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misht prevent a greater. The formidable insurrections, discou. king was prevailed upon with diffi. raged the attempt. culty ; and, burstiny m!o lears, la. I have, before me, the " Lise mented his sister's obstinacy, and and martyrdom of Rowland Taythar hr inust suffer ber to continue lor,” published in 1682, and writ. in se abominable a way of worship ten by one who appears tv bave as beesteente the mass,” Ridley's justly admired the pious Rector of Life. p. 331.
Hadleigh. Dr. T. is described Tough Edward was thus warm. as acconting in the following terms ly intent on inflicting ille persecu- a Romish Priest, whom soon after tion of restraint, yet, as I shall the accession of Mary, he found have occasion to show, he was officiating in bis church: Thou very hardly persuaded to shed devil incarnate, who made thee so blood on account of religious opi- audacious as to enter this church, nions. This council had no such to defile and profane it with thy scruples. Whatever they had re- abominable idolatry? I command formed in doctrine, they fully thee, thou popish wolf, in the name retained the spirit of the Anti- of God, tu depart hence, and not chrican church. Cranmer, who to presume thus to poison the flock bore a principal part among them, of Christ. The Priest appears to in ecclesiastical affairs, seems to advantage in his reply to this have possessed a natural disposi- hursh greeting, on the priuciple tion peculiarly forbi aring and to common to both, the magistrate's have exercised a Christian Spirit right of controul in religion. He on every subject, but religion,said to Dr. Taylor," Thou trai. Shakespeare makes his Henry the tor, what makes you come hither Liuit, say of uim, " as the com- to lett and disturb the Queen's promon voice,
ceedings ? In an age when perseDo my Lord of Canterbury cution, to death, was in vogue A shrewd turn, and he is your friend could Dr. T. want any thing but for ever.
power, lo burn the “ popish wolf," Yet Cranmer was as staunch a which had intruded into his fold? persecutor, under the gentle Ed. This is a fair conjecture, but ward, as when he had approved there is on record a damning proof under his imperious master Henry, of the sanguinary spirit which now the burning of Lambert and Ame possessed the English Reformers. Ascue. Mr. Gilpin, in his Life of Fox, in his Latin Book of Martyrs the Archbishop, (p. 59) says, far which I have not had an opportunity jou mildly, “that the spirit of po. of consulting but as translated, no pery was not yet wholly repressed.” doubt faitbiully, in Peirce's VinThe Reformers would have ab- dication of the Dissenters, (2d ed. horred the impiety of repressing p. 30), charges the Reformers with that spirit. Nor is there any good a design against the life of looper, reason to doubt that they would if he had not submitted to the ha. have anticipated a Marian perse- bits, and adds “ which unless he cution and burned the worshippers had done there are those who think with their images, had not the the bishops would have endeapower of the papists, instanced in roured to take away his life ; for his servant told me the Duke of tists, and were on the 3d of May, Suffolk sent such word to Hooper, brent on the high-way beyond who was not himself ignorant what Southwark towards Newington. they were doing.” This passage P. 579. and others which I shall quote are The effect of this persecution omitted by Fox with more tender, appears in Brandt's History of the ness to the Reformers, as Mr. Reformation in the Low CounPeirce has hinted, than fidelity as tries, where it is said that “in an historian, in his English work. 1539, there were put to death at That work was certainly designed Dellt, one and thirty Anabaptists by its horrid details, assisted by that had fled from England, thu the engraver's art, to excite a po- men beheaded and the women pular and unqualified odiumagainst drowned.” Brandt, i. 77. papists, who must not be suffered to On the death of Henry, the Andivide with Protestants even in any abaptists appear to have again proportion the guilt of persecution. visited this country, where, what Yet these bishops, who would have ever commotions some under that killed Hooper and thought they name had raised in Germany, they did God service, would not surely proved themselves a pacific, sutier. have voluntarily contented them- ing people. Burnet (ii. 105.) says selves with imprisoning Bonner that “ they were generally Ger. aud Gardiner because they refused mans, whom the revolutions there to act the farce of a Protestant pro. had forced to change their seats." fession. Their lives could have Those called “the gentle or mod. been spared only, because, as soon erate Anabaptists, only thought appeared on the accession of Mary, that baptism ought not to be given the majority of the nation were but to those who were of an age their adherents and might have be- capable of instruction. This opi. come their avengers.
nion they grounded on the silence There were, however, a power. of the New Testament about the less people against whom Protes- baptism of children, and ibey said tant persecution might be exercised the great decay of Christianity without reserve. These were the towed from this way of making Anabaptists, who had appeared children Christians, before they and suffered in the former reign, understood what they did. But as I find by the following pas- others who carried that name, sages in Stowe's Annals, ed. 1631. denied almost all the prioci.
1538. The 24th November, four ples of the Christian doctrine." Anabaptists, three men and one Burnet was writing his history by woman, all Dutch, bare faggots command of the parliament, and at Paul's Cross. And on the 27th had the 39 articles of a parliamenof November, a man and a woman, tary religion to support. He had Dutch Anabaptists, were brent in just before stated, that this most Smithfield. P. 576.
heretical class of Anabaptists 1540. The 29th of April, one agreeing with Luther, " that the named Mandeveld, another named scripture was to be the only rule Colens, and one other were exa- of Christians, argued that the mys. mined in St. Margaret's Church, teries of the crinity, and Christ's and were condemned for Anabaps incarnation and sufferings, of the
fall of man and the aids of grace, to bring us to the acknowledging were indeed philosophical subtle- of his holy power by the Testa. ties, and only pretended to be de. ment.” duced from scripture, and there. The poor affrighted Johu Ashe. fore they rejected them; among ion is then brought in “ detesting these the baptism of intants was and abhorring” such “ damned
opinions," and "willingly and Strype, in his Memorials of with all his power affecting hereArchbishop Cranmer, (p. 179.) after firmly to believe in the true describes as the “ beresies now and perfeci faith of Christ and his vented abroad, the denial of the holy church.” That faith is detrinity, and of the deity of the scribed according to the tenor of Holy Ghost, and the assertion modern orthodoxy, and the scene that Jesus Christ was a mere man thus concludes. John Asheton and not true God, because he had “ lifting up his hand, beseeched the accidents of huipan nature, bis Grace to deal mercifully and such as hungering and thirsting graciously with him; and touchand being visible; and that the ing the gospel gave his faith, that benefit men receive by Jesus Christ he would faithfully and humbly was the bringing them to the true obey the commands of the Holy knowledge of God.” A clergy. Mother Church, and whatsoever man of the name of Asheton, penance the said most reverend “ preached these doctrines," for Father should lay upon him." which he 6 was summoned, 281h Mr. Lindsey, in his Historical Dec. 1548, to Lambeth.” Two View, (p. 65.) has quoted at large of the archbishop's chaplains soon this passage from Strype, Nor formed out of them the following can I forbear to add my late ven. “ schedule of diverse heresies erable friend's remarks on the and dainned opinions,' which transaction. (P.69.) Asbeton was now tempted to re- 6 Thus, by proinises of life, nounce.
and fears of the most dreadful fuf. “1. That the trinity of persons ferings, were unhappy men dealt was established by the contession of with and prevailed upon to make Athanasius, declared by a psalm abjuration of their heresies, 1. e. to Quicunque vult, &c. and that the dissemble and speak cuntrary to Holy Ghost is not God, but only their inward persuasion. For a certain power of the Father. 2. hardly any one, who, on such That Jesus Christ, that was con- good grounds, as this Asheton, ceived of the Virgin Mary, was believed Jesus Christ to be truly a holy prophet, and especially one of the human race; or who beloved of God the Father; but believed the Holy Ghost, or Holy that he was not the true and living Spirit, to be only the power of the God: forasmuch as he was seen, Father; conld soon, or, indeed, and lived, hungered and thirsted. at all, be brought to believe these 3. That this only is the fruit of two to be, each of them, the most Jesus Christ's passion, that where. high God, and equal to the Father as we were strangers from God and of all.” had no knowledge of his Testa- Cranmer, however, having thus ment, it pleased God by Christ, begun in the flesh was not likely
to end in the spirit. He soon mer the archbishop, seven bishops, found that the power of his chap- (among whom was Ridley,) Drs. lains to worry a heretic was une. Latynier and Rowland Taylor, qual to the now rapidly advancing Sir Thonras Smith, and others, di. mischief. As à persecutor, he vines and laymen, amounting in determined to “ go on unto per the whole to 25, three to constitute fection,” and, like a civil tyrant, a quorum. The title expresses began to cry“ havoc, and let slip the grant of authority to inquire the dogs of war.".
concerning heretical delinquency, Burnet (ii. 105.) says, that “on De potestatibus ad inquirendum the 12th of April, 1549, there was super hæretica pravitate. The a complaint broughi to the council royal boy, not then 12 years of that, with the strangers tbat were age, is made to declare the duty come into England, some of the of all Christian kings to maintain Anabaptist persuasion had come the Christian faith pure and entire over, and were disseminating their among their subjects, but more errors and making proselyles. So especially of himself, a defender a commission was ordered to exa. of the faith, After enlarging on mine and search after all Anabap- the idea of preserving that field of tists, heretics, or contemners of the tlie Churcb committed to his care Common Prayer," sacrificing,"as from the pernicious seeds of false Robert Robinson remarks, (Lect. doctrine, he complains of those p. 5.) " the righis of all the na. who are reviving and instilling into tion to a fancied prerogative of the minds of the rude vulgar the a boy.” Strype (Mem. ji. 214,) impious errors of the Anabaptist:s says, that “ Arianism now shewed and other huretics. itself so openly, and was in such All such the commissioners are danger of spreading farther, that it directed to search out, to call for was thought necessary to suppress papers in evidence, and swear and it by using more rigid methods than examine witnesses. Then, should seemed agreeable to the merciful these usual methods not reach the principles of the professors of the urgency of the case, they are emgospel." Yet neither Strype nor powered to set up a Protestant Burnet ventured to place this inquisition ; for I know not what commission among their large col. to make less of the direction, om. lection of records, though they nibus aliis viis modis et formis could not reach the manly inde. quibus meliùs et efficaciùs poteritis, pendence, becoming impartial his. de veritate premissorum etiam sumtorians, of protesting against its in- mariè et de planu, ac sine strepitu quisitorial and sanguinary clauses. et figura judici, cognoscendum in, It is preserved, in the original la. quirerdum et investigandum, The tin, in that great collection of recommendation especially to pro
(sv. 181,) from whence I sball a court of justice, sine strepitu et give some account of it, as the figura judicii, carries our thoughts first English Protestant manifesto to the secret chamber of an Inquiagainst religious liberty.
Sitor-General, surrounded by a This commission is dated April familiars. 12, 1549, and directed to Cran. The commissioners are next die rected to restore heretics who ab. gregation in Leeds, which has jure, and appomi penances ; but heen repeatedly mentioned in the to proceed against the pertinacious Repository. and obstinate, desperately im- The first founder of the society mersed in their eriors, erroribus which afterwards assembled in suis desperatè immersum. Per. Call Lane chapel, Leeds, was the haps here is a pleasantry upon the Rev. Christopher Nesse, in regard mode of the Baptists. Persecution to whom, see the Nonconformist's relaxing her brow for a moment, Memorial, vol. ii. 567.) ejected to grin horribly a ghastly smile. from his preferment in Leeds, Such, however, are to be cast out A. D. 1662. After suffering of the communion of the laithful, nuch persecution, he was at last and delivered over to the secular excommunicated three times; and, arm. There is added a full power upon the fourth, a writ was issued of calling before then all sus. out" de excommunicato capien. pected persons, of committing do;" to avoid which, he removed them to prison, and putting them to London in 1075. The follow. in irons, carceri et vinculis, si ing anecdote will shew that he opus fuerit, muncipandi.
was a man very much superior to Such was the formidable engine vulgar prejudices (but you will of oppression of which the English either insert or suppress it at plea. Protestant Reformers now accept- sure). Going one Christmas with ed the usc, or rather which they one of his hearers to pay some had prepared for their own pur. visits in the congregation, a good pose, as it would be unfair to fix woman brought out the great upon the memory of the royal Yorkshire goose-pie for the enterchild the deep disgrace of this tainment of her visitors. Mr. sanguinary commission.
Nesse's friend objected to this dish, I designed, when I began this as savouring of superstition. “Well letter, io trace the steps of English then, brother (said Mr. Nesse), if Protestani Persecution to the con- these be walls of superstition, let clusion of the reign of Edward. us pull them down." I need not But I have already sufficiently in. add that he immediately set about truded on your pages, and must the business of demolition. After reserve an account of the sufferers him was Mr. Thomas Whitaker, urder this commission for the sub. who is mentioned in the Monthly ject of another letter.
Repository, (vol. vi. pp. 9, 260.) R. G. S. as having been a pupil of the Rev.
Richard Frankland. He too suf.
fered much for conscience sake, Dissenting Congregation, Call
and was imprisoned for some time Lane, Leeds.
in York castle. He died, minis. Sir, March 7, 1812. ter at Cali Lane, Nov. 19, 1710. • Perceiving that you seem in. aged 66. (See M. Rep.) He was clined to insert accounts of Dis. succeeded by the Rev. William senting congregations and their Moult (whose son Samuel was successive ministers, I take the li. minister at Rotherham, and died berty of sending you a few particu. there, Sep. 16, 1766, aged 58). lars relating to a Dissenting con. Mr. Moult died in 1727 or 1728;