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of her own choice, the Regent thinks markable woman ae not like each other ; it proper she should have at least one for, amidst their discrepancy, each possesses attendant faithful to his interests; and general features which the eye at once acknowing Roland to be bred in the fa- knowledges as peculiar to the vision which mily of the wise and worthy Knight pur imagination has raised while we read of Avenel

, and recommended by him her history for the first time, and which as a youth of good capacity and ho- rous prints and pictures which we have

has been impressed upon it by the nume. nourable principles, he chooses him to

Indeed, we cannot look on the worst attend, and covertly to watch his un- of them, however deficient in point of exefortunate sovereign. He accompanies cution, without saying that it is meant for Lindsay, Ruthven, and Melville, to Queen Mary; and no small instance it is the island in which he was to share of the power of beauty, that her charms the imprisonment, and watch the con- should have remained the subject not mereduct of Mary Stuart. The march of ly of admiration, but of warm and chival. the stern and rugged Lindsay and rous interest, after the lapse of such a length his party is admirably described. of time. We know that by far the most The page is sent to the island as their acute of those who, in latter days, have precursor ; and here, to use the words adopted the unfavourable view of Mary's of Johnson on another occasion,

character, longed, like the executioner be

fore his dreadful task was performed, to The Queen, the beauty spreads her mourn

kiss the fair hand of her on whom he was ful charms.

about to perform so horrible a duty." II. But we must here have recourse to

pp. 179-182. our author's own words, for no others

The first view we have of the can do justice to the subject.

Queen is in an interview betwixt hier

and the Lady of Lochleven, mother “ Her face, her form, have been so to the Regent. T'hat her treatment deeply impressed upon the imagination, of Mary was harsh and insolent, we that, even at the distance of nearly three know from the history of the times, centuries, it is unnecessary to remind the mast ignorant and uninformed reader of and that Mary was not likely to meet the striking traits which characterize that such treatment with meek forbearremarkable countenance, which seems at

ance, was to be inferred from the once to combine our ideas of the majestic, general teror of her character and the pleasing, and the brilliant, leaving us conduct. Yet there is a bitterness to doubt whether they express most hap- too nearly approaching to coarseness pily the queen, the beauty, or the accom. in this first conference, which grates plished woman. Who is there, at the very upon our feelings, and seems unnemention of Mary Stuart's name, that has cessarily exaggerated. The picture not her countenance before him, familiar of the interview betwixt Mary and as that of the mistress of his youth, or the her revolted barons is admirable, both favourite daughter of his advanced age ? Even those who feel themselves compelled for its force and fidelity; Lindsay's to believe all, or much of what her enemies laid to her charge, cannot think without a

That saw fair Mary weep in vain, sigh upon a countenance expressive of any thing rather than the foul crimes with The homage he pays at parting to her

seems absolutely to scowl upon us. which she was charged when living, and which still continue to shade, if not to spirit and her sorrows, though he had blacken, her memory. That brow, so truly withheld it from her rank and digniopen and regal—those eye-brows, so ré. ty, is well imagined. The whole gularly, graceful, which yet were saved scene, in short, is in the author's very from the charge of regular insipidity by best manner,-a manner from which the beautiful effect of the hazel eyes which he can never depart without mortifythey overarched, and which seem to uttering his countless admirers, and graa thousand histories—the nose, with all its tifying the few who would willingly Grecian precision of outline the mouth, detract from his well won fame. And so well proportioned, so sweetly formed, as if designed to speak nothing but what was

now we enter on the most painful delightful to hear-the dimpled chin—the part of our task, which, because it is stately swanlike neck, form a countenance,

so painful, we shall briefly hurry the like of which we know not to have existed in any other character moving in

Has our author really lost his inesthat high class of life, where the actresses timable secret of successfully grafting as well as the actors command general and fiction on truth,-of preserving the undivided attention. It is in vain to say general outline of historical detail, that the portraits which exist of this re. and filling it up with colouring so

iron eye,

over it.

consistent and well suited, that the gravation of her faults and follies, whole piece seemed as if the colours, yet they afford no ground for supposwhich time had faded, had been mere- ing she could be habitually coarse, ly restored, and the neglected inter- nay gross in her conversation. Sera stices filled up? To Shakespeare, and ting the well known elegance and po: to the author who most resembles lish of her manners out of the

queshim, has that power hitherto been li- tion, her good sense could never have mited. With due and modest re- permitted her to keep up such a perverence for truth, they only permit petual war of words. Well knowing fiction to act as her handmaid, -to the retorts to which she was liable, clothe her where she is too bare or and the danger she incurred by protoo cold;-and to adorn her when her voking an insolent woman armed with vestments are too homely,-or per- so much power, the taunts which haps adjust a becoming veil where she uses towards the mother of Murher features appear too harsh. To ray recoil with double force on the speak without a higure, the broad line memory of her own father. We are of distinction between this writer and disgusted by the improbahility, as all others who have since Shakespeare well as shocked by the coarseness, of attempted the delicate and difficult these too frequent conversations; the task of blending stubborn and well lofty grace and decorum which attendknown facts with the creations of their ed the hard-fated queen to the scafown fancy, is this - They, with ego- fold could not have entirely forsaken tistical conceit, permit their own in- her in her prison. Chesterfield, a ventions to predominate, and bend better judge of manners than of mo. and twist historical facts to suit their rals, bas truly said, that a sneer is an tales. But with our novelist, in time odious thing. Who can fancy the elepast, history has been like the princi- gant Mary Stuart sneering? The scene pal and unaltered stem of the oak, of the supposed poisoning, and all the and his inventions have been like the mean trickery arising out of it, gave ivy that clings round it, or the misle us sensations that we shall not detoe that springs from it, merely adorn- scribe. They did not, however, fall ing it, or concealing the gaps that much short of those Lord Hailes time has made in the original trunk. speaks of, comparing them to those Before we begin our strictures upon he should feel at seeing a son turn his the mode of conducting the story, back in battle. Worse, if possible, befrom the first appearance of Mary, we cause still more unworthy of the aumust enter a protest against the man- thor, is the very superfluous contriv. ners and language assigned to her during ance of forging the keys. How could her residence in the island. The very he violate the truth of history by idea of a queen is so combined with descending to this clumsy expedient? habitual dignity, that we know not Donald Ord, more properly Donald n. how to disjoin it from a kind of lofty Ord, whom he quotes as a precedent, decorum, It is barely possible that was an infant in the time of Monthis queen of grace and beauty might trose’s wars, and took this cognomen, be flippant, but so little probable, that because in his orphan childhood he flippancy from her startles and dis was protected by a smith, who hapgusts. Mary was certainly very incon- pened to be his foster father. He sistentin her conduct; but many others was a gentleman of distinguished aare so in their actions, though not at bilities, and never struck an anvil or all in their manners. With the ex- forged a weapon in his life. His nuception of the letter which she sent merous descendants will not be much to Elizabeth in a fit of desperation, flattered by this account of the mechaafter suffering for eighteen years all nical habits of their respected ancesthat malignity could do to embitter tors. We can barely endure these premisfortune, nothing remains to war- posterous keys, as they are to be the ránt the author in assigning to her instrument of relieving Mary from such manners. On the contrary, she her imprisonment, and ourselves from has been allowed, even by her ene the mies, to have manners the most

Captious art, charming and insinuating, an excel. And snip snap short, and interruption lent understanding, and a temper na

smart, turally mild and benignant. All these imputed to the captive Queen. advantages may be held to be an ag

(To be continued.)

LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE

Lithography.-Nr J. Ruthven of Edin- print on cotton, dresses of greater beauty burgh has succeeded in constructing a than ever were fabricated before. The press on the principle of his patent, which perfection and taste of all their prints Answers most perfectly for printing from must so improve the public judgment, stone. It is free from the disadvantages that coarse and inferior prints must svon that have hitherto attended lithographic be banished from use; and hence the arts presses, and promises to render the art themselves must be greatly improved. very generally adopted throughout Eng Agriculture. Of all the animals which land. Any degree of pressure is at once share with man against his will the fruits brought to bear on the stone by means of of his labours, the weevil in corn is one of the lever. The roller is found to clean the most formidable, on account of its vothe stone from the printing ink at each im- racity, its diminutive size, by which it epression, and the labour of winding the ludes the observation, and its extraordinabed through is much less than by the me. ry fecundity. It is, besides, so impassible, thod hitherto used. By this machine a or tenacious of life, that no means of degreater number of impressions may be struction hitherto employed have been able taken in a day than formerly. One of to extirpate it from buildings in which it them has been for some time at work in was once lodged. Besides its ability to enLondon at the lithographic establishment of dure very long abstinence from food, it Mr Willich, Dartmouth Street, Westmin. braves even aspersion with muriatic acid, ster; where it may be seen by the admirers and fumigation with sulphur : pay, boilof this interesting art. The press has also ing water and brandy are stated not to the advantage of being equally applicable destroy in it the principle of life. As this to copperplate printing.

insect is reported, by French writers on aEngland. Education.-By returns made griculture, to destroy annually a tunth, up to the 1st of May last, it appears that and sometimes even a fifth part of the har. there are in England and Wales 37,332 vest, a simple, easy, and cheap mode of schools of all descriptions, in which are effectually destroying it has long been educated 1,571,372 children of both sexes, sought, but without success. a French or about 42 to a school. It is specified gentleman, of the name of Chenest, apthat 18,276 of these schools are initiatory, pears to have really discovered such a me. and that 14,192 are English or commercial thod. He has applied it with complete schools, of which 8375 are for females. success in various places in France, and has It also appears that the church catechism received the most satisfactory testimonies is taught in 22,581 schools ; that the sys- from the Mayors and other persons who tems of Bell and Lancaster have been have witnessed the results of his experimore or less adopted in 1411; that Phillips's ments. He has also laid his plan before interrogative system of questions without the Royal Agricultural Society, which apanswers has been introduced into 3682; pointed a committee to examine the truth and Pestalozzi's system of oral analysis of his statements. The Committee, after a into 7; that the French language is taught series of successful experiments for seven in 7520; and the dead languages in 3327. years, declared that the method perfectly The number of persons employed in educa- answered the purpose : and Count de Cation, as master, governesses, assistants, and zes, as Minister of the Interior, recommend private tutors, is estimated at 56,:30. ed the Prefects to make the invention

Engraving. The Siderographic print- known. Mr Chenest is, we hear, now in ing and engraving establishment of Messrs England, and intends to submit his invenPerkins, Fairman, and Heath, has been tion to the Board of Agriculture.—Lit. commenced in the house in Fleet Street, Gaz. late Parker's Glass Manufactory, with Corsicaurum.-A new mineral earth has every prospect of splendid success. Al. been lately found in Corsica, thought to be ready they have eugaged to manufacture impregnated with particles of gold. By Bank Notes on their inimitable plan for chemical operation, vases have been made several Yorkshire and other banks; and of it, for table services, and it is found to they are also preparing various engravings vie in colour and lustre with the finest for popular books, as maps and views for vermilion. The name of Corsicaurum Goldsmith's Geography, frontispiece to has been given to it ;-it has the property Mayor's Spelling Book, and a solar sys. of not discolouring white stuffs, which is tem for Blair's Preceptor, all of which not always the case with gold, the most will have proof impressions of their en purified and refined. gravings, though tens of thousands are Succeduneum for Leeches.-M. Salanrald annually. Over and above these ap- diere, physician, has invented an nstru. plications, they are making preparations to ment to serve as a succedaneum for Leecher

кk

VOL, VII.

It possesses considerable advantages ; mea Mr Giardin, the French Ambassador at suring exactly the quantity of blood to be Constantinople, has sent to Paris fifteen taken, causing the fluid to move with valuable works in Arabic from the Impegreater or less rapidity on a determinate rial Library at Constantinople, among scale, and producing an effect called by which are the complete works of Plutarch the physicans resolving, much superior to and Herodotus ! the leech. It has nothing to disgust, like The works of Aristotle, Hippocrates, Li. those animals, excites little or no pain, and vy, Tacitus, Sallust, &c. are known to it may be used in all countries and at all have been translated into Arabic, and might seasons.

be discovered and purchased by well-directFrance.- From a late publication of ed search after them, at Fas, Morocco, or the Academy of Sciences in Paris, it ap some other ports of West or South Barba. pears that Paris contains 714,000 inhabit. ry.--Mr Jackson, in his recent travels in ants, of which 25,000 are not domiciled. those countries, annexed to Shabeeny's The average number of births annually is Account of Timbuctoo and Housa, page 21,000, and of these the proportion of 325, says, “ It is more than probable, that male to female is 25 to 24. The con the works of many Greek and Roman aus sumption of bread annually is 113,880,000 thors, translated during the æra of Arabian kilogrammes ; of oxen, 70,000; of heifers, learning, are to be found in the hands of 9000 ; of calves, 78,000 ; of sheep, 34,000; literary individuals, in several parts of of swinc, 72,000 ; of eggs, 74,000,000 ; West and South Barbary !"-Lit. Gaz. of pigeons, 900,000; of fowls, 1,200,000 ; Germany. The Germans, we are happy of wine, 870,000 hectolitres.

to see, are beginning to fill up a most imFrench Theatres. The theatres in France portant vacancy in their Literature. Hither. have long been under the immediate con to they have been almost destitute of Bio. trol of the government, and various regu- graphy, and comparatively few of their lations have at different periods been great men have been transmitted to pos. made respecting them. In November terity in a manner worthy of them. We, 1796, a decree was passed, and which still in fact, know no one good Biography comcontinues in force, enacting, that a de- posed in German, and even the lives of cime on every franc of the price of admis- Schiller, Fichte, Mendelsohn, are yet very sion at all places of public amusement imperfectly written. The long notices te should be collected for the use of the poor lative to authors and professors, which are -that is, one tenth part of the receipts. given in all the German Reviews, seem to The following is the produce of the duty have contented curiosity in this most importin francs for 3 years, 24 francs to a pound ant point. There has lately, lowever, appear. sterling

ed the Biographies of three celebrated men, 1814. 1815. 1816. and they will nodoubt stimulate the Germans Theatres. 446,551 449,038 452,635 to more attempts in this agreeable species Petes Publiques 13,383 13,614 10,887 of writing. The life of Kraus, a celebrated Balls

5443 5675 6013 political economist and philosopher, disConcerts

4763 8021 5922 tinguished as the opponent of Kant, was Soirees Amusantes 2341 2713 4362 published at Königsberg (where he was Panoramas 3551 2613 2511 professor) in 1819. The life of the amia. Petits Spectacles 2635 3636 8608 ble Jacobi, formerly President of the RoyCuriosities 6470

6516 6420 al Society of Sciences at Munich, was Total : 485,137 491,826 497,358 published there in 1819; and the life of Italy.The excavators have just disco. the celebrated bookseller of Berlin, and vovered, near the forum of Pompeii, a pub luminous author Nicolai, was published lic edifice which is supposed to be the there in the early part of this year. All Chalcidicum, and an inscription import- these are men who had much influence on ing that the edifice was built at the ex. the taste and genius of their country; and pence of the priestess Eumachia. A few we hail these productions as the dawn of days after the above discovery, a statue of an elegant literature, (not fable,) which athe same priestess was found in perfect muses as much as the best invention, and preservation; which far surpasses in grace, leaves none of those vain wishes which the elegance, and grandeur, all the works of ideal perfections of the poets never fail to art that had previously been dug from the cause. Nicolai has been accused of Illuruins of Pompeii.

minatism. He was at least conspicuous in The Classics in Arabic.—The learned the controversy about secret societies in the world may reasonably expect, in a few latter part of the last century; and the preyears, complete and perfect translations of sent biography ought to contain some good Plutarch, Sallust, Livy, Tacitus, Aristo- materials for forming a correct opinion on tle, Hippocrates, &c. from the Arabic; this doubtful point of History, the French have been lately assiduous in A Biography has been published at Cotheir researches after such Arabian trea- penhagen, of Peter Hörberg, a celebrated sures.

Swedish painter. He also wrote luis own

life, which has been translated into Ger- must be nearly the same as in other flat man; and from a review of the two works countries. in a German periodical publication, we ex Vinegar.-Mr Stotze, apothecary at tract the following account of him. Halle, has discovered a method of purify

He was born, in 1746, at Vierstadt, in ing vinegar from wood by treating it with Smaalland, of very poor parents, and was sulphuric acid, manganese, and common so weak that he did not learn to walk be- salt, and afterwards distilling it over. For fore he was four years old. His father this method he has obtained a prize from taught him to write. His infancy was the Royal Society of Gottingen. This genpassed tending cattle and asking alms, and tleman has likewise verified the method even in this situation he amused himself proposed by Professor Meineke in 1814 of carving, on the bark of trees, a representa- preserving meat by means of vinegar from tion of every thing he saw or could imagine. wood, and by continued treatment with the At the age of eighteen, he was bound ap- same acid has converted bodies into mumprentice to a common painter, and after the mies. usual time of apprenticeship, and being Prussia.--The official Gazette of Berlin some short time a journeyman, he became contains some statistical data of the Prusa master, and was appointed district paint. sian monarchy, according to authentic reer at Almisäkra, where he soon afterwards ports made in the course of the year 1819. married a servant who was neither hand. From these it appears that all the states of some nor sensible. He followed his pro- this monarchy, not including the princifession here till 1783, when the wish to pality of Neufchatel, comprehend a space gain more knowledge of his art drove him of 5014 geographical square leagues, (15 to Stockholm, and here he excited much to a degree of the equator, equivalent to notice, received some attention, and at 25 French lea: ues,) or 107,765,760 acres, length obtained a small pension from the Rhenish measure, with 10,800,112 ingovernment. He passed the remainder of habitants, including the military. All his days at Finspáng, in Ost Gothland, un- the great bodies of water do not occupy a der the particular protection of a Barou de space above 2,202,541 acres, which constiGeer. He died here in 1816, at the age tutes about the 49th part of the whole surof 70. Though a complete peasant in his face. It results from a late census by the manners, he left behind him a great num- police, that, at the end of 1818, the populaber of paintings, particularly altar-pieces, tion had augmented to the number of 75,000 which are much esteemed. He necessarily persons ; this is ascribed to foreigners that wanted all the accomplishments which a have settled in them. At Berlin alone regular education supplies, but all his pic, were enumerated 1042 males, and 1728 tures display a vigorous imagination, rich- females, that in the year 1819 arrived ness of thought, and clearness of concep- there, to offer their services as domestics. tion. His manner was formed before he Sweden. According to the last census, visited Stockholm, and it was observed that taken in 1819, the population of the king, there was little difference in his works be- dom of Sweden amounted to 2,543,412 fore and after receiving instruction. He inhabitants. The amount of the registers painted, to use his own expression, “ as of what is called the civil state of Stockhis humour directed him, and as God had holm, for the year 1819, has produced a taught him."

result unfavourable for the population, Milk Professor Schubler has published The births were 2329, and the deaths 3238; " Researches on Milk and its constituent a diminution therefore has taken place of Principles." The results of his analysis 909 individuals. Almost one half of the differ greatly from those lately published children are born out of marriage. Out by Berzelius ; and hence, in the author's of three children, one has invariably died. opinion, prove the great influence of food The marriages have been 504, and the and climate on the lacteal secretion. 1000 divorces 24. parts of new milk contain 110 of fresh Africa. The settlement at Algoa Bay cheese, 50 of fresh serai, 24 of butter, 77 has been accomplished. The John trans of coarse sugar of milk, and 739 of water; port, which took out 600 settlers to Algoa or, in a dry state, 42.6 cheese, 7.87 serai, Bay, from Lancashire, has returned. “ We 24-0 butter, 77.0 sugar of milk, and 848. have,” says a correspondent, “ arrived at 53 water. 1000 parts of skimmed milk Algoa Bay, after a tedious passage. I contain 43.64 dry cheese, 8.06 dry serai, have been up the country as far as Graham's 78.94 sugar of milk, and 869-34 water. Town, and a more delightful one cannot 1000 parts of cream contain 240 butter, be conceived. The proper officer has a 33 cheese, 6 serai, and 721 whey. Lastly, surveyed government plan before him of 72) parts of whey contain 60 coarse sugar the intended settlement, marked out in of milk. These observations were made at lots, of from 100 to 10,000 acres. Every Hofwyl, which is some distance from the lot has a good spring of water, and very mountains, and where the cows are kept well wooded. Every follower is allowed constantly in the stable, so that the milk 100 acres; the quantity of land is sought

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