were antecedently bound to the feet, a very common mode of Author of their beings and there washing dmong the Jews. And fore we should be very blame. when Peter, being intormed that worthy to thein, if we neglected it was to give him a part with his to do it. Thus the children of master, desired that not his feet the Jews were, without their own only, but his hands and head also consent, introduced by circum. might be washed, he was answered cision into like privileges, and that a partial washing was suffi. furnished with similar assistances cient for the present purpose. for performing ibeduties they owed Perhaps I may be somewhat sinta to God; and Aloses commanded gular in this interpretation ; but that people, Deut. vi. 7. These it appears to me to place this part horus which I command thee this of our Lord's history in the clear. dau, shall be in thy heart ; and est and most striking light; and thuu shalt teach them wil gently there are many circumstances of unty thy children, and shait talk the evangelist's relation of it, that of them, when thou sitiest in thine deserve particular attention. See house, and when thou walkest by John xil, 1-10. the way, and when thou liest down, Quest. IV. 'Are not the childand when thou risest up.

ren of Christians in some respects Quest. III. How is baptism to holy, and have an interest in ibe be administered? Answer. The kingdom of Christ? Answer. Unmode is not precisely directed; doubtedly, God, by the prophet and, therefore, I think, is leli to Ezekiel, ch. xvi. 20, 21, chala discretion, and may be performed lenges a special property in the in the manner in which baptism, children of the Jews. And the Apo. i. e. washing, is usually practised stle (1 Cor, vii. 14.) declares that in each country. After our Lord the children of believers, even when had exhibited before his disciples, one only of the parents is such, suficient evidence that he is the are holy; by which, in scripture Miessiah, and they had, by the language is meant belonging unto mouth of Peter, declared, once God, or devoted to his service, If, and again, their belief in him, as therefore, there be any institution the Christ, the Son of God, I con. appointed as a sign, or token of ceive he baptised them into that this holiness, certainly, such profession, and thereby invested children have a right to the sign, them with what he calls a part, who have the thing signified, i. e. a share or portion with him ; and that he did it by washing their ,


Nature of the Serpent, Genesis without enchantment, and a babbler iii. 1.

is no better. Let the reader keep [From Dr. Adam Clarke's Bible.) this in mind. The word in the text which we,

In Isaiah xxvii. 1. the croco. following the Septuagint, trans,

? dile or aligator, seems particulate serpent, is nachash, and ac. lariy meant

larly meant by the original. In cording to Buxtorf and others,

that day the Lord shall punish Le. has three meanings in scripture.

viathan the piercing serpent, fc. 1. It signifies to view, or observe A

And in Isaiah Ixv. 25, the same attentivelu, to divine or use en. creature is meant, as in Gen, ul. 1. chantments, because in them the for in the words, and dust shall augurs viewed attentively the flio ht be the serpent's meat, there is an of birds, the entrarls of beasts, the evident allusion to the text of course of the clonds. &c. and un Moses. In Amos ix. 3. the croc. der this head it signifies to acquire odile is

to acouire odile is evidently intended. Though knowledge by experience. 9. It they be hid in the bottom of the signifies brass. brazen. and is sea; thence will I command the translated in our Bible, not only

serpent, ha-nachash, and he shall brass, but chains. fettérs, fetter's bite them. No person can supof brass, and in several places pose that any of the snake or sersteel : see 2 Sam. xxii. 35. Job. pent kind can be intended bere ; XX. 24. Psalm xvii. 34. and in and we see from the various acone place, at least, filthiness or ceptations of the word, and the fornication. Ezek. xvi. 36. 3. It different senses which it bears in signifies a serpent, but of what various places in the sacred wrikind is not determined. In Job tings, that it appears to be a sort xxvi. 13, it seems to mean the of general term, confined to no whale or Hippopotamus. By his one sense. Hence it will be nespirit he hath garnished the Hea. cessary to examine the root accuvens, his hand hath formed the rately, to see if its ideal meaning crooked serpent, nachush bariach: will enable us to ascertain the as barach signifies to pass on. or animal intended in the text. We pass through, and beriach, is used have already seen that nachash . for a bar of a gate or door, that signifies to view attentively, to acpassed through rings, &c. the idea quire knowledge or erperience by of straightness, rather than crook. attentive observation : so nachaskedness, should be attached to it ti, Gen. xxx. 27. I have learned here: and it is likely that the sea. by experience and this seems to horse is intended by it.

be its most general meaning in the - In Eccles. X. 2. the creature Bible. The original word is, by

called nachash, of whatsoever sort, the Septuagint, translated 0015 & is compared to the babbler ; surelú serpent, not because this was its the serpent, nachash, will bite fixed determinate meaning in the

sacred writings, but because it was them from tbrir obedience to God, the best that occurred to the trans- &c. Is it pot strange that the lators; and they do not seem to devil and the ape suould bave the have given themselves much trou. same name, derived from the same ble to understand the ineaning of root, and that root so very similar the original; fur they have rendered to the word in the text? But let the word as variously as our trans- us return and consider what is said lators have done ; or rather our of the creature in question. Now trauslators have followed them, as the nuchash was more subtle, árum, they give nearly the same significa. mae wise or prudent than all the tions found in the Septuagint: beasts of the field, which the Lord hence we find that 0015 is as fre• God had made. In this account queritly used by them as serpent, its we find, 1. That wbatever this nasupp: sed literal meaning, is used chash was, he stood at the head of in our version. And the New Testa- all inferior animals for wisdom ment writers, who scarcely ever and understanding. 2. That he quote the Old Testament, but from walked erect, for this is necessarily the Septuagint translation, and implied in his punishment,-on thy scarcely ever change a word in their belly (i. e. on all fours) shalt thou quotations, copy this version in go. 3. That he was endued with the use of this word. From the the gift of speech, for a convera Septuagint therefore, we can ex- sation is here related between him pect no light, nor indeed from any and the woman. 4. That he was other of the antient versions, which also endued with the gift of reas are all subsequent to the Septuagint, son, for we find bim reasoning and and some of them actually made disputing with Eve. 5. That from it. In all this uncertainty, these things were common to this it is natural for a serious inquirer creature, the woman no doubt hayafter truth, to look every where ing often seen him walk erect, for information. And in such an talk and reason, and therefore she inquiry, the Arabic may be ex- testifies no kind of surprise when pected to afford some help from he accosts her in the language roits great similarity to the Hebrew. . lated in the text; and indeed, A root in this language very nearly from the manner in which this is similar to that in the text, seems introduced, it appears to be only a to cast considerable light on the part of a conversation that had subject. Chanas or khanasa signi- passed between them on the oca fies he departed, drew off, lay hid, casion. Yea, hath God said, fc. seduced, slunk away : from this Had this creature never been root come akhnas, khanasa, and known to speak before his addressthanoos, which all signify an ape, ing the woman at this time, and or satyrus, or any creature of the on this subject, it could not have simia or ape genus. It is very re- failed to excite her surprise, and markable also, that from the same to have filled her with caution, root comes khanás, the DEVIL, though from the purity and innowhich appellative he bears from cence of her nature, she might that meaning of khannsa, he drew have been incapable of being af. off, seduced, fo. because he draws fected with fear. Now. I apprea men off from righteousness, seduces hend, that none of these things - VOL. VII.


can be spoken of a serpent of any that he uses the same term em species. 1. None of them ever ployed by the Septuagint, in the did, or ever can walk erect. The text in question, Opis my povijewe tales we have bad of two.footed TATOS, lhe serpent was more prudent and four-footed serpents, are just. or intelligent than all the beasts, ly exploded by every judicious &c. All ihese thing considered, naturalist, and are utterly un. we are obliged to seek for some worthy of credit. The very name other word to designate the na. serpent comes from serpo to creep, chush, in the text, iban the word and therefore, to such it could be serpent; wbich on every view of neither curse nor punishment to go the subject, appears to me ineffi. on their bellies, i.e. to creep on, cient and inapplicable. We bave as they had done from their cre. seen above that khanas, akhnas and ation and must do while their khanoos, signify a creature of the race endures. 2. They have no ape or satyrus kind. We have organs for speech, or any kind of seen that the meaning of the root articulate sound; they can only is, he lay hid, seduced, slunk hiss. It is true, that an ass, by away, &c. and that khanas means miraculous influence, may speak; the devil, as the inspirer of evil but it is not to be supposed that and seducer from God and truth; - there was any miraculous interfe. see Golius and Wilmet. It there.

rence here. God did not qualify fore appears to me, that a creature this creature with speech for the of the ape or ouran outang kind, is occasion, and it is not intimated here intended ; and that Satan that there was any other agent, made use of this creature as the that did it; on the contrary, the most proper instrument for the ac. text intimates, that speech and complishment of his murderous reason were natural to the nachash; purposes against the life and soul and is it not in reference to this, of man. Under this creature he the inspired penman says? The lay hid, and by this creature he nachush was more wise or intelli. seduced our first parents, and drew gent than all the beasts of the field off or slunk away from every eye

that the Lord God had made! but the eye of God. Such a crea· Nor can I find that the serpentine ture answers to every part of the genus are remarkable for intelli. description in the text : it is evi. gence. It is true, the wisdom of dent from the structure of its limbs the serpent has passed into a pro. and their muscles, that it might have

verb, but I cannot be on what it been originally designed to walk ! is founded, except in reference to erect, and that nothing less than a

the passage in question, where the sovereign controuling power, could nachash, where we translate ser. induce them to put down hands, pent, following the Septuagint, in every respect formed like those shews so much intelligence and of man, and walk like those crea. cunning: and it is very probable, tures, whose claw-armed paws, that our Lord alludes to this very prove them to have been designed place, when he exhorts his dis. to walk on all fours. The sub

ciples to be wise, prudent or intel, tlety; cunning, endlessly varied - ligent as serpents, ypovoulob WS Os pranks and tricks of these creatures,

REIS ; and it is wortby of remark, shew them, even now to be wiser

and more intelligent than any attentive watching, looking, 8c. other creature, man alone except, and for chattering or babbling, ed. Being obliged now to walk on they have no fellows in the aniall fours, and gather their food mal world. Indeed, the ability from the ground, they are literally and propensity to chatter is all obliged to eat the dust; and though they have left of their original gift exceedingly cunning, and careful of speech, of which they appear in a variety of instances to separate to have been deprived at the fall, that part which is wholesome and as a part of their punishinent. proper for food, from that which is I have spent the longer time on not so, in the article of cleanliness, this subject, 1. because it is exthey are lost to all sense of proprie, ceedingly obscure; 2. because no ty; and though they have every interpretation hitherto given of it, mean in their power, of cleansing has afforded me the smallest satisthe aliments they gather off the faction; 3. because I think the ground, and froin among the above mode of accounting for dust, yet they never, in their every part of the whole transac. savage stato, make use of any, tion, is consistent and satisfactory; Add to this, their utter aversion and in my opinion, removes all to walk upright; it requires the embarrassment and solves every utmost discipline to bring them to difficulty. It can be no solid ob. it, and scarcely any thing offends jcction to the above mode of soluor irritates them more than to be tion, that Satan in different parts , obliged to do it. Long observa, of the New Testament, is called tion on these animals enables me the serpent, the serpent that deto state these facts.

ceived Eve by his subtlety, the Should any person who may old serpent, &c. for we have alrea. read this note, object against my dy seen that the New Testament conclusions, because apparently writers have borrowed the word derived from an Arabic word, from the Septuagint, and that the which is not exactly similar to the Septuagint themselves use it in a Hebrew, though to those who rast variety and latitude of mean. understand both languages, the si, ing; and surely the ouran outang milarity will be striking: yet, as is as likely to be the animal in I do not insist on the identity of question, as nachash, and ophis, the terms, though important con- are likely to mean at once a snake, sequences have been derived from a crocodile, a hippopotamus, for. less likely etymologies, he is nication, a chain, a pair of fetters, welcome to throw the whole of a piece of brass, a piece of steel, this out of the account. He may and a conjuror; for we have seen then take up the Hebrew root above, that all these are acceptaonly, which signifies to gaze, lo tions of the original word. Besides, vieu attentively, pry into, enquire the New Testament writers seem narruwly, fc, and consider the to lose sight of the animal or inpassage that appears to compare strument used on the occasion and the nachash to the babbler, Eccles, speak only of Satan himself, , as x. 11, and he will soon find, if he the cause of the transgression, and have any acquaintance with crea- the instrument of all evil. If, tures of this genus, that for earnest, however, any person should chuosó

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