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Diagrams. VI. The Resolution of Equations by Approximation, and indeterminate Analysis. VII. A numerous and miscellaneous collection of Examples, for further practice. The whole designed as a question-book for the use of schools and private study. By James Harris, Teacher of the Mathematics, Walworth, 12mo. 4s. bound.

An Introduction to Geography. By Mrs. Sherwood, Author of Little Henry and his Bearer, &c. 2s. half bound.

The History of France, from the earliest periods to the second return of Louis XVIII. By Frances Thurtle, 12mo. 7s.6d.

The First French Guide, containing an easy Spelling-book and leading Exercises, &c. By J. Cherpilioud, 12mo.

Law.

An Abridgement of all the Custom Laws in force in Ireland, and of the laws which regulate the trade from Ireland to and from all places in his Majesty's dominions, and in the dominions of soreign powers; including the duties, drawbacks, bounties, and allowances payable on goods, inward and outward, with rates; particularly where the laws in Ireland differ from those on the same subject in Great Britain. Also a sketch of the origin and progress of Customs in Ireland; a Chronological Table of the Statutes; and a copious Index to the work. By John Heron, of his Majesty's Customs, Dublin, 8vo. 11.1 s. boards.

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formation. By C. W. Rordansz, ** 18s. boards. Universal Commerce ; or, the Cmerce of all the mercanti!e cities as towns of the world: containing a o graphical description of each place, weights, measures, monies; course to operation of exchange; imports and a ports, &c. with pro forma sales of so chandise from Antwerp, Bremen, H-burgh, Rotterdam, &c. the net do payable in Great Britain on impotion, and the drawbacks on exports: of foreign merchandise. By the E. of Mortimer’s Commercial Diction 8vo. 10s. 6d. boards,

Miscellax tous. The Works of Charles Lamb, 2 ve.

A Vindication of the University Cambridge, from the Reflections of * : James Edward Smith, President of to Linnean Society, contained in a pamps let, entitled, “Considerations respox ing Canbridge,” &c. By the Re James Henry Monk, B.D. Follow as: Tutor of Trinity College, and Reg Professor of Greek in the University Cambridge, 8vo. 3s.6d. The twenty-fourth volume (or to third of a New Series) of a comple Collection of State Trials and Proceeings for High Treason and other crime and misdemeanors, from the earfeo period to the year 1783; with notes ar: other illustrations. Coupiled by T. & Howell, Esq. F.R.S. F.S.A. and continued from the year 1783 to the present time by Thomas Jones Howell, Esq. roya 8vo. 11. 11s. 6d. boards, Altham and his Wife, a Domestie Tale, foolscap 8vo. 5s. 6d. Ashford Rectory; or, the Spoiled Chie Reformed, containing a short introduction to the sciences of architecture, and heraldry. By Frances Thurtle, 4s. 6d. New Tales. By Mrs. Opie, 4 vols. 12mo. Il. 8s. The Angler's Vade-Mecum. Carroll, post 8vo. 9s. The Edinburgh Gazetteer, Vol. II. Part I. 9s. Part VII I. of Green's Botanical Dictionary, with plates, coloured and plain. Part XI. of Aspin's Systematic Analysis of Universal History: containing the fabulous ages of Greece, continued. The Philosophical Library, a very cerious collection of the most rare and valuable reprints of ancient morality,

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t—3. c. as for example, the lives and morals of Confucius, Epicurus, and Isocrates; the morality of the East from the Koran, *c.; the political mischiefs of popery, ... as far as it regards the interests and li... berties of the Catholics themselves; a - Summary of the ancient Irish Christi—ranity and its four gospels; a Lookingas Glass for Popes and Priests, with a geis nuine Catalogue of the holy relics of the - Homan Catholic Church. Vol. I. 8vo. 15s. 6d.

Postay.

The Family Shakespeare: in which nothing is added to the original text, but those words and expressions are omitted which cannot with propriety be read aloud in a family. By Thomas * Bowdler, Esq. F.R.S. and S.A. 10 vols. royal 18mo. 31. 3s. Translations from Camoens, and other Poets; with original Poetry. By the Author of “Modern Greece,” and the ** Restoration of the Works of Art to Italy,” 8vo. 4s. Bodiam Castle: a Poem in six Cantos, with Notes, 8vo. 10s. 6J. * The Gentleman : a Satire, written * during the years 1812, 1813, 1814, and 1815, 8vo. 4s. The Rhapsodist; or, Mes Souvenirs: * in an Epistle to Aristus. By Richard * Esmond Comeford, Esq. 8vo. 14s. or * 4to, ll. 1's, boards.

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cally considered : a Sermon, preached before the Master and Elder Brethren of the corporation of Trinity-house, ou May 18, 1818. By the Rev. R. Mant, D. D. Rector of St. Botolph's, Bishopsgate, &c. 1s. A Sermon, preached in the parish church of St. Mary, Rotherhithe, on May 3, 1818, in aid of the Charity School of that parish. To which is subjoined, an account of the success of the new system of education in Southern Africa. By Robert Jones, D.D. late Senior Chaplain at the Cape of Good Hope. 1s. A Reply to a Letter written by the Rev. J. Simons, Rector of Paul's Cray, purporting to be on the subject of certain errors of the Antinomian kind, which have lately sprung up in the West of England. By Thomas Snow, seceder from the National Religious Establishment. 2s. 6d. Plain Preaching; or, Sermons for the Poor and for People of all Ranks. By Rev. R. Mayo. 12mo. 6s. A Sketch of the History of Churches in England: applied to the purposes of the Society for promoting the enlargement and building of churches and chapels. To which is added, a Sermon, on the Honour of God, in places of public worship. By John Brewster, M. A. Rector of Egglescliffe, and Vicar of Greatham, in the county of Durham. 3s.6d. Meditations of a Neophyte; with Notes. post 8vo. 6s. 6d. boards. Observations on the Doctrine, Discipline, and Manners of the Wesleyan Methodists; and also of the Evangelical Party, as far as the latter adhere to the same system : including strictures on the notions entertained by both, respecting a Divine Providence, and the unlawfulness of amusement among Christians. By the Rev. Latham Wainewright, M.A. F.A.S. of Emanuel College, Cambridge, and Rector of Great Brickhill, Bucks. 8vo. 6s, boards. Serious Advice to a Young Minister of the Gospel, on important subjects connected with the Christian Ministry. By Joseph Freeston, Author of an Answer to the Question—“Why are you not a Socinian 2'' &c. 12mo. 3s.6d. Consolation for Mourners : Five Sermons, entitled, Faith’s Estimate of Afflictive Dispensations. By the late Rev. John Hill. 1s 6d. A Letter to the Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of St. David, one of the Patrons

of the London Society for promoting Christianity among the Jews, on the proceedings and prospects of that society ; dated Moscow, Feb. 24, 1818. With an Appendix, containing some interesting documents illustrative of the present state of the Jews on the Continent. By the Rev. Lewis Way, M.A. of Stansted Park, Sussex. 2s. 6d. Sermons on various Subjects. By James Lindsay, D.D. 8vo. 12s. bds. The Holy Minister, a Sermon, preached at the annual meeting of the Ministers educated at Homerton Academy, May 19, 1818. By Robert Winter, D. D. 8vo. 1 s. 6d. The Apostacy of the Church of Rome, and the Identity of the Papal Power with the Man of Sin. By W. Cunninghame, Fsq. 8vo. 4s. 6d. Scripture and Common Sense, on the doctrines of Regeneration and Baptism. By the Rev. Melville Horne, 2s. 6d.

Taavals AND Torocharuv.

A Journey from India to England, through Persia, Georgia, Russia, Poland, and Prussia, in the year 1817. By Lieut. Colonel Johnson, C.B. illustrated by numerous engravings, 4to. 21. 2s.

A Second Journey through Persia to Constantinople, between the years 1810 and 1816. With a Journal of the voyage by the Brazils and Bombay to the Persian Gulf; together with an account of the proceedings of his Majesty's Enbassy under his Excellency Sir Gore Ouseley, Bart. K.S.L. By J. Morier,

Esq. late his Majesty's Secretar Embassy, and Minister Plenipotenturto the Court of Persia. With maps, coloured costumes, and other engrave, from the designs of the Author. Re4to. 31. 13s.6d. A Journey round the Coast of Kcontaining Remarks on the principal cojects worthy of notice throughout to whole of that interesting border, and to contiguous district; including Pen-heand Tunbridge Wells, with Rye, wo chelsea, Hastings, and Battle, in Sassez being original Notes made during . summer excursion. By L. Fussell, is: With maps, 8vo. 9s. boards. England Described; being a conce

delineation of every county in Englas: :

and Wales; with an account of its mos important products, notices of the procipal seats, and a view of the transac. tions, civil and military, &c. By Jas Aikin, M.D. being an enlargement of to work by that Author, entitled, Engla: Delineated. 8vo. 14s. boards. A new History and Description of York. By William Hargrove, 3 vas. royal 8vo. 11. 16s. Travels in Canada, and the United States of America, in 1816 and 1817. By F. Hall, Esq. late Military Secre. tary to Gen. Wilson, Governor in Cauada. 8vo. 14s, boards. An Autumn near the Rhine; or Sketches of courts, society, and scenery, in some of the German States borderint on the Rhine. 8vo. 14s.

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THE ECLECTIC REVIEW,

For SEPTEMBER, 1818.

Art. I. 1. A Treatise upon the Poor Laws. By Thomas Peregrine Courtenay, Esq. M.P. 8vo. 1818.

2. Considerations on the Impolicy and Pernicious Tendency of the Poor Laws; with Remarks on the Report of the Select Committee of the House of Commons upon them; and Suggestions for imW.; the Condition of the Poor. By Charles Jerram, A.M.

icar of Chobham, &c. 8vo. 1818.

3. A Summary View of the Report and Evidence relative to the Poor Laws, published by Order of the House of Commons, with Observations and Suggestions. By S. W. Nicoll. 8vo. 1818.

4. Observations on the Circumstances which influence the Condition of the Labouring Classes of Society. By John Barton. 8vo. 1817.

5. An Inqui into the Nature of Benevolence, chiefly with a View to elucidate the Principles of the Poor Laws, and to show their immoral Tendency. By J. E. Bicheno, F.L.S. 8vo. 1817.

6. Minutes of Evidence taken before the Committee appointed to consider of the several Petitions relating to Ribbon Weavers. Ordered by the House of Commons to be printed, 18th March, 1818.

Moo than four hundred volumes on the subject of the Poor Laws, are enumerated by Sir Frederick Eden, and still this vast and intricate subject, vast as regards its bearings upon human happiness, and intricate on accuant of its involving in the discussion the fundamental principles of political science, is continuing to employ and to baffle the sagacity of our legislators and philosophers. Not fewer than sixty-six statutes (forty of the number during the present reign) have been passed since the famous 43d of Elizabeth, (which was itself a digest of all the existing laws on the subject,) in order to give perfection to the present system. And now, the eventual abolition of the whole, the clearance of the Statute-Book from the total nuisance of the Poor Laws, is represented as the only adequate remedy for this gigantic mischief, “the political plague of Wol. X. N.S. S

• England.” One writer, whose name carries with it very considerable weight,” has not scrupled to affirm, that “No Schere • for the amendment of the Poor Laws merits the least attention, * which has not their abolition for its ultimate object.’ And even the Committee of the House of Commons seem to be of opinion, that their abolition would be decidedly beneficial, could it be effected with safety. In the interim, some remedial regulations are on all sides admitted to be indispensably necessary, in order to arrest the accelerating progress of the evil. “The ‘strongest conviction of the impolicy and mischievousness * of the system, has as yet, remarks Mr. Courtenay, ‘induced * no man to propose its total and immediate abrogation; while those who are for proposing palliatives, are “willing that every partial amendment should have a tendency towards a general • abandonment.” As to the best means of introducing a reform, however, there fortunately exists a diversity of opinion which will, we hope, secure the rigid and suspicious examination of any legislative project of the nature of experiment. It will be

well if the clamour and the panic which have spread through all

ranks, on the subject of the Poor Laws, and the vehement elo

quence with which the dangers arising from the Law of Relief

have been aggravated, should not favour the passing of enact

ments not less injurious, in some points of view, than the evils they are ostensibly designed to remedy. All that we shall attempt in the present Article, is, to introduce our readers to a general view of the question itself; we shall then proceed to examine the measures proposed, by way of mitigating the existing burden. There are a few previous considerations which, although some of them may appear little better than truisms, the reader may find it very convenient to carry with him into the investigation. In the first place, whether there exist a Law of Relief, or not, there will always remain a portion of the community in a state of poverty. Whether the Poor Laws tend to lessen, or to increase, the sum of Pauperism, they are not the cause of poverty. This is a state, which, under any conceivable circum

stances of society, must be incidental to a large portion of the

labouring classes. When the population of a country has attained the point at which the supply of labour is fully adequate to the demand, the wages of labour are not likely to remain much higher than suffices for the bare subsistence of the labourer and his family. This is poverty, when a man can earn no more then he must expend in the supply of his daily wants; and when his earnings fall below the sum requisite for his main

* Ricardo “On the Principles of Political Economy and Tax. “ation.” p. 113.

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