. It is of a suficient capacity to contain

a large quantity of waʻer, where the fluid recapacity.

mains without corrupting, or without being

adulterated by the other aliments : when the resource? camel finds itielf pressed with thirht, it has

here an easy resource for quenching it ; it adulterated? throws up a quantity of this water by a fim

p!e contraction of the muscles, into the other aliments ? ftomachs, and this ferves to macerate its dry.

and simple £. od. macerate ? :17. In this manner, as it drinks but fel.

dom, it lákes in a large quantity at a time ; travellers. and travellers, when straitened for water,

have been often known to kill their camels
for that which they expected to find within

fraitened? 18. In Turkey, Perfia, Arabia, Barbary

and Egypt, their whole commerce is carried carriage. on by means of camels, and no carriage is

more fpeedy, and none less expensive in these

countries. Merchants and travellers unite Speedy. theruelves into a body, furnished with cam

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