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the northern part of Georgia, and advanced like autumn mists. to the Kour. The centre of his army, which bizond correspondent of a French journal, he commanded in person, was at Achalgori "never has there been a better opportunity on the 28th of August; the right wing, of judging of Russian weakness, and of the under the Emir Hassan Enim, was at Gori, facility with which the allies of Turkey may, on the Kour, at the same date; and the when they wish, put an end to Russian doleft wing, under Emir Chupli Enim, was at mination in the trans-Caucasian provinces. Mycht, a little to the north of Teflis. A Not only is the army of Georgia incapable battle ensued; but the Russians, who were of undertaking anything against the Ottocompletely taken by surprise, fled after a man territory, but no sooner does it leave very feeble resistance. The reverse of the Teflis than it is obliged to return, in order Russians did not end there, for while they to protect that capital of the Russian poswere in retreat, the Turks plucked up their sessions against the incursions of the Tchercourage, resumed the offensive, fell upon kesses (Circassians.) A division of Eurothe rear-guard of their enemy, and revenged pean troops, commanded by an able chief, themselves for their recent defeat. Thus and concerting his operations with the Turks ended the Asiatic campaign of 1854; and on one side, and with Schamyl on the other, the fears which had been entertained that would very soon reduce the Russian forthe cause of the Ottoman would, in that tresses in the trans-Caucasian provinces to quarter of the world, be trampled into the the last extremity." The grasp of Russia on dust by the power of Russia, melted away Asia was yet a question of the future,
THE ALLIES PROCEED FROM VARNA TO THE CRIMEA; THEY LAND AT THE OLD FORT; SIR GEORGE BROWN NEARLY CAPTURED BY COSSACKS; HORRORS OF THE FIRST NIGHT IN THE CRIMEA; OCCUPATION OF EUPATORIA; ADDRESS OF MARSHAL ST. ARNAUD TO THE FRENCH TROOPS; SKIRMISH ON THE EVENING OF THE 19TH; GLORIOUS VICTORY OF THE ALMA; THE FIELD AFTER THE BATTLE; DESPATCHES OF THE ENGLISH AND FRENCH GENERALS AND ADMIRALS; DEATH OF MARSHAL ST. ARNAUD; REPORTED FALL OF SEBASTOPOL.
THE long-talked-of expedition of the Eng- the Black Sea, and lash it into tempests of lish and French forces to the Crimea was at the most furious and destructive nature. length decidedly resolved upon. Councils To have deferred the expedition until the of war, attended by the chief generals of following year, would have been a triumph rank, both French and English, were fre- to Russia and a disgrace to the allies. On quently held at Varna, and the mode of the other hand, to attack Sebastopol, was conducting the invasion of Russian territory for the allies to pledge themselves to enter carefully arranged. Still many delays oc- it as conquerors, otherwise the military curred in carrying so extensive a design reputation of France and England would into execution. The 15th of August was be overshadowed by a barbarian force, and the date first fixed for the sailing of the the Emperor Nicholas would feel that the allied armies from Varna to the Crimea: power of Russia was sufficient to carry it was postponed until the 20th; then till the forward the designs of its ambition. Failure 22nd; then the 26th. Then successively on the part of the allies, would be to abandon to the 1st, 2nd, and 7th of September-that the empire of the East to Russia, and also is, the French fleet left Varna on the 5th, to encourage it to extend its stealthy enand the English sailed from the neighbour- croachments in Europe. The combined ing port of Baltschik on the 7th. fleets amounted to nearly 400 vessels of various kinds, and presented a grand and imposing sight. At night, when all the ships had lights hung out, the fleets looked like some enormous city upon the waters.
These delays hazarded not only the success, but even the practicability of the design; as between the 15th and 25th of September, the great equinoctial gales sweep
Fidonisi, or the island of Serpents, was appointed as a rendezvous for the allied fleets, who fortunately had very favourable weather for their voyage across the Black Sea to the Crimea. The water was perfectly smooth during the passage, and the weather is described as being like the fine days we sometimes have in England towards the end of November-sunny, but cold and winterly. It has been said, that hitherto the cholera had been the firmest ally of the Emperor Nicholas; but if a hurricane had scattered the fleets, and tempests assailed the vessels encumbered with soldiers, then he might have regarded the winds and the waves as even firmer friends to him than the cholera. The voyage, however, was accomplished in safety, and at daybreak on the 14th of September, the allies arrived at the Crimea, off a place called the Old Fort, or Staroe Ukriplenie, situated about twenty miles to the south of Eupatoria, and thirty to the north of Sebastopol. It was at first intended to land at Eupatoria, but the former position was resolved upon by Lord Raglan and the admirals, after a minute reconnaissance of the coast from Cape Chersonese to Eupatoria; from which it appeared that the enemy had taken up strong positions upon the rivers Alma and Katcha, but not beyond them.
No Russian troops were there to oppose the landing, which, although it was immediately commenced with great vigour, occupied three days before it was completed. This was owing to a swell of the sea, which considerably impeded the operations of the troops, and even caused them to be attended with some danger. The allied army which had landed on the Crimea was composed of 60,000 men, consisting of 27,000 English, 25,000 French, and 8,000 Turks. The fact of their being unopposed by the Russian army, made a great impression on the Tartar population, who seemed disposed to view the invaders of their ancient soil in a very favourable light. The allies were regarded by them, not as enemies, but as a power probably destined to break the Russian yoke from off their necks and set them free.
Previously to the landing of the allies, much valuable time was lost in consequence of no decided plan of campaign having been resolved upon by the generals in command. Two days were passed in settling at what point they should land. Lord Raglan, Sir George Brown, General Canrobert, and Sir
J. Burgoyne, were assembled on board the Caradoc, which being a swift vessel, could approach the Russian shore without much danger of being captured. At one time it ran close under the encampment which was stationed to defend or watch the mouth of the river Belbek. So close did the vessel approach to the cliffs, that Russian officers were seen in front of their men engaged in getting their glasses to a focus to observe the new comers. On perceiving this, the English officers took off their hats and bowed, a politeness which was immediately returned.
The French were the first to land on the soil of the Crimea. "Their small warsteamers," says a writer from the scene of action, "went much nearer to the shore than ours were allowed to go; and a little after seven o'clock, the first French boat put off from one of the men-of-war with not more than fifteen or sixteen men on board of her. She was beached quietly on shore, and the crew leaping out, formed into a knot on the strand, and seemed busily engaged for a few moments over one spot of ground, as though they were digging a grave. Presently a flagstaff was visible above their heads, and in a moment more the tricolour was run up to the top, and fluttered out gaily in the wind, while the men took off their hats and did their Vive l'Empereur in good style. The French were thus the first to take possession and seisin of the Crimea. There was no enemy in sight; the most scrutinising gaze at this moment could not have detected a hostile uniform along the coast. The French admiral fired a gun shortly after eight o'clock, and the disembarkation of their troops commenced. In twenty minutes, they say, they got 6,000 men on shore."
Sir George Brown was the first Englishman who landed, and he was followed by the royal fusileers. Sir George immediately pushed forward without sending videttes or men in front. This rashness nearly cost him his life or liberty, for he was in great danger of being captured by a party of Cossacks, who, with an officer at their head, were discerned watching the fleets and invading troops. The Cossacks, who had been stealthily approaching Sir George, made a dash at him when within about a hundred yards. The English general ran for his life, and was saved from capture by the fire of a company of the fusileers, who, fortunately, were not far distant. On receiving so
trade. When the allied generals sent a flag of truce on shore, and a demand that the garrison should lay down its arms, the governor of the place civilly replied that there was no garrison, and, consequently, no arms to lay down, but that the allies would be allowed to occupy the place without molestation from the inhabitants, who trusted in turn to receive good treatment. The townsfolks of Eupatoria appeared to regard the struggle with a calm philosophical indifference. They assured the allies that they did not care whether the Russians or the invaders occupied the country. They only desired peace, and promised, if well treated, to supply whatever they possessed which the army might want.
soon to join us. Soldiers! at the moment that you plant your colours on the soil of the Crimea, France looks to you with hope; a few days more, and she will look on you with pride. Vive l'Empereur!
Soon after landing, the following spiritstirring address was read to the French troops, the brave soldier who penned it suffering at the time from severe and depressing illness:-"Soldiers!-For the last five months you have been anxious to meet the enemy; at last he is before you; we are about to show him our eagles. Prepare yourselves to undertake the privations and fatigues of a difficult but short campaign, which will raise, in the eyes of all Europe, the reputation of the army of the East to a level with that of the highest military glories of history. You will not allow the soldiers of the allied army, your companions in from the camp says: "As prices are at arms, to surpass you in vigour and steadi-present, eggs are twenty-five for sixpence; ness before the enemy, nor in constancy a good fowl costs fivepence or sixpence; a during the trials which await you. You turkey can be had for eighteenpence; a will bear in mind that we are not come to sheep is readily exchanged for a Turkish wage war on the peaceable inhabitants of piece of six piastres, or one shilling. The the Crimea, who are so well inclined towards inhabitants part with supplies readily. What us, and who, confiding in our excellent dis- will their feelings towards us be, if we emucipline, our respect for their religion, their late the conduct of the French, and rob and manners, and their persons, will not fail plunder them of their property?"*
"A. DE ST. ARNAUD, Marshal, "Commanding-in-chief." Notwithstanding the above command to respect the poor Tartar inhabitants of the Crimea, the French Zouaves were guilty of many excesses. They drove in from the surrounding country immense flocks of sheep and cattle, the proceeds of plundering expeditions, for the use of their camp. A village was also sacked by some French marauders with every accompaniment of brutal ferocity. Unhappily, our own soldiers have not been quite so well conducted in this matter as they should have been. They plundered the Tartar villagers so much, that on the 17th the regiments were formed in square, and lectured by their commanding officers on the subject. A feeling prevailed among the men, that now they were on Russian ground, any great forbearance towards the inhabitants was not requisite. Cruelty, however, to the poor Tartars was inexcusable, as they evinced the most friendly conduct towards the allies, and readily brought their produce to market to dispose of at a moderate price. A writer
• The Tartars of the Crimea are an oppressed but interesting race. Their faces are said to be expressive of honesty and good humour. The following picturesque and humorous description of the abode and family of a Crim Tartar, from Mr. C. H. Scott's delightful book, The Baltic, the Black Sea, and the Crimea, will be read with interest :-"We put up for the night in the house of a fine old Tartar; a very happy father of seven promising sons, all grown to manhood, and all having taken unto themselves wives. They were the most thriving family in the village, and we met with a ready welcome from them. Ushered into the best room, we threw ourselves on the cushions; and taking off our boots, endeavoured to twist our unyielding legs into the eccentric position necessary to the act of sitting à la Tartar.' Not that we wished either the bearded old man or the juniors to labour under the delusion that this was our accustomed method of disposing of our lower extremities, but that we found it rather diffi
cult to feed in an apartment where there was neither table nor chair by resorting to any other contrivance. These preliminaries being arranged, we had time to look round the apartment, which was about fourteen feet long by twelve wide. Cushions were placed along the sides and ends, leaving only the doors free; the centre being covered with rugs of divers manufacture, material, and colour. The walls were nicely whitewashed, and hung around with embroidery, and other needlework, done by those daughters-in-law now living in the house. These proofs of industry and taste were accomplished before marriage; and were evidently regarded with becoming satisfaction by the loving husbands, as they watched us admiring them. The Tartar maiden who can make a great display of such emblems of skill and perseverance is an object of respect, and held up as worthy of emulation. On some shelves were the holiday dresses of the women, neatly folded, and each having its own compartment. On examina
the next day. There were several cases of cholera, and one officer of the 23rd died after a few hours' illness. We cannot but think the generals might have arranged in such a manner as to have prevented this gratuitous misery to the poor fellows under their command. The French contrived to land their tents on the first day of disembarkation, and even the sluggish Turks did the same; but the tents of the English were not put on shore until the second day, and the result was a night of misery, the intensity of which, to an army smitten by sickness, it would be difficult to describe. We know that in war everything cannot always be exactly rose-pink and lavender; but a wise general should take every precaution to guard his troops from unnecessary misery. In making these remarks we are not actuated by any sickly sentimentality: when lives are to be lost for the attainment of a great object, a general should have a heart of adamant and nerves of steel. No emotion of pity should restrain him, and he should purchase victory at any reasonable cost of blood; but before the hour of action, it is his imperative duty to guard the lives of his troops with the tender solicitude of a father.
On the second day of landing (the 15th), a capture was made of thirty carts of flour, containing, in the whole, 710 bags. They were the property of the Russian government, and on their way to Sebastopol. They were taken by the riflemen, but owing to a want of cavalry, more than the number captured escaped. Two or three Russian ladies, who were travelling, and some soldiers were also taken prisoners. The former were sent to a neighbouring village for security.
Eupatoria, where it was first intended to land, and where, in the first instance, the fleet anchored, was taken and garrisoned by 500 marines, under Captain Brock, who received the title of governor of the place. Eupatoria is a little town of about 8,000 inhabitants, though it once contained about 1,500, and was the seat of a considerable
of each division, in compartments for the landing of each class of man and beast; but it was, of course, almost beyond the limits of possibility to observe the difference in conducting an operation which must have extended over many square miles of water. Shortly before two o'clock, Brigadier-general Rose, the commissioner for the British army, with Marshal St. Arnaud, rode over from the French quarters to inform Lord Raglan that the whole of the French troops had landed.' This was by no means the fact. Our disembarkation of infantry had very nearly ended at the same time, but our cavalry and artillery had not come on shore, and the French, even without cavalry and with smaller numbers, were not more advanced than ourselves."
The first night passed upon the Crimea was a severe trial to the allied troops. The wind blew in cold gusts, and the rain fell incessantly, increasing in violence as the night proceeded. No tents had been landed, no fires could be lit, and the soldiers had to wrap themselves in their blankets and sleep on the soddened earth as best they might. The place where they had halted for the night was about three miles from the sea, on a bit of ploughed land, without a vestige of wood or water. "We attempted," said an officer in the guards, "to make fires of the long grass and weeds which grew near in abundance, but they made only a momentary blaze, insufficient for any cooking purposes." To an army that had recently been suffering severely, and was then suffering from disease and debility, this was an event which taxed all their powers of endurance and their feelings of fortitude. If fellowship in misery is a comfort, the soldiers could try and console themselves with the reflection that their generals and officers were mostly no better off. Sir George Brown slept under a cart tilted over, and the Duke of Cambridge had some similarly luxurious accommodation. The result of this night of suffering was a great increase of illness among our poor English troops
The severity of the trial will not be fully under-evening-a fever in short, such is the dangerous stood without taking into consideration the danger- nature of the climate to strangers, that Russia must ous nature of the climate of the Crimea. Upon this consider the country as a cemetery for the troops subject we extract the following passage from Dr. which are sent to maintain its possession. E. D. Clarke's Travels in the Crimea: "Fevers are so general during summer, throughout the peninsula, that it is hardly possible to avoid them. If you drink water after eating fruit, a fever follows. If you drink milk, eat eggs, or butter-a fever; if during the scorching heat of the day you indulge in the most trivial neglect of clothing-a fever; if you venture out to enjoy the delightful breezes of the
"This is not the case with regard to its native inhabitants, the Tartars; the precautions they use, added to long experience, insure their safety. Upon the slightest change of weather they are to be seen wrapped up in sheep-skins and covered by thick felts; while their heads are swathed in numerous bandages of linen, or guarded by warm stuffed caps, fenced with wool."
in European history, we will here briefly describe it. It is one of the few streams that water the south of the Crimea near Sebastopol. The reader must not imagine it to be a broad, bold river like our Thames. By no means; the Alma is but about thirty or forty feet wide, and very shallow. It takes its rise among the high range of mountains to the east, runs directly to the west of the Crimea, and reaches the sea about twelve miles above Sebastopol. For three miles from the sea the river runs in the bed of the mountain torrents, which have worn away about fifteen feet of the soil, and left on the northern side a rugged, upright bank-of course presenting extreme difficulties to the passage of troops in the face of an enemy.
We have mentioned that the landing of the allied armies on the Russian shores was extended over a period of three days, the 14th, 15th, and 16th. On the 18th, Lord Raglan issued orders that the troops should be ready to march at daybreak, and that all tents should be sent on board the ships.
Three hours past midnight, while cold and darkness hung over the camp of sleepers, the clear sharp notes of the reveille sounded through the camp, and all woke to active life. For some hours a scene of bustle and apparent confusion prevailed; but, during that period, regiment after regiment fell into order, and paraded previous to marching. The same scene was going on in the French and Turkish camps; and the red fitful glare of the camp fires, extending over a space of some miles, gave to the scene a wild and romantic character.
The Turkish infantry, to the number of 7,000, under Suleiman Pasha, moved along by the sea-shore. Next to them came the divisions of generals Bosquet, Canrobert, Forey, and Prince Napoleon. The right of the allied armies was protected by the fleet which moved along with them, ready to hurl shot and shell amongst the ranks of the enemy, should he venture an attack in that direction.
The allies did not march forward for more than an hour before they were commanded to halt for fifty minutes! During that period Lord Raglan, accompanied by a large staffMarshal St. Arnaud, Generals Bosquet, Forey, and a number of French officers-rode along the front of the columns. As they passed by the English ranks the men rose from the ground, and saluted them with three tremendous cheers. "English!" exclaimed Marshal St. Arnaud, as he cantered past the 55th regiment, "English! I hope you will fight well to-day!" "Hope!" | shouted a voice from the ranks, "Sure you know we will!"
The march was resumed; the grand and terrible torrent of war swept on; and at last columns of smoke, arising from burning villages and farmhouses, announced that the Russians were preparing to receive us. Brave and willing as our men were, sickness had smitten the army so severely, that many poor fellows dropped from illness and fatigue, and had to be carried to the rear. It was a painful, a frightful truth uttered by Lord Raglan in his despatch, that our troops were pursued by cholera to the very battle-field. Still the grand army swept on; and at length from the summit of a hill the soldiers beheld a wide plain, on which could be discerned a number of dark ridges. By the civilian they might have been taken for fences or bushes; but the practised eye recognised in them regiments of Russian cavalry.
On the approach of night, the allied armies bivouacked on the left bank of a small stream called the Bulganac. Before the men settled to obtain what repose they could get under the circumstances, a skirmish took place between a part of the Earl of Cardigan's brigade of light cavalry and a considerable body of Cossacks and Russian dragoons. Lord Cardigan threw out skir mishers in line, and the Cossacks advanced to meet them. They were rough-looking fellows enough; but the precision and regularity of their movement showed them to be regular troops. An exchange of fire took