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greater evidence of truth, does the regular court-establishment (xit. old historian of Genesis proceed. 14, 15, 18, 20). So, Abimelech, With respect to Jacob, the man- king of an Egyptian colony of the ners revert to their former state, Philistines, is an Egyptian Phaand go forward only in the case of roah on a small scale, and after Esau : with respect to the one, the Egyptian manner, has regular they revert, because he wanders officers of court. (xxi. 22. xxvi. about in Mesopotamia with strict 26.) In Palestine, on the other shepherds for the space of twenty hand, the king of Salem more years, and familiarises himself nearly resembles a private man. with their manners; with respect (xiv. 18.) Between the time of to the other, they go forward, be. Abrahain and Jacob, the luxury cause he remains in Canaan, and of Egypt advances rapidly. In connects himself by marriage with the time of Joseph there are, as the luxurious Canaanites ; the regular parts of the Egyptian one, therefore, passes from the court, a chief marshal, chamber. milder mode of life of his father, lain, chief butler, chief baker, a to the strict pastoral manners of his viceroy, a system of police, grand-father; the other becomes a state.prisons, and physicians ; to. warlike shepherd, and eventually gether with a splendid ceremonial, a chief of Idumea. The connec. Joseph, as viceroy, dines at a table tions of the different parts of the by himself: Pharoah admits Jacob, world, in the way of commerce, not to a friendly interview, as one gradually increases, In Abraham's of his predecessors bad admitted time, there is yet no trade between Abraham, but to an audience in Palestine and Egypt; and there. form, which is of so stately and fore, on occasion of a scarcity, dignified a kind, that even the he finds it necessary to carry bis history assumes, in the description family into Egypt. In the time of it, an air of state and dignity, of Jacob, a great trade in corn is (xlvii. 7.) Installations to offices carried on by land, between Pal. are celebrated with many solem. estine and Egypt; (xli. 57.) and nities; Joseph, at his induction for its accommodation inns are es- to the office of minister of state, is tablished on the road (xlij. 27). adorned with golden chains, and Even caravans of Ishmaelites, robes of state, and a ring on his travel out of Arabia, laden with finger, and has a long royal train spices, balsam and myrrh for of attendants. Egypt, and likewise employ them. In Mesopotamia, where no selves in the trade of slaves. Canaanites carry on trade, gold (xxxvii. 25.) – The Egyptians, and silver are scarce, even in however, carry on no direct trade Jacob's time. Every thing is with Palestine and Arabia, for transacted by barter; and Jacob they were always, as history in. exchanges his service of twenty forms us, averse from quitting years, for lwo wives, male and their native land. Egypt, as one female slaves and cattle. On the of the earliest states, has also the other hand, in Canaan, in the must cultivation and the most neighbourhood of the Phenicians, luxury. Even in the time of in whose hands was the comAbraham, the Pharoahs have . morce of the world, the method

of barter is abolished, even in the present when it was concluded by time of Abraham, and silver is word of mouth. used as the medium of exchange, “ Furiher, the change which is not however in the way of coin, observable in the Mosaic records, but by weight. (xxiii. 16.) It is iminediately after the Deluge, is probable, inderd, that at the time quite agrecable to the course of of Jacob, the Phenicians were in human things. Before that event, possession of coined money.(xxxiii, Asia uas, probably, in some re. 19.)

spects farther advanced than at the " in the forty-four first chap. time of Abraham.. Before the ters of Genesis, there is not a trace Deluge, we already meet with the of horses ; on Jacob's journey to Use of iron, but for a long period Egypt, Egyptian horses aie for afisards po trace of it; and the first une made use of. Now many arts which were cultivated history itaches us ihat Palestine, betore the Deluge, fan into forin its earlier periods, had no borses, getfulness after it, and must at a but that Egypt always had them. much later period be again in.

" Lastly, in forming leagues, vented. In short, Asia, instead of the Patriarchs do not proceed, as rising, suffers a decline. And was in later times, but as viher nations it possible that it should have hapa of the earliest antiquity formed pened otherwise? A single family them. In llomer, treaties are survives the flood, and re-peoples made by word of mouth, and in the depopulated Asia. Ilow could order to make them more than all the arts of Asia survive the usually binding, they are con. flood, along with these few persons cluded under the invocation, and Were they acquainted with them guarantee of Heaven, and are be- all? Or if they were, could they sides accompanied by various all come into exercise amongst tokens and presents. In like man. them after the food ? The cares ner, Abrahain separates seven necessary for their subsistence sheep as a present to Abimelech, which would at first enurely ocas tuhens of the laying aside the cupy them, required nothing more strife abut the disputed well, and than the employment of the comof renewed friendship. (xxi. 27.) monest arts; and the pursuit of So Jac. b and Laban threw up the means of satisfying their neces. heaps of stones, as a memorial of sities would prevent the exercise their reconciliation : and the name of any art of luxury. The situaof the newly-dug well, is an evi. tion then of the world after the dence of the league made between Deluge occasioned many of the Abraham and Abimelech. Lastly, arts of the antediluvian world to the cave of Machpelah is vought remain unexercised, and to perish, by Abraham in the presence of requiring to be again invented at wilnesses, (xx111.) and be expects an after period, by fortunate acs to remain undisturbed, in the cidents and at different occasions. possession of the field; as in Homer, In one word, mankind must necesthe Greeks and Trojans expert sarily have receded after the flood, the fulfilment of the concluded and if Moses had made them ados treaty, because both armies were vance in an uninterrupted proe VOL, VII.

3 A

gress from one step to another, from the chimeras of other nations, thi re would then have been ground that the pre-eminent rank of ibé for suspecting the genuineness of Mosaic accounts must be evident his accounts.

from that single passage.” "5 Fually, if we compare the accounts of Moses with the niosts ancient accounts of other nations,

Sketch of English Protestant Per. we may be fully sensible of the

secution.-- Letter IV. pure sources from which the first Sin, May 31, 1812: are derived. Amongst all the proceed now to describe some nallons vt antiquiry there is not Acts of Faith, exhibited by the one that has any thing similar, English Protestant Inquisition, or atiains in its must ancient his. wbich, as before observed, was tories to any thing like the sim. erected by the royal commission, plicity, adequacy, and philoso. of the 12tb of April, 1549. Bur. phical truth of this book. Other nett says, that 66 some tradesmen national stories swarm with fables, were brought before these comin which those who place most de. missioners in May, and were per. pendance upon their knowledge of suaded to abjure their former antiquity and of symbolica: Jan. opinions; which were, that a reguage are unable to discover any generate man cuuld not sin. That meaning ; they have been mis, though the outward mun sinned, understood by the nations them. the inward man sinned not. That selves, in their early times, they there was no Trinity of Persons. have been altered and forced into That Christ was only a holy pro. meaning, by frulish explanations, phet, and not at all God. That commentaries and interpolations; all we had by Christ was, that he and the ideas which they origin. taught us the way to heaven. ally contained are lost: the ac. That he took no flesh of the Virgin, counts contained in Genesis on and that the baptism of infants the contrary, bave, for the most was not profitable. A strange part, retained their original mean. medley is here displayed, of Chris. ing; they breathe in a mode of tian simplicity and pseudo.evan. expressjon, often highly tigura. gelical refinement. live, but always intelligible, the Among those whom Cranmer conceptions of the pure infancy of and his associate Commissioners the world, and though relating now alarmed into recantation, many surprising events, have no. Strype mentions one Michael thing surprising in the mode in Thombe, a butcher, who 6 rewhich they are related. For in. nounced the opinion, that Christ instance, that most ancient view took no flesh of our Lady, and that of the origin of things, in the 1st the baptism of infants is not proa chap. Genesis, which in the the. fitable.” He names also “ one ogonies and cosmogonies of other Putto, ,a tanner of Colchester," nations has assumed a ridiculous and who " recanted and bare a faggot unmeaning form, from the miscon. at Paul's Cross, and after that at cept as of later times, is amongst Colchester.” This was probably the fiebrews so full of simplicity, the person designed by Burnett, excellence and truth, and so free where he says, that “one of those who thus ahjured, was com- “ Divers minds out of the manded to carry a faggot next same thing, often draw contrary Sunday at St. Paul's, where there conclusions, as dugustine thought should be a sermon setting forth devout Anthony to be there. his heresy.” Two there were, fore full of the Holy Ghost, however, if not more, who refused because, not being able to read, to make shipwreck of faith and he could say the whole Bible, a good conscience, and loved not and interpret it; and Thyreus the their lives even unto death. Of these Jesuit, for the same reason, doth very few particulars have been pre. think all the Anabaptists to be served, and even those, so far as I poss ssed.can find, have never been brought Thyreus was of Nuys near Co. into one narrative.

logne. According to the Nov. The first victim to the rigour of Dict. Hist. 1772, be published the cominission, was Joan Bocher or among other works, one Sur les K nel, commonly called, probably, Apparitions des Spectres, to which from the County of her birth, Joan probably Donne has referred. of Kent. Strype relates from Par. Joan Bocher, according to Fox, sons, the Jesuit, that “ she was, at was exemplary in her personal first, a great disperser of Tindal's attention to the wants of prisoners. New Testament, translated by him The Martyrologyst had probably into English, and printed at Co. often witnessed her labours of len; and was a great reader of love, in this particular instance, scripture herself. Which book for his language, as many of your she also dispersed in the court ; readers will perceive, is remark. (of Henry the Eightli,] and so ably expressive. Officiosa marime became known to certain wo. in eos si quos carceres haberent men of quality, and was more cuptivos, quibus illa perpetuo particularly acquainted with Mrs. adesse consuevit. One example Anne Ascue. She used, for more Fox gives, in the case of Thuinas security, to tie the books in strings Debby, a Fellow of St. John's, under her apparel, and so pass Cambridge, who being in St, with them into the court." Fox Paul's, at the elevation of the host, describes Juan Bocher, as well had imprudenily interrupted the versed in the scriptures, which, Papal worship, before it was suphowever, according to his account pressed by authority. For this she could not read, but must have premature effort of Protestant instored her memory from attention dignation, he was imprisoned under to the reading of others. Mulier in the authority of the Lord Mayor scripturis prompta, quum tamen and the Archbishop. In this connihil sciret legere. It is remark- f.ement be shorily died, just as able that this faculty of memory, his pardon was precured, by the as applied to the scriptures, has influence of Joan Bucher, who been ascribed to the Anabaptists, had constantly ministered to him by a learned Jesuit of the 17th in prison, and had interceded for century, and attributed to diaboli. him with the protectress, the cal agency. I refer to the follow. Duchess of Somerset. Cui tamen ing passage in Donne's Letters, si ad pauculos superfuisset dies, 1654.

venia, ac instrumenta jam restitu

endæ libertatis adparabantur in. is in Latin, according to the then tercedente apud Ducissam D. Pro. prevailing custom. liis addressed tectoris joanna illa Cuntiana, quce to the prisoner by the Commission. tum frequens ei in carcere minis. ers, who invoke the name of Christ, truvit.

and profess to present him as God Thus this excellent woman went alone, before their eyes. Christi abour doing good, will she became nomine invocato, ac ipsum solum herseif a prisoner; being brought Deum præ oculis nostris hubentes. before the Commissioners in Mary's She is remainded of having nain. Chupel, St. Paul's, April 30, 1549. tained, before ihe Commissioners, The process against her, which in frequent confessions and decla. would now be a curiosity, I have rations, a certain wicked and intul. not been able to discover. Bur- erable error, damned heresy and nett (in Rc 152,) has preserved scandalous opinion. Aejandum the sentence and the report to the et intolerabilem errorem, huresin king. The Commissluners whose damnatum et scandalusam upini. names have incurred an indelille onom subscriptam. Then tollows disgrace, by their presence in a discription of the help y, in this occasion, were, Cianmer, plainer lerms than would now be Latimer, who now resided with justifiable, but which you may the Archbishop as his confidential probably be inclined to excuse, associate, Sir Thomas Smith, for the sake of preserving verbal Couk, Dean of Arches, and Lyall, exactness, in an important histoDucior of Laws.

rical document. Viz. That you Joan Bocher has been considered beliere, that the word was made as an Arian Anabaptist, but what flesh in the Virgin's belly ; but were her peculiar sentiments upon that Christ louk Arsh of the Virgin, various points of theology, it is you believe not; because the Hesh now in vain lo enquire. The only of the Virgin, bring the outuard heresy imputed to her, was an ab. man, was $2 fully gullen and burn struse metaphysical notion respecta in sin; but the word, by the con. ing the nature of Christ, which seat of the inward mom of the Vir. she appeared disposed 10 honour gin, uos made flesh. Fortbis opinion to an unscriptural excess, such as the prisoner is excommunicated, the (vident arduur of her piety as an obstinate heretic, and delimight not allow her to perceive. vered over to the secular arm, her

Fox describes her error as re. judges satisfying themselves, that specung the humanity of Christ, they performed this strange work for which she believed to be descended men bearing ihe name of Christian, from heaven, not derived from with grief of soul and bitterness of his mother, e cælo derectum, nun e heart; cum animi dolore el cordis marre susceptam. Such a notion, amaritudine. a proper Arian, believing in hu- On receiving this sentence, Joan man depravity and the miraculous Bocher is reported, according to conception might, under the in- Strype, (Mem. in. 214.) to have fluence of a warm imagination, thus addressed her judges : “ It is be likely to entertain.

a goodly matter to consider your The sentence, excepting the de. ignorance. It was not long ago scuiption of the imputed beresy, since you burned Anne Ascue for

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