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9 Acts v. 19. preached every where, the Lord working with them, and 26. Heb. confirming the word with i signs following. [k Amen.]] i render, the signs that followed.

k omit. every where] No inference ternal evidence, see as above. As to its can be drawn from this word as the genuineness as a work of the Evangelist date of the fragment. In Acts ix. 32 Peter Mark, (2) internal evidence is, I think, is said to have “passed throughout all very weighty against St. Mark's being the (quarters)...:” — the expression being author. No less than twenty-one words and only a general one, indicating their per- expressions occur in it (and some of them formance, in their time and degree, of our several times), which are never elsewhere Lord's words, into all the world.

used by St. Mark,—whose adherence to the Lord, i.e. Jesus : see Matt. xxviii. 20 : his own peculiar phrases is remarkable. Heb. ii. 3, 4, which last passage some have (3) The inference therefore seems to me to absurdly supposed to have been seen and be, that it is an authentic fragment, used by our Evangelist. The two words placed as a completion of the Gospel in rendered following (here and in ver. 17) are very early times : by whom written, must compound verbs, and both foreign to the of course remain wholly uncertain ; but diction of St. Mark, often as he uses the coming to us with very weighty sanction, simple verb.

and having strong claims on our reception A few concluding remarks may be added

and reverence.] respecting vv. 9-20. (1) For the ex

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THE GOSPEL

ACCORDING TO

L U K E.

I. 1 FORASMUCH as many have taken in hand to set forth in order a a declaration of those things which are most

a render, narration concerning. CHAP. I.1-4.] PREFACE, ADDRESSED TO Introduction to Luke. (4) I believe the THEOPHILUS. The style of this preface is only probable interpretation of the words purer Greek than the contents of the Gospel, to be, that many persons, in charge of and also more laboured and formal.— This Churches, or otherwise induced, drew up, may be accounted for, partly because it is here and there, statements (narratives) of the composition of the Evangelist himself, the testimony of eye-witnesses and minis. and not translated from Hebrew sources ters of the word (see below), so far as they like much of the rest, and partly because themselves had been able to collect them. prefaces, especially when also dedicatory, (I do not believe that either the Gospel are usually in a rounded and artificial of St. Matthew or that of St. Mark is to style. 1. many] Much depends on the be reckoned among these ; or if they are, meaning of this word, as guiding, or modi. that St. Luke had seen or used them.) fying, our opinion on the relation and That such narratives should not have come sources of our Gospel histories. (1) That down to us, is no matter of surprise : for the writers of our present Gospels ex- (1) they would be absorbed by the more clusively cannot be meant, is evident; complete and sanctioned accounts of our since, even supposing St. Luke to have present Evangelists; and (2) Church traseen all three Gospels, one (that of St. dition has preserved very few fragments of John) was wholly, and another (that of authentic inforination of the apostolic age. St. Matthew) was in greater part, the It is probable that in almost every Church production of an eye-witness and minister where an eye-witness preached, his testiof the word,—which would leave only one mony would be taken down, and framed for the many. (2) Apocryphal Gospels ex- into some narrative, more or less complete, clusively cannot be meant : for they would of the life and sayings of the Lord. not be · narrations concerning matters fully have taken in hand] This does not nebelieved among us,' nor delivered by eye- cessarily imply the insufficiency of such witnesses and ministers of the word,' a narrations, as some have imagined. The great part of their contents being excluded fact of that failure is indeed implied in by this very author from his own narra- St. Luke's description of his own worktion. (3) A combination of these two but that, more because it possessed commay be intended- e. g. of the later sort, pleteness (whereas they were fragmentary) the Gospel according to the Hebrews,- than from any difference in kind. of the former, that according to St. Mark, to set forth in order] more properly, to but then also how shall we make out the draw up,- to arrange.

a declaramany ? Our present apocryphal Gospels tion] a setting forth : and so if in relation arose far later than any likely date which to things past, a narration-history. can be assigned to St. Luke's Gospel : see surely believed] According to some, this

a Heh. ii. 3.

1 let. v. 1. 2 Pet. i. 10.

c Acts 1.1.

e Matt. il. 1.

surely believed among us, 2 a even as they delivered them Pont unto us, which from the beginning were eyewitnesses, John wv.27. and ministers of the word ; 3 it seemed good to me also,

having bhad perfect understanding of all things from the

very first, to write unto thee in order, most excellent d John 11. 31. Theophilus, 4 d that thou mightest know the certainty of

those bb things, wherein thou hast been instructed.

5 There was in the days of Herod, the king of Judæa,
b
render, traced down.

bb render, sayings. o render, wast. word means, fulfilled. But the A. V. has having traced down] by research, the more likely rendering. Meyer would and so become accurately acquainted with. render it, 'which have found their com

from the very first-i. e. as in pletion among us,' i.e. 'us of the apostolic ver. 5 ;-as distinguished from those who times;' meaning · Theophilus and him. only wrote of the official life of the Lord, self,' &c.

among us, i. e. us Chris. or only fragments perhaps of that. tians, you and me, and all members of the in order] i. e. consecutively. By this Church of Christ-so also the unto us word we must not understand St. Luke to in ver. 2. 2.] The Apostles, &c., deli- lay claim to any especial chronological vered these matters orally to the Churches accuracy in writing ;-which indeed is not in their teaching (see below on ver. 4), and found in his Gospel. He traced the events others drew up accounts from that cate- in order as they happened : but he may chetical instruction. It appears from this, have arranged them as other considerathat St. Luke was not aware of any

tions led him. most excellent Theonarration drawn up by an eye-witness or philus] It is wholly unknown who this minister of the word. Their account of person was. The name was a very comthese matters was a tradition, from which

The conjectures about him are the narrations were drawn up. He can- endless, and entirely without value. It not therefore have seen (or, having seen, appears by the title given him, that he not recognized as such, which is highly was a person of dignity, and of course, improbable) the Gospel of St. Mattheu. from ver. 4, he was a convert to Chris. Compare 1 John i. 1-3. from the tianity.

The idea of the name being beginning] Not, from the very begin. not a proper, but a feigned one, designing,' i. e. the birth of the Lord, &c., but nating those who loved God' (found as from the official beginning : see Acts i. early as Epiphanius, and adopted again 21 f. It differs from from the very first recently), is far-fetched and improbable. below. eyewitnesses most probably 4. instructed] Theophilus had then stands alone : but it may well be taken been orally instructed in the narratives with of the word (see below). minis. which form the subject of this Gospel : ters, i. e. ministering servants—but in and St. Luke's intention in writing it is, connexion with from the beginning. that he might have a more accurate knowo. of the word-not, the personal word' ledge of these histories. The word means (i. e. Christ : so Orig., Athanasius, Cyril, literally, catechized, catechetically taught.' Euthym.), which would be altogether alien

those sayings] not, as in A. V., to from St. Luke's usage (see on Heb. iv. 12): be rendered “things: neither the Greek but, the word,—'the word preached : nor the corresponding Hebrew word ever we have the expression the ministry (but has this meaning, as is commonly but there diaconia) of the wordin Acts erroneously supposed.

In all the comvi. 4. 3. it seemed good to me also] monly-cited examples of this, 'things erSt. Luke by this classes himself with these pressed in words ' are meant : here, the many, and shews that he intended no dis. histories, -accounts. paragement nor blame to them, and was 5—25.] ANNOUNCEMENT BY GABRIEL going to construct his own history from

BIRTH OF Joun. Peculiar to similar sources. The words which follow Luke. The style in the original now imply however a conscious superiority of totally alters and becomes Hebraistic, sig. his own qualification for the work. There nifying that the following is translated or is here no expressed claim to inspiration, compiled from an Aramaic oral narration, but at the same time no disclaimer of it. or perhaps (from the very distinct charac

mon one.

OF THE

xxiv. 10, 10. Neh. xii. 4, 17.

3. Job i. 1.

28. i Chron.
xxiii. 18.
2 Chron.

k Lev. xvi. 17.

Rev. viii. 3,

a certain priest named Zacharias, fof the course of Abia : s1 Chron. and his wife was of the daughters of Aaron, and her name was Elisabeth.

6 And they were both & righteous before 8 Gen vil. 1: God, walking in all the commandments and ordinances Kings is. of the Lord blameless. 7 And they had no child, because Acts inili. 1: that Elisabeth was barren, and they both were [a now] e well Phil. tii. 6. stricken in years. 8 And it came to pass, that while he executed the priest's office before God h in the order of his b 1 Chron. course, according to the custom of the priest's office, his Chron vil. lot was i to burn incense when he went into the temple of i Exod. Sam. 21. the Lord. 10 k And the whole multitude of the people were praying without at the time of incense.

11 And jxix 11. there appeared unto him an angel of the Lord standing on the right side of the altar of incense. 12 And when 1 Exod. III. 1. Zacharias saw him, m he was troubled, and fear fell upon us. Dan: him. 13 But the angel said unto him, Fear not, Za- chien charias : for thy prayer is heard ; and thy wife Elisabeth Rev. 1. 17. shall bear thee a son, and "thou shalt call his name John, n ver. 60,65.

domit : not in the original.

e literally, far advanced in their days. ter of these two first chapters) document. holies on the great day of Atonement,

5. of the course of Abia (Abijah)] Levit. xvi. But this is manifestly an This was the eighth of the four-and-twenty error : for it would necessitate Zacharias courses of the priests (see ref. 1 Chron.). having been high priest, which he never These courses kept their names and order, was; and in this case there would have though not their descent, after the cap- been no casting of lots. 11.] The tivity. The courses were of a week's altar of incense, Exod. xxx. 1, must not duration each.

Elisabeth) This is be confounded with the large altar of the Septuagint rendering, Exod. vi. 23, of burnt-offering : that stood outside the holy Elisheba, the wife of Aaron : signifying, place, in the court of the priests. It was God (is my) oath : i. e. a swearer by, during the sacrifice on the great altar that worshipper of, God. John was thus of the daily burning of the incense took place: priestly descent by both parents. 9.] one of the two priests, whose lot it was This was the most honourable office which to offer incense, brought fire from off the was allotted among the priests each day, altar of burnt-offering to the altar of and the same person could not serve it incense, and then left the other priest more than once. the temple] the there alone,—who, on a signal from the holy place : see Heb. ix. 1-6, and Exod. priest presiding at the sacrifice, kindled Xxx. 7.

An account of John Hyrcanus the incense : see Exod. xl. 5, 26. the high priest having a vision at the time This is no vision, but an actual angelic of offering incense is given in Josephus : appearance. The right is the favourable see the extract in my Greek Testament. side: see Matt. xxv. 33. “ We must unThere also we are told that the people were derstand the right as regarded the officiaoutside in the courts of the men and ting priest, who stood with his face to the women) :their prayers were offered while altar. It would thus be on the N. side the incense was burnt, as the smoke was of the holy place, where the table of shewsymbolical of the ascent of prayer, Rev. bread stood, whereas on the S. side was viii. 3, 4. It appears, from the allot- the golden candlestick,” Bleek. ment having been just mentioned, to have He had then prayed for a son—but as been the morning incense-burning. Theo- appears below, long since--for he now had phylact and others understand the whole ceased to look for an answer to his prayer. as describing the entry into the Holy of Many Commentators have thought his

13.]

o ver. 68.

ch. vii. 33, 9 Jer. i. 5.

Gal. i. 15.

. Mal. iv. 5.

Matt. xi. 14.
Mark ix. 12.

ix. 21 - 23. Matt. xviii. 10. Heb. i. 14.

14 And I thou shalt hare joy and gladness; and many shall

rejoice at his birth. 15 For he shall be great in the sight P Num. via of the Lord, and P shall drink neither wine nor strong

drink; and he shall be filled with the Holy Ghost, 9 even I Mal. iv.5, 6. from his mother's womb. 16 r And many of the children

of Israel shall he turn to the Lord their God. 17 s And he shall go before him in the spirit and power of Elias, to turn the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just; to make ready a

people prepared for the Lord. 18 And Zacharias said unto + Gen. xvii

. 17. the angel, Whereby shall I know this ? for I am an old u Dan. viii. 10:

man,

and my wife 8 well stricken in years. 19 And the angel answering said unto him, I am Gabriel, that stand f better, he shall be to thee.

& see on ver, 7. prayer was for the salvation of Israel by i. e. the Lord their God," manifest in the the appearance of the Messiah : but the flesh. De Wette denies this interpretaformer view appears more probable. tion, as contrary to all analogy: and yet John--i. e. God is favourable: we have himself explains the expression by saying it under the form of Johanan, 2 Kings that what the Messiah does, is in Scripxxv. 23; 1 Chron. iii. 24; 2 Chron. xxviii. ture ascribed to God as its doer (similarly 12. 14.] The words of the original Meyer). But why? because Messiah is here may be rendered two ways--either GOD WITH US. This expression is besides there shall be to thee, i. e. thou shalt used (see Zech. xiv. 5) in places where the have, as A. V.: or, he shall be to thee, undoubted and sole reference is to the ... joy and gladness. 15. in the Messiah. in the spirit and power] sight of the Lord] signifying the spiritual As a type, a partial fulfilment, of the pernature of his office and influence. The sonal coming of Elias in the latter days priests were similarly prohibited to drink (see note on Matt. xi. 13, 14). Bleek strong drink ; and the Nazarites even remarks that it was not in the wonder. more rigidly. strong drink] the word working agency of Elias that John was is sikera—'any strong liquor not made like him, for “ John did no miracle," -- but from grapes.' Wiclif renders, he in the power of his uttered persuasion. schal not drynke wyne ne sidir.'

to turn ....] The first member only shall be filled with the Holy Ghost is a of the sentence corresponds with Malachi. contrast to, and a reason for, the not The angel gives the exposition of the drinking wine nor strong drink : compare

second member, - - which stands in the Eph. v. 18. Olshausen and Meyer LXX," and the heart of a man towards think that comparing ver. 44) the mean- his neighbour” (in A. V. "and the heart ing is, the Holy Spirit should in some of the children to their fathers');for wonderful manner act on the child even of course that must be understood in the before his birth. But this is not necessary, better sense, of the good prevailing, and ---nay, would it not rather be in this case the bad becoming like them.

he

18.] " in his mother's womb ....?The The birth of John, involving human genefrom seems to fix the prior limit of the in- ration, but prophetically announced, and dwelling of the Spirit, at his birth. supernatural, answers to the birth of

16.] The work of John was Isaac in the 0. T. But Abraham's faith one of preparation and turning men's was a strong contrast to the unbelief of hearts towards God. For full notes on Zacharias: see Rom. iv. 19. an old his office, see on Matt. xi.

man] The Levites (see Num. iv. 3 ; vii. suffice here to repeat, that it was a con- 24, 25) became superannuated at the age centration of the spirit of the law, whose of fifty : but it appears, by extracts from office it was to convince of sin : and the Rabbinical writings given by Lightthat he eminently represented the law and foot, that this was not the case with the the prophets in their work of preparing the priests. 19. Gabriel] meaning, Man of way for Christ. 17.] before him- God: see Dan. viii. 16; ix. 21, also Tobit

It may

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