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koff, the statesman, made a declaration at Vienna, that the troops of the czar would immediately evacuate Moldavia as well as Wallachia. Yes, Nicholas actually consented to relinquish his "material guarantee," and that, also, without conditions. The eastern question had entered into a new phase, but the prospects of peace were as distant as ever. This retrograde step was yet another attempt to disarm Austria, and lead her farther from an alliance with the western powers. Notwithstanding these announcements of the Russian envoy, Count Buol exchanged notes on the 8th of August with the representatives of France and England, to the effect that Austria, in common with those countries, continue to look steadily for the guarantees to be exacted from Russia, to prevent a recurrence of the difficulties which had troubled the peace of Europe; and Austria further pledged herself, until the complete re-establishment of peace, not to treat separately with the cabinet of St. Petersburg until she had obtained such guarantees.
The substance of the notes exchanged on this occasion between Austria and the allies was, that the three powers were equally of opinion that the relations of the Sublime Porte with the imperial court of Russia could not be re-established on solid and durable bases"1. If the protectorate hitherto exercised by the imperial court of Russia over the principalities of Wallachia, Moldavia, and Servia, be not discontinued for the future; and if the privileges accorded by the sultan to these provinces, dependencies of their empire, be not placed under the collective guarantee of the powers, in virtue of an arrangement to be concluded with the Sublime Porte, and the stipulations of which should, at the same time, regulate all questions of detail. 2. If the navigation of the Danube, at its mouths, be not freed from all obstacle, and submitted to the application of the principles established by the acts of the congress of Vienna. 3. If the treaty of the 13th of July, 1841, be not revised in concert by the high contracting parties in the interest of the balance of power in Europe. 4. If Russia do not give up the claim to exercise an official pro
A French officer of rank, in writing from Rustchuk, says: Apropos of the Russians. What do they mean to do? What means this war of theirs, without connection and without plan ;-these useless, I should rather say shameful, promenades from Kalafat to Silistria, and from Silistria to Rustchuk, only to escape in every place, and at every time
tectorate over the subjects of the Sublime Porte, to whatever rite they may belong; and if France, Austria, Great Britain, Prussia, and Russia, do not lend their mutual assistance to obtain, as an initiative, from the Ottoman government the confirmation and the observance of the religious privileges of the different Christian communities, and to turn to account, in the common interest of their co-religionists, the generous intentions manifested by his majesty the sultan, at the same time avoiding any aggression on his dignity and the independence of his crown."
The French and English governments declared that they would not take any proposition from the court of St. Petersburg into consideration, unless it implied a full and entire adhesion to the above conditions. Count Buol, also, on behalf of the Austrian government, stated that "it accepts for itself the engagement not to treat except on these bases, always reserving a free deliberation on the conditions which it may bring forward for the re-establishment of peace, if it should happen itself to be forced to take part in the war."
More, we should presume, as a matter of courtesy, than with the hope of their leading to a restoration of peace, copies of these conditions were sent to St. Petersburg, for the acceptance or rejection of the Emperor Nicholas. There was, however, very little probability that they would be accepted by him, even after his recent reverses; for to submit to them would be to proclaim his own humiliation, and to abandon far more than he had claimed. It was necessary for Russia to experience some calamitous defeat or startling disgrace before the czar could bend his stubborn neck so low. Though Austria joined with France and England in laying down the conditions that the czar must accept before the pressure of the iron hand of war would be removed from his dominions, the other great German state, Prussia, stood aloof and would not give its sanction to a measure calculated to bring the Russian autocrat to reason.
The long-expected movement of the Austrian troops into the principalities speedily followed. Three brigades of Archduke Allosing, without the slightest possible advantage, the half of their soldiers? The Russians have arrived at such a point, that they are throughout Europe almost despised as a power and an army. Even the Turks hold them in the most supreme contempt; and I, as an old soldier, cannot say that they are mistaken."
bert's corps in Transylvania entered Wallachia on the 20th of August; and it was stated that three other brigades of General Coronini's army were preparing for a similar movement into Moldavia. Many said that, by so doing, Austria had acted up to her engagements at last, and that she was fully prepared to act with the allies against the czar. But there were others who did not take quite so favourable a view of the matter. These said that Austria was acting treacherously; that there was a secret understanding between her and the court of St. Petersburg; and that she had merely sent her troops into Wallachia to shield the Russians from the advance of the victorious Turks!
sympathy with England in the struggle in which she is engaged, and their remembrance of the fact that Englishmen and Americans spring from one noble stock, and are members of the same great family. This is as it should be; and we are certain that should disgrace ever sully the English flag, or any calamity fall on the English nation, a deep and general grief would be felt by our half-brethren on the shores of Columbia. Yet the following account of the mission which the Emperor Nicholas entrusted with the American, Dr. Cottman, to the government of his native country, looks as if an ungenerous and petty feeling against England yet lingered in the minds of some of our transatlantic friends. We must be careful, however, not to charge upon a great nation the folly or prejudices of individuals; and we should do well to reflect that Dr. Cottman, while sneering so bitterly at England, was dazzled by the magnificence he beheld in Russia, and that his judgment had been taken captive by the artful condescensions and flatteries of the czar.
But to the circumstance we have to relate:" Dr. Thomas Cottman," we are informed by the New York Herald,
Before the above-named conditions were sent to St. Petersburg, the Russians had even informed the Austrian government that they should recross the Pruth in five places, and march at once into the interior, instead of remaining on the frontiers. The hidden meaning of this polite intimation was, that they should concentrate their troops, and direct them against the allies in the Crimea, whenever the anticipated attack on that place should be made. On the 2nd of August the Russians commenced their retrograde passage of the Pruth, by recross-born in Maryland, and is now (1854) about ing at Liptschain, Skulani, Leuschein, Leova, forty years of age. He moved to Louisiana and Volena. The removal of their sick and in 1830, where he has occasionally practised wounded from Bucharest is described to have medicine, and was elected to the legislature. been a pitiable spectacle. In the excite- He still owns a plantation there, and a large ment of hurry, scarcely any attention was number of slaves. In 1853, he went to paid to the complaints and cries of the suf- Europe for the purpose of placing his daughferers. One officer died while the men ter in a boarding-school at Paris; and while were lifting him into the waggon, and one there he determined to visit the different of the head physicians, in the height of countries, and investigate for his own satisdelirium from typhus fever, was huddled faction the merits of the present difficulty into a waggon with the other patients. The between the belligerent powers. In the humbled Prince Gortschakoff appealed to course of his travels he went to St. Petersthe humanity of the inhabitants to show burg, where he had an interview with the compassion to the poor fellows he was czar, who treated him in the most friendly obliged to leave behind him. He referred manner, and offered him every facility in to the kindness which had been extended his power. The better to assist him in to the wounded and prisoners of the crew of making his tour of observation through his the Tiger at Odessa; and added, that he dominions, the czar gave him an imperial also had always acted humanely towards order to all the institutions and places of the sick and wounded who had fallen into note in the country. With this order he his hands. visited Cronstadt, where he remained six weeks with General Dehn, the commanderin-chief of the northern division of the army. He subsequently went to all the principal cities, and was everywhere treated with the greatest hospitality. Dr. Cottman acted in the capacity of surgeon to the Grand Duke Constantine up to the time of his appointment on his present mission, and
We must now request the attention of our readers to an event of a very different character. We believe that the unhappy jealousies once existing beween England and America to be almost extinct, and we think the time not far distant when they will be utterly so. We know that many organs of the American press have declared their
the open air, such as riding, walking, &c. After a very light meal (for he is a believer in homoeopathy, as applied to dietetics) he reviews the troops, and then visits the different members of his family at their several places. He next visits the various departments, or gives audiences; and as this portion of the day's work is ended at six o'clock, he takes dinner, after which he indulges in another ride or drive. His sons regulate their time in the same manner as the emperor; but, at stated times, they have general reunions of all the members of the family."
Of course all this politeness on the part of the great representative of despotism towards a plain American citizen, was not without its object. In estimating the character of Nicholas, in an early chapter of this work, we mentioned that he was frequently very affable and condescending towards foreigners of ability or rank, because such conduct helped to gain him a good name in other countries. But, in flattering the republican doctor, the czar had another motive. He wished to dispose of the island of Sitka (a part of the Russian dominions in America) to the government of the United States. Sitka contains the settlement of New Archangel, a small town, with about a thousand inhabitants. It is the seat of the governor of all the establishments of Russian America, and possesses fortifications, magazines, &c., built of wood. In England it is generally considered that Sitka would be almost valueless to the Americans, and that the possession of it might tend to embroil them with the British government respecting some hunting or fishing right, or boundary question. In America, it seems, a different opinion is entertained, at least by a portion of the press and
enjoys the confidence of the whole of the imperial family."
The Emperor Nicholas perfectly captivated Dr. Cottman by his condescension and his professions of a desire to cultivate the friendship of his countrymen, of whom he spoke in the highest terms of praise. "There are," said he, "but two governments in the world-those of Russia and America; and although I have the greatest regard for the latter, yet I know it would be impracticable in my country. The republican form of government is best suited," he added, "for the people of the United States, because they are enlightened and intelligent; but with Russia it is entirely different, and the government she has is the only one that is
suited to her condition."
The czar also astonished the American by his knowledge of the institutions and people of the country of the latter. The doctor described his imperial friend as not only thoroughly informed on this particular, but as quite familiar with American local politics, and as knowing the leading politicians in the different states by name. In a word, he was thoroughly posted up in the history of the different parties.
Of the looks and habits of Nicholas, Dr. Cottman speaks as follows: "The emperor is one of the most refined and polished gentlemen in Europe, and his personal appearance is remarkably prepossessing. He is about six feet two inches in height, and made in proportion, while in manly beauty it would be difficult to find his equal. In his manner of living he is very temperate, and preserves the greatest regularity and order in all his transactions. He rises every morning before sunrise, a practice which is followed by the other members of his family. Before break-people. * fast they take about an hour's exercise in
The czar, no doubt, foreseeing that Sitka The following article from the New York solved, it would be manifestly for the interest of Herald contains the views of that party in America Great Britain, as well as the United States, that this who advocate the purchase of Sitka:-"The Rus-intervening tract should be transferred by sale from sian territory extends along the shore from a point them to us. In this event, our territory would near longitude 64 in the Arctic Ocean to Observa- stretch in one undivided line from the icebound tory Inlet on the Pacific, being bounded on the oceans of the north to the line 32°, such a coast as south and east by the British possessions occupied no nation in the world possesses, and one which the by the Hudson's Bay Company. It comprises all natural tendency of the events now occurring in the best whaling stations in the Northern Pacific, Asia cannot but render extremely valuable. Even and if annexed to the United States would give our if Great Britain refused to part with Vancouver's whalers an advantage which would at once enable Island and the vicinity, the military value of these them to defy competition. Again, in a political possessions would be manifestly diminished, to a very point of view, its acquisition would make us mas- considerable extent, by our occupation of the coast, ters of the whole western coast of America, from the both north and south, including the whaling depôt Arctic to the Mexican boundary, with the exception at Sitka, on the one side, and the mouth of the of that portion lying between 49° and 54° 40′-say Columbia on the other. We make no question, some 350 miles. We should thus surround Great therefore, of the course which our executive should Britain; and if, as seems likely to occur in pro- pursue in the present conjuncture. Our surplus funds cess of time, the Hudson's Bay Company were dis- could not be better employed than in acquiring the
tarnish the name of England, while it holds the Russians up to admiration; yet we cannot but think there may probably be more of truth in its assertions than the English press are inclined to admit. At any rate, it is as well sometimes to see our portrait as painted by one who professes himself to be in the interest of, and delighted with, our enemy. For this purpose we subjoin the letter, some of the sarcasms of which will, we think, find their way to the mark they were aimed at :
"Sir, I have just arrived here on my way from the seat of war in the north-east, and take
it for granted that a true narrative would interest you, being perfectly aware that you appre
might possibly become a means of disturbing the friendly relations that exist, and which we trust ever will exist, between England and America, entrusted Dr. Cottman with a mission to the government of the United States, and invested him with full powers to treat on his behalf. The doctor was to propose to the American government that they should purchase Sitka, and probably the rest of the Russian possessions on that continent, which he would make over to it on very easy terms. "The emperor," said Dr. Cottman, "looks forward to the adoption of a commercial treaty between Russia and our country, and the purchase of Sitka, with no little anxiety, as he is very desirous of keep-ciate at their proper value the details you have ing up friendly terms with us during the had through the London and Paris journals. present war. In speaking of our relations France and England have equipped the finest with Spain, he says that he considers that fleet that ever floated, and sent it to the Baltic Cuba is ours by right of her geographical to instruct the Russians in geography. They position; and that, as she commands the have been hunting up places so far north that entrance to the gulf, we should take her, the sun never sets upon them for more than two whether the Spanish government is willing months at a time. There are not more than 500 or not." The czar had thrown dust in the persons in St. Petersburg and Moscow together that ever heard of Brahestad, Uleaborg, &c., eyes of Dr. Cottman by his overwhelming until they had been bombarded by the allied politeness, and he then attempted to blind fleets. By the way, speaking of Uleaborg, the America with a bribe. It was equivalent to greatest vandalism of the present century was saying, "do not you interfere while I take there committed. The account in the Dublin Constantinople, and you are welcome to Post, from the journal of an officer on board the Cuba with all my heart. Let us be wise, Leopard, is as near the truth as anything you and sanction each other's aggressions." have seen since the commencement of the war, as there has been a systematic perversion and
Before returning to his native land Dr. Cottman visited London, and there he wrote suppressio veri in everything that has been dea rather remarkable letter to Mr. George N.livered to the public since April last. It is true, Sanders, the American consul in this country. as the Leopard's officer tells you, that they This letter brought upon Dr. Cottman much sacked, pillaged, and burnt the defenceless town of Uleaborg; but he does not tell you what was censure and ridicule, and was condemned by the fate of the women in that village, where he the English press as containing a tissue of says: No resistance was offered, and we landed falsehoods and exaggerations. It certainly the marines.' I will tell you. They were all vioexhibits our petty exploits at Brahestad and lated by the crews of twenty boats, pretending Uleaborg in a new light, and does its best to to be civilised men and Christians. He tells you: territory offered us. The case of Louisiana, which reignty of the czar, or deprive him of the power of was acquired under precisely the same circumstances, giving a valid title to the territory. Until that inis an example which should by all means be fol- tention is executed, and Sitka actually taken, the lowed. Should the administration resolve on making czar has a clear right to sell, and we to buy, the tract the purchase, a difficulty is very likely to occur between menaced. If, therefore, we choose to buy, and the Great Britain and this country. As soon as it was czar places us in possession of the territory, the known in England that the purchase of Russian British fleet will be bound to respect our purchase, America had been suggested to this government, the under the obvious penalty of hostilities with us. This president was notified that the British fleet in the we take to be the true view of the law on the point. Pacific had received orders to take Sitka. It may Should Sitka have fallen before our purchase is compossibly be contended that this notification should pleted, the case would be different, as there could be have operated to prevent our purchase, or that such no delivery from Russia to the United States, and a purchase, made in the teeth of the notification, consequently no sale. This consideration ought to amounts to an act of hostility against Great Britain. stimulate our government to prompt measures. If We think it likely that this argument will be used on the territory is to be bought, it must be bought at the other side of the Atlantic, because we have known once. Delay will preclude the possibility of our ac such arguments to proceed from the same quarter be- quiring it, and will in all probability, have the effect fore; but we regard it as entirely fallacious and in- of aiding Great Britain in its promised conquest, correct. The expression of an intention on the part and adding further strength to a rival whose power of Great Britain could not affect the actual sove- is already but too formidable on this continent."
We began the work of destruction on Thursday, and did not leave off until Friday morning at ten o'clock.' After appropriating to themselves the property of the citizens, and violating the persons of their wives and daughters, he continues: 'It was near costing us our lives, for we got hemmed-in in the river by the fire. Twice we attempted to burst through it, and twice failed. At the third time the first lieutenant cried out, Pull, pull, for dear life-one more attempt.' For about 100 yards I had to close my eyes and put my hands to my face. I was scorched and roasted; my hair was singed. We got out fainting and half-grilled; we had a narrow escape and lost one man. This morning part of his skull and spine were found burnt to a cinder; it was as dreadful a night's work as ever I was at, and terrible.' Let the civilised world judge of the result of this drunken orgie. A town, where there was neither soldier nor gun, sacked, pillaged, and devastated by fire, the work of the marines of twenty of her majesty's ships. Not content with the destruction of property, the virtue of the women was assailed with equal ferocity and baseness. This writer speaks truly when he says: We destroyed everything, virtue, goods, and chattels. The unfortunate inhabitants were like madmen; it was a sad sight to see the creatures; many a man arose yesterday in good circumstances, and that night was a ruined man.' Thus you see Merry Old England, with all her vainglory and boasting, reduced in action to a level with the pagan Turk whose cause she espouses, associating herself with her next-door neighbour, and on the slightest opportunity occurring casting reflections on him, which, unfortunately, is like spitting against the wind that hurls back the expectorated matter full into the face of the projector. The Leopard's officer gives out the idea to the world that the Finnish lasses did not mind brutal violence, if it were not done by Frenchmen. True, there is some reason for jealousy of the French-they have not committed a dishonourable act since they have been in the Baltic. The prestige of a Briton's name has fled from the Russian dominions. Fishing-boats, nets, tar-barrels, and deal boards have been burnt, simply because they trust to English professions of respecting private property. The much-vaunted capture of prizes reduced to the comprehension of ordinary individuals, consists in a few Finnish smacks laden with salt for curing fish on the coast of Finland, and these are the means employed for revolutionising Finland. Wherever there is a cannon the allies have slunk away like a sneaking dog from a sheepfold on the discovery of the shepherd. Witness the attack on places of so little consequence that no man in England ever heard of them until he saw the report of their being attacked by the allied fleets, which have been invariably repulsed, notwithstanding the gallantry of Ekness, Gamla-Karleby, and Bomarsund, which
tell a mournful story for Britons' pride. Old Bodisco, brother of the late Russian minister at Washington, còmmands Bomarsund with about a dozen cannon, and, for fear he might use them if they approached too near, the fleet contented themselves by firing all day into his apple orchard and among his trees, entirely out of reach of the old man's guns, but not of his wrath. More than one English flag has been brought to St. Petersburg as a trophy. I had expected to find in London a Russian flag at every corner of the street, captured by the fleet so much vaunted here before I left for Russia. I think there is an axiom, or a proverb, or something of that kind, which runs: A merciful man is merciful to his beast.' England is frenzied with commiseration for the slaves of the United States of America, and consequently devotes her whole time to ameliorate the condition of the collier, who rarely sees the light of the sun from the 1st of January to the 31st of December. In a moment of excess of this humane consideration, she declined doing anything more at Odessa than burning a few hovels on the mole, and the deal boards in the lumber-yard, which were very convenient for exercising the Congreve-rockets upon. They had no intention of injuring the city by the 2,000 asphyxiant bombs thrown into it. The officers well knew that the asphyxizing principle contained in the bomb would decompose the explosive principle in the capsule, and prevent the bursting of the shell, and, as they were useless, they concluded to rid the fleet of them by pitching them into Odessa. Old Admiral Napier came up last Sunday week, and took a look at Cronstadt, where I have been waiting a month to see a great combat, and have been disappointed, for the fleet all disappeared on Monday. I have found out there is to be no show. I paid my money at the gate, got admission, find the principal actor sick-Can't come to the scratch,' and the play 'is given up.' The finest fleet that ever floated passes by Riga, Revel, Sweaborg, and Cronstadt, and contents itself with a look. The days of chivalry are gone, and I must be satisfied with cheerful, happy faces and hospitable hearths in lieu of great battles in Russia. British valour has eked out in gasconade, detraction and defamation of private character, and destruction of private property. The idea of terminating a war by discord in the imperial household, and jealousy between the elder brothers of the imperial family! There never existed a more united or harmonious family. The Grand Duke Alexander is, according to the journals of the day, dying of hectic fever and night sweats, when in reality he would pass freely for a beer-drinking, athletic Englishman, and, I might almost say, with an exuberance of health; and, instead of jealousy and distrust, the most cordial sympathy and devotion to each other prevail. Brothers more devoted to each other cannot be found anywhere in the