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be necessary, if not to cause, at be fitted to so many different situ. least to heighten ideas of pleasure? ations? But suppose pleasure the and may not those painful sensa, result of a comparison of sensa. tions in consequence of being as, tions, and every difficulty vanishes, sociated through indefinite time, I shall now endeavour to analyse with that pleasure of which they one of our pleasurable emotions, will be found the constant for that it may be seen how the phie. runners, come ultimately to numena correspond with this thechange their character, in the ory; let it be that of eating strawmind of the intelligent being; so berries; and here I think it as to make pleasure the neces- undeniable, Ist, That were we to sary result of every possible in. eat nothing but strawberries, we pression ?
should not have that pleasure in This hypothesis may be thrown eating them which we now have : into a more tangible shape, in the —and 2d. That were we to eat following proposition and corol. them without intermission, the unlaries.
ceasing act of eating strawberries Prop. Pleasure is the result of would become, like that of breath. a comparison of sensations. ing the air, indifferent. From
It cannot be doubted that there hence it follows, that the pleasure are many impressions and states of cating strawberries is purely the of existence, which would cause result of a comparison, from the pleasure to some and pain to others; Ist instance, betweeen the flavour for example, a piece of jerk beef, of this fruit and that of otheredible or an ill-cured herring, is a lux. substances; from the 2d, between ury to a half-fainished savage; our state when eating, and that of a whilst to a full-fed citizen, it previous state of hunger. No would opeiate rather as an einetic. doubt, pleasures arising from other To a dethroned monarch, the state sources, may sometimes constitute of a private gentleman would be a part of the pleasure now under one of galling degradation ; whilst consideration, for example, if by thousands setting out in life, we have been in the practice of it is regarded as the enviable re. eating strawberries with an esteem. ward of unwearied exertions, and ed friend, or in the light and the ne plus ultra of human felicity, agreeable society of ladies, or in The supposition of the absolute na. the midst of a delightful landscape; ture of pleasure, seems irreconcil. the pleasure resulting from these able will these facts, as also with causes, may be afterwards con. the universality of its existence : tinued to the simple act of eating, in all climates sentient beings en- with which they were previously joy pleasure; man, in particular, associated; but as all complex ihrough all the states of society, emotions may be reduced to sim. from the most barbarous to the ple ones, it will be sufficient to most civilized, through all the consider matters in the simplest ranks of society, from the prince point of view. By the way, the to the peasant; and through all action of brcathing mentioned the stages of individual existence, above, is a corroboration of this from the infant to the hoary eden- hypothesis; we breathe incessantly, tulous. Is it conceivable how an unconscious of pleasure ; but to a absolute, positive something, can person recovering from a severe
attack of asthma, the pleasure of stant forerunners, will come ulti.. easy respiration is unspeakable. mately to change their character
These considerations, I confess, in the mind of the intelligent being, appear to me, to prove the pro- so as to make pleasure the neces. position ; but it will be easy, no sary result of every possible im. doubt, for him to whom they do pression. not come with convincingevidence, In this corollary, without assuto point out that pleasurable emo. ming sensation as a certain passport tion, which is either not clearly to endless existence, it is simply referable to contrast, or which maintained, that where indewould exist at all, had no other finite duration is extended to impression, than that from which a sentient being, capable of recol. it proceeds, been ever known. lecting its emotions and of explor
Cor. 1st. The pains of the sen. ing their causes; pleasure will tient creation are necessary in tend ultimately to be the result of order to produce ideas of pleasure. all its impressions.
This, like all other corollaries, This, I confess, does not appear can stand upon no other demon- to me, to be beyond the power of stration than that which establish. the associating principle, but ra. es its proposition, and is to acquit ther to be its natural effect, conitself to the understanding, simply sidering that unless the pains have by à comparison between its own place, the pleasures will not fol. terms and that of its principal. It low; it reconciles the present may be proper to remark, however, motley appearance of things with that the production of pleasure in the attributes of infinite goodness this instance is purely mechanic and power in the Supreme Being; cal, requiring no exertion of intel. and in the means which he adopts lect, and in fact little else than for procuring the happy result, that the subject should be a sen. he exhibits himself as a wise and tient being; neither does it infer designing agent, as much as in any a future existence. But where a part of the animal or vegetable cause of pain is so violent as to economy. Resignation will then produce dismemberment or de- deserve the name of rational, and struction, it would seem either to the phrase of " seeing every thing point to a fulure state of existence, in God, and God in every thing," where it may produce its benefi. instead of an unmeaning ebullition cial effect; or to impugn the in. of over-heated devotion, may be finite power of Deity; for if this the predicate of a state future be established, I hold his infinite indeed, yet possible, if not cere benevolence necessarily inferred, tain.
ZERO. and of course, whatever militates Glasgow, against his infinite benevolence is Jan. 10, 1812. couclusive against his omnipo. tence.
Theological Query. Cor. 2d. The pains of the in.
Sir, telligent creation, in consequence Allow me to submit the follow. of being associated, through inde. ing query to your theological corfinite time, with those pleasures of respondents ut every denominawhich they will be found the con- tion: Is it to be considered as a VOL. YII.
proof of ignorance, or of the thority Mr. Adam gets his intellis closest and most nature investi. gence concerning the Unitarians gation, that the Athenians of old in Transylvania, but, froin the erected an altar to the UNKNOWN nature and publicity of his work, GOD?'
. : A. Z. it is reasonable to consider his ac.
count of them as being correct : 1 Unitarians in Transyltania. therefore, draw the following con
West Ham, Essex, clusions from it. Sir, 1 Jan. 2, 1812. - 1. That these Unitarians are To such as are acquainted with the largest body of Christians of ecclesiasticai history, it is well their senument which we know of, known that the Unitarians of Po. as no other state in Europe can land, after their cruel expulsion furnish upwards of 160 congrega. from that country in 1661, did, ma. tions which openly profess the ny of them, settle in Transylvania, great doctrine of the Divine Unily. where their doctrine had been 2. That they have a civil esrolerated from about the year tablishment, or, at least, a very 1563. Their numbers, circum. liberal toleration of their religiou, stances and doctrine have been as Mr. Markos is styled “Profess. from that period, very little known. or of the Unitarian College of I have lately met with a work Clausenburg". I believe that this called " The Religious World circumstance cannot be paralleled Displayej, &c. by the Rev. Ro- in the Christian world. bert Adam,' B. A. Oxford ; Mi. 3. That from their long setilenister of the Episcopal congregati. ment and present numbers and on, Blackfriars Wynd, Edinburgh, privileges, they have some com. &c.” In the second vol. of this mon form of ecclesiastical govern. work, p. 174, this author says ment and discipline, which unites that “An abstract of the faith and them as a body, or denominatio principles of the Unitarians of on.* Transylvania was published in 1787, with permission of their ,
* Since writing the above, I have
e looked further into Mr. Adam's work, and government, by Professor Markos, in vol. ii. p. 185, he says " Transylvania of the Unitarian College of Clau. is the only country in which they (Unitasenburg".
rians are not only tolerated, but have note at the horiom of the their rights and privileges secured by
express laws, and possess a sort of page, we are informed that “this
establishment. Their church governwork of Professor Markes is en. ment, in that country, consists of ont titled Summa Universæ Chris. superintendent and two consistories. The tianæ secundum Unitarios in usum
rias in usum higher consistory is composed partly of
laymen, partly of the inspectors or suAuditorum concinnata et edita ; perintendents special of the eight dioceses, Cum Privilegio S. C. R. A. Maj. into which the 104 Unitarian churches Claudiopuli Typis Collegii Refor. in that country are d. vided. -matorum, 1787,"
“It appoints persons for all the livings Mr. Adam also says that, the consistory, to which the church disci
and receives reports from the inferior Unitarians in Transylvania have pline is iutrusted. The superintendent long had separate congregations, general presides in chcinferior consistory, and have upwards of 160 at this
i but occupies only the second place is
nis the higher. Matrimonial affairs, &c. duy, I know not froin whal au. arc under the jurisdic.ion of these courts.
4. That, though they live un. spread of liberal opinions ; yet der the despotic government of there is a class of readers, among Austria, yet they enjoy a degree whom I most certainly include of religious liberty which Unitari. myself, who I think might be very ans in Britain are not legally en. materially benefited by having va. sitled to!
luable publications made more To these probable conclusions I accessible to us. It must be evibeg leave to add the following dent to every one that the pure questions.
chase of the best writers on Unita1. Have any of your learned rian subjects, for these last 40 correspondents seen the Latin co. years, is beyond the ability of py of Professor Markos's work many who from education are before mentioned ?
. equal to obtaining much benefit 2. Is there any English trans. from the perusal of them; and lation of that work?
gentlemen who have libraries, are 3. If any of your learned cor- not always willing to lend books, respondents are acquainted with from the consequent injury they the Latin copy, and there be no they must sustain from being fre. English translation extant, would quently read. What I would proit not be of real service to the pose is, that some bookseller Unitarian cause in the British should collect all the books, for Islands and America' to translate these last 40 years, on Unilarian the work into English?! subjects, and let thein out by the
4. May not some method be volume tor bire, as in circulating devised (perhaps through a mer- libraries, I should hope, far from cantile medium) of opening a cor- such a plan being injurious to respondence with Professor Mar- the sale of books, it would prove kos, or some other respectabıle advantageous, as it would increase Unitarian in Transylvania, where. readers and probably induce most by we may know more of the cir. to make some purchases : judging cumstances of our Christian bre. by my own feelings, I know nothing thren in that remote country? but the inability to purchase would
I am Sir, yours, satisfy me with an occasional read.
If this or any similar plan Proposal of an Unitarian Circu. should be adopted in consequence · · · lating Library.
of my writing, I shall feel plea. Hampstead, Jan. 5, sure in the hope tbat I may have
1812. rendered soine small service to a I am among the number of cause in which I am deeply in.' of those who look forward with terested. pleasure to the beginning of the
A Friend to Inquiry. month, when the pages of the - Monthly Repository will give the information of the great exertions Practical evil of the doctrine of the friends of truth are making. Original Depravity. • The book societies, in London and Sir, Jan. 10, 1812. many parts of the kingdom, have,. When Anti.Calvinists object to I doubt not, done much for the the iminoral tendency of the Cal
vinistic system, they are answered his level! What would an Evan. by a charge of malignant detrac. gelical preacher (oh! misapplied tion. It may be useful therefore, term,) have said to such a crimifrom time to time, to record facts nal, who already held so firmly which undeniably prove this ten. the chief of the doctrines of grace! dency.
And how mischievous is a nationThe doctrine of Original De. al religion; which allows such pravity is a favourite principle of men as this the Christian name, the Calvinists; yet no principle and lulls them, on the ground of seems more dishonourable to the their buptism, into a deadly repose Creator and more hostile to social or destructive hopes! peace, happiness and virtue. My I am experience convinces me that he No Disciple of John Calvin. that believes himself corrupt, is not far from being so. Virtue A Collection of Facts relating to unnatural! What better excuse
Criminal Law. for vice!
(Continued from p. 30.) . But I wish merely to point out " The Criminal Law is in every to your readers a case in which country of Europe more rude and imperthe wretched principle of original fect than the civil.” and universal depravity formed a
Blackstone. Comm. B. iv. ch. 1.
"to shed the blood of our fellow covering into which atrocious creature is a matter that requires the guilt retreated from public igno. greatest deliberazion, and the fullest miny. You remember, I dare sav. conviction of our own authority : for the name of Hodge. the West in life is the immediate gift of God to
man; which neither he can resign, nor dia Planter, who though not old, can it be taken from him ; unless by the had gone through a long catalogue command or permission of him who of cruelties and passed a busy life gave it; either expressly revealed, or of murders. This ruffian was at com
collected from the laws of nature or so
ciety, by clear and indisputable demon. length arrested in his career of stration.”
1b. blood and tried for his life, wbich “We may even hope, that when the was afterwards demanded in sacri. benevolent and more enlightened eye of hce to justice. To the jury who philosophy shall have inspected that im
portant part of legislation, the distribusat upon his case, he is represent. tion of punishments, this will become ed in the Morning Chronicle of less and less destructive, without being July 8th 1811, as saying that less efficacious, and be gradually con
ted verted into correction of offenders." and bad as they might think him, v. iii. p. 496. 8vo.
ented, Pistorius's Notes 10 Hartley. Hartley. he felt support in his affliction from “In free governments, the very act religion. As all men are subject of enquiring into the grounds and effects to wrong. he could but saw that of laws is a direct proof of increasing
knowledge. It constitutes a presumpTHAT PRINCIPLE was likewise ti
likewise tive proof of such improvements in the INHERENT in him. He acknow. actual state of society as render the forledged himself guilty in regard to mer code inconvenient or oppressive; many of his slaves." Whata prin. and when the expedients proposed by inciple must that be which places such wishes of the community, it becomes
telligent men harmonize with the silent an abuser of bumanity upon a level the duty of every wise and honest legis, with the majority of mankind : or lature to supply what is defective, and cather, which drags them down to to correct what is mischievous."
Philopatris Varvicensis, ii, 492.