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describes to Francé, " whose boast it We have now a charity sermon for was to set up a standard of depravity the children of St Audeon's school; to the rest of Europe." In speaking the text is taken from Titus iii. 4,--of Britain as the chosen and the ho- “ The kindness and love of God our noured instrument of Providence to Saviour towards man hath appeared." sustain the righteous cause, he has After having shown that the kindness this fine allusion, which must 'have and love of God is manifested in all appeared peculiarly beautiful and ap- his procedure to man, and especially propriate at the time when it was de- in the plan of salvation by Christ, and livered :

applied the subject to the occasion of “ Our progress in this world should be the assembly and of the sermon, he like the march of the Israelites in the closes with this artful and eloquent filderness, and whether God appears in peroration : the illumination of his obvious interposi. “ Beloved, I would speak one word tion, or surrounded in the cloudy pillar of more; I would speak of a man, who, had his darker purposes, still we should be he thus pleaded before you, would have confident that God is with us of a truth, made you alike profuse of your wealth and On this spirit, therefore, which sees good

your tears. In pleading for a public in all things, and good of an higher power charity, I will speak of him; for did I not, and character than mere natural things the • very stones would cry out'-I speak can bestow, I congratulate you my bretli- not of his zeal, his labours; I speak of ren. My Christian brethren, it is our

that eloquence, at the sound of which, as privilege, and the more freely we exercise of a mighty rushing wind, the spirit of it , the more richly shall we feel its conso- charity has descended, and sat upon each lations: it secures us from all things by of the assembly. Let not the decorum of which the world loves to agitate its vapid this place be violated, when I add the energies, and make to itself matter of pain name of Kirwan. Had he addressed you and of importance ; it secures us from the to-day, guilt would have trembled, and pe. importunity of selfish hope, the disappoint. nitence would have wept-every eye had ment of querulous sagacity, and the de- poured forth tears, and every hand been jection of unbelieving despondency ; it ac- lavish of gold. Beloved, is it the advocompanies us through life, dives:ing ca

cate or the cause that moves you? I have lamity of danger, and prosperity of pre• not sought to work on your feelings sumption, giving to the individual strength have stated to you the terrors of the Lord ; to resist the shock that has shaken nations, knowing, that if one soul be brought to and to believe and hope where nature repentance, there will be more joy than if trembles and despairs: nor shall its influ. mountains of gold were heaped in that ence be limited to these elements—it shall aisle.--I have laboured to lay before you not desert us in the hour of death, nor in those principles which can alone make us the day of judgment.” pp. 61, 62. turn from dead works to serve the living

God ; because I know, that at the last day, Of Lord Nelson he thus speaks : not actions but motives will be weighed, “ Blessed be God, who hath given such and that no works are good but those power to men !_not in the cloister, nor in which are the works of love. I have not the cell, nor in those retired and shaded sought to move you by eloquence, or by walks of human life that seemed formed passion ; for the former I do not possess, for knowledge and converse with divine and the latter I despise : but I have sought thingsmit may be found in the blaze of a

to commend myself to you by. manifesta.

tion of the truth.' battle, and in the life of a hero. " I speak of the great person whose

" I will not add another word. May the death has, as on this day, clouded the en. Almighty bless the seed that is sown, that joyment of victory. God only knoweth it may bring forth • fruit to everlasting the heart ; bat if there be any dependence

life.' on those modes by which man wakes his The next sermon in order is on the thoughts and feelings known to man, he influence of the Holy Spirit; the text appears to have furnished an example of from St John iii. 8. From this disthis spirit unequalled it the history of course we select the following exbunais nature to have considered him.

tract:self as called and commissioned for a great purpose, - not by might, nor by power,

“ If it be demanded, how shall a man bu by my Spirit, saith the Lord of Hosts; know whether he is under the influence of and to have fulfilled it with that uniform divine power, or only a perilous illusion of and unmixed ascription of glory to God, the imagination, I answer, not by a single which became him who was conscious of act, however good and laudable—not by a his high destination." pp. 69, 70.

strain of feeling, however intense and vivid

pp. 94, 95,

VOL. VII.

D

OF THE INDIAN ARCHIPELAGO.

-not by any series of devotional acts, REMARKS ON CRAWFURD'S HISTORY however regular and consolatory--but by a conscious change of heart and mind, producing a corresponding change of life

The fine enthusiasm of Sir Wilby a heart dead to the world, and alive liam Jones, associated, as it was, with to God :'-by the whole course and cur- profound scholarship and cultivated rent of life flowing in a new channel, no taste, gave an impulse to the literary longer wearing itself in a fretful struggle exertion of our countrymen in India, against the rocks of life, but a placid, which, in the course of its operation, steady, onward course to eternity." has produced the most important ef

pp. 110, 111. fects. The researches of the Asiatic From these samples of this volume Society, instituted under the auspices of Sermons, our readers will be en of that distinguished individual, have abled to judge for themselves of their shed a tide of light and interest both merit; and, as the extracts are taken on “ man and nature” as they exist, nearly at random from the discourses or have existed in Asia. This instias they stand arranged in the volume, tution has been the means of inducing they may be regarded as fair speci- many persons to observe, and to remens of the author's manner of write cord their observations, who would ing and preaching

otherwise have permitted the favourThe subjects of the other discourses able circumstances in which they were are-The New Year, 1817-On Male placed for extending the limits of our and Female Education - On the Love knowledge, to pass altogether unim. of God-On the New Creation-A proved.

But the valuable papers, Charity Sermon-On Sincerity of Re. which compose the now numerous voligion - On Christian Perfection- lumes of the Transactions of the SoFast-day, February 5, 1812--On the city in Bengal, do not comprise the Example of Christ - On the Atones whole of what has thereby been done ment-On the Promise of the Life for the cause of literature and science. which now is-On the Parable of the It has become the parent of a simiProdigal Son—Reasons for Preferring

lar association, which has also beCommunion with the Church of Eng- gun to publish its Transactions; and land-On the Spirituality of Christ- it is not too much to assert that it has ianity-On the offence of the Cross, inspired individuals with the literary and on the Importance of Searching anbition, and the confidence requithe Scriptures.

site for appearing before the world in These are topics both various and the character of authors: and hence important, and, though none of them

we have soldiers, and sailors, and be handled in the manner of a thesis, of their life in the East, claiming our

merchants, who have spent a portion with an array of arguments, illustrations, objections, and answers, yet

attention from time to time, not meremany pertinent things are said on each ly in regard to their conduct in the of them. In the sermon on Educa- discharge of the duties of their retion much hostility is manifested to spective professions, but chiefly as classical learning. We are the more

antiquaries, historians, naturalists,

and travellers. surprised at this, as the author, in some of his former works, has shown

The author before us belongs to an extensive and intimate acquaint

this class : Having, like multitudes ance with the writers of Greece and of others, gone out to India at an Rome. To be sure, he has a singu- early period of life, his first attempts lar habit at times of alluding to

at authorship were made in the pages some of the most disgusting pas

of the Transactions of the Asiatic Sosages of their writings; but, if his ciety; and having been stationed first own imagination has been disagree

in Prince of Wales' Island, and afterably affected by these, we believe wards in the Island of Java, in situathe world in general have derived from the great writers of antiquity Containing an Account of the Man. no other influences except such as

ners, Arts, Languages, Religions, Instituhave been favourable both to good By John Crawfurd, F. R. S. late British

tions, and Commerce of its lnhabitants. Laste and sound moralitý.

Resident at the Court of the Sultan of Jaya.
With Maps and Engravings. In 3 vols
Edinburgh. Constable and Co. 1820.

1820.] tions highly favourable for observa- viation from that colour is regarded as tion and inquiry, he employed him- & striking singularity. This race is self in collecting the materials, which found throughout the whole extent of he has embodied in the volumes on the Archipelago, but abounds chiefly our table, and which he has entitled in Sumatra, Java, and indeed where the History of the Indian Archipela- ever civilization has made some progo. It is not, however, a chronologi- gress. Their notions of beauty are cal arrangement of events, or a series nearly the same as among ourselves. of disquisitions on the politics of these “ The man that is considered handislands, that constitute the sole, or, some, and the woman that is pointed indeed, the chief subjects, which that out as beautiful by an European, are title includes. On the contrary, the the same that are allowed to be so " character of the Indian islanders,” by their own countrymen.” the arts and sciences they practise or

“ The East Insular negro" (the other cultivate, together with their lan- race) is a distinct variety of the human speguage and religion, are treated of un- cies, and evidently a very inferior one. der distinct heads, as well as what is Their puny statures, and feeble frames, more properly termed their history cannot be ascribed to the poverty of their and political institutions. On all food, or the hardships of their condition, of these, and some other topics, a for the lank-haired races, living under cirgreat deal of valuable information is cumstances equally precarious, have vigor. adduced, and in a sufficiently attrac- qus constitutions. Some islands they en. tive form ; except that we think the joy almost exclusively to themselves, yet matter, in many instances, might have they have in no instance risen above che

most abject barbarism. Whenever they been advantageously condensed; and

are encountered by the fairer races, they that the author would have done well are hunted down like the wild animals of to have avoided many of the specula- the forest, and driven to the mountains or tions in which he has thought proper fastnesses incapable of resistance." Vol. I. to indulge.

pp. 26, 26. The Indian Archipelago contains The Indian islanders are defective three islands of the first rank in point in personal cleanliness, though they of size, namely, Borneo, New Guinea, and Sumatra ; * of the second rank, they are temperate, and even abste.

are fond of bathing. In point of diet Java, and the Malayan Peninsula; mious. Rice, spiceries, and a small of the third rank, Celebes, Luzon, portion of animal food, frequently fish, and Mindanao ; and of a size still in- constitute their ordinary fare. Drunkferior upwards of sixteen. But the

enness is very uncommon among them, relative importance of these islands though at their feasts they occasiondoes not depend on their territorial ally drink to inebriety. They are inmagnitude, but on their situation, dustrious, or indolent, in proportion and productions. “The whole Ar- to their civilization or barbarity ; pose chipelago is situated within the tro

sess a high degree of fortitude, and pics." The grouping of the islands gives rise to numerous intricate straits death. They are slow of comprehen

are generally superior to the fear of and passages, which would be of dan- sion, but

have cars of remarkable degerous navigation, were it not for the licacy for musical sounds. They have pacific nature of the seas, and the no capacity for intrigue, and have a uniformity of the winds and currents. sacred regard for truth. In their exThese islands are inhabited by two ternai deportment they are grave and distinct races of the human species courteous. Though tenacious of their a brown complexioned race, and an rights, they are neither litigious, avaaboriginal negro race.

The first in

ricious, nor rapacious. Hospitality is person are short, squat, and robust. universal among them. These virThe hair of their heads is long, lank, tues, however, are contaminated by barsh, and invariably black: the face their belief in dreams, omens, sorcery, round, the mouth wide, the cheek charms, philtres, and relics. Revenge bones high, the nose, though never is one of the most common of their prominent, is never flat, and the eyes vices: a blow will not for a moment are so uniformly black, that any de- be tolerated : the kris is at hand ready

to avenge the insult. “ The exercise New Holland is excluded, being re- of the right of private revenge, and garded as a Continent

the law which acknowledges it, de

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mand life for life, but both accept a and the handle. Betel boxes are also pecuniary commutation; so that every curiously carved. Their shipping conman's life has its price, and that too sists of vessels, from small canoes holnot a very high one.”

lowed out of the trunk of a tree, to The husband invariably pays a price those of 50 tons burden, but as they for his wife among all the tribes. increase in size, they become unsafe. Women are not immured, but asso- The materials of ship-building are eiate with the men on terms of equa- abundant. lity; and in the island of Celebes Most of the savage tribes of the women are eligible, and are sometimes Archipelago go in a state of perfect raised to the sovereign authority. In nakedness, with the exception of a Java the women are secluded among slight covering suggested by modesty. the better classes, but not very rigid Children of both sexes go entirely ly. Polygamy and concubinage are naked till the age of six or seven years, tolerated, but looked upon as a vici- The habit of those who are clothed is ous luxury of the great. No man a sort of medium between the tight will give his daughter for a second or dress of the Europeans, and the flowthird wife to a person of his own rank. ing robe of the continental Asiatics, Parental authority is exercised to the It is nearly the same in both sexes, latest periods of life, and filial duty The Sarung, or envelope, used in the willingly returned. Fraternal affec- manner of a Scots Highlander's plaid, tion, particularly between children of is universal : below this many wear the same mother, is warm and active. drawers, or pantaloons, and both are The Javanese have a strong attachment fastened by a zone, generally of silk. to the place of their birth, and no- The second general piece of dress is thing will induce them to quit the the coat made in various forms, but tombs of their fathers. Yet the au- which, in the greatest proportion of thor tells us they have not a word in cases, may be described as a frock any of their languages to express with sleeves. The legs and feet are friendship

bare, and a slight species of turban is The houses in some of the islands wrapped round the head.

Flowers, are raised on posts, and are constructa ornaments of gold, and of diamonds, ed chiefly of bamboo, rattan, palmetto are worn on festive occasions. The leaf, and wild grass. Houses are ge- kris, or dagger, the betel box, and the herally grouped into villages, and a umbrella, are constant appendages of town is merely an aggregation of vil- the dress. With the view of improve lages, distinguished by the size of the ing the beauty of their persons, it is public mosque, and the palace of the customary to file and blacken their Prince. The inhabitants sit, and eat teeth, an operation which is performs on the ground; their food is served ed about the age of puberty. A coon trays of wood or brass ; and their loured cosmetic to improve the combeds are benches of bamboo, furnish- plexion is also in use among the civied with a mat and pillow. In cook- lized tribes. On festive occasions, ing they use shallow pans, or pots im- many portions of the dress are laid ported from China. There is not a aside, “and we may truly say of the bridge in the whole island of Java, Javanese, that when in full dress they no sluice of durable materials, no ar are almost naked.” From the age of tificial canals or wells, and no tanks puberty to death, every man is armed or other public works of irrigation. to protect himself, so that these islandThe art of turning an arch is not un ers are strictly an armed population, derstood at present, though it is dis. Besides the kris, the weapons of war covered in the ruins of every ancient used by them are the club, the bow temple. Their manufactures of the and arrow, the tube for discharging loom are of a coarse texture, which arrows (which are sometimes poisoned they dye blue or red. The raw ma- with vegetable juice) and fire-arms, terials of their silk stuffs are brought We must content ourselves with from China. They work well in me- referring our readers to whaç is said tals, and the filagree of the Sumatrans by Mr Crawfurd on the Arithmetic is highly curious. The kris is fabri. the Calendar-the Navigation and cated into a great variety of shapes, Geography—the Medicine—and the and a great deal of ornament is occa- Music-of these islanders, that we sionally lavished both on the blade may leave ourselves room to be somez

what particulat on the subject of their Two descriptions of rice are cultie' agriculture, which we regard as high- vated throughout the islands, the ly curious and important. The rainy plants of the one of which require imseason of the year may be denominat- mersion in water, the other not. The ed the spring, and the dry season the latter kind is sown in the middle of autunn, of these tropical countries. the dry season by dibbling or broadThe diversified character of the sur- cast; that which requires submersion face affords abundance of land of a is sown when the season permits. low and marshy, and of an elevated When the land is watered by artifiand dry, quality. The perennial cial means, it is sown at the pleasure streams, which pour down the sides of the cultivator, so that, “ in one of the high mountains, charged with little field, or rather compartment, the the debris of rocks and the decay of husbandman is ploughing or harrowvegetation, shed a fertilizing influence ing; in a second he is sowing; in a throughout the whole extent of their fourth the grain, is beginning to course

. The alluvial soils of the val- flower; in a fifth it is yellow; and leys are from ten to fifty feet in thick- in a sixth, the women, children, and ness

, and are too rich to need the aid old men, are busy reaping." The raof manure. The degree and the va- pid growth of the grain has enabled riety of the temperature are circum- the Javanese. husbandman, in a few stances, in like manner, highly fa- happy situations, to urge the culture, vourable for the most valuable as well to the amount of six crops in two as the most luxuriant vegetation. A years and a half. fugitive crop of rice is sometimes, ta The stubble is burned, after the ken from patches cleared in the fo- ground has been a short time pasturrests ; this land, pays no rent. The ed with cottle. In some places rice uplands constantly under culture pay, is grown during the wet season ; and, as rent, a third part of the produce. in the dry half of the year, some speThe lands which are flooded in the cies of pulse, farinaceous root, or an course of the periodical rains, and nual cotton, is cultivated. But the those which can be watered by artifi- richer lands are scourged by the evercial, irrigation, yield two crops in the lasting succession of a double harvest year, and pay a rent in proportion to of rice. their value. The buffalo and the ox After rice, maize, which seems an are the cattle commonly employed in indigenous plant, is most extensively the labours of agriculture. A plough, cultivated, and, as an article of food, a harrow, a hoe, a large knife, and a Łas in the islands the same relation sickle

, are almost the whole stock of to rice that oats and barley have to: implements that is required. The wheat in Europe. It is a sure crop, brooks are dammed to cause them to as it grows well in every clime of the overflow the fields; the slopes of the Archipelago; it is also very producmountains are formed into terraces to tive, four or five hundred fold not intercept and retain the beneficial being an unfrequent return. Millet, moisture; and valleys are rendered, and other small grains, are not raised almost impassable, from the frequency in great quantities; but pulses form of the water courses.

an important article of husbandry in

the western islands of the Archipela, " Not an accessible spot is to be seen in go: they are cultivated chiefly as the season that is not covered with a rich green crops after rice. The pulse barvest; and if we take into account the whence soy is manufactured is raised brilliant tints of an equatorial sky,--the to a considerable extent, and requires vicinity of mountains of ten thousand feet skill in the culture. Nutritive roots, high, ibe more elevated portions of which such as the yam, sweet potatoe, Java are covered with forests of perpetual ver- potatoe, arrow-root, and the cominon durez-valleys thickly strewed with groves potatoe, are also extensively cultivatof fruit trees, hiding the cottages of the ed. The varieties of the yam are nupeasantry,—together with the peculiar richness of the rice crop itself, which far merous, and it sometimes grows to excels that of all the other Cercal gramina, the weight of foriy or fifty pounds. We may imagine that rural industry can. The sweet potatoe follows riee as a not well be contemplated, in any portion green crop, and grows to a large size. of the globe, to grea ser advantage.

The manioc of South America has. Vol. 1. pp. 1362, 353. been introduced, and may be seen

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