REVIEW.-Wilson's Memoirs of De Foe.

The consequence of this was at length a bankruptcy, but to his eternal honour it is recorded that he never thought his obligations to his creditors discharged until he had repaid them in full. Obtaining subsequently employment in a political character, by the favour of King William, he says, in 1705, that with a numerous family, and no help but his own industry, he had forced his way with undiscou raged diligence, through a sea of misfortunes, and reduced his debts, exclusive of composition, from 17,000l. to less than 5000l.;" which shews, by the bye, that his commercial ventures must have been considerable. On this occasion he utters a sentiment which must place the principles of his character on the highest point of estimation in the eyes of every just man and good Christian, of what denomination soever, and which nobly atones for his inveterate prejudices in other matters:

"Never think yourself discharged in conscience (says De Foe), though you may be discharged in law. The obligation of an honest mind can never die. No title of honour, no recorded merit, no mark of distinction, can exceed that lasting appella

tion-an honest man. He that lies buried under such an epitaph, has more said of him thau volumes of history can contain; the payment of debts after fair discharges is the clearest title to such a character that I know, and how any man can begin again, and hope for a blessing or favour from God, without such a resolution, I know not."(Review, vol. iii. p. 148.)

William the Third was now embarked in an expensive war with France in support of his title to the crown, and De Foe was engaged by some eminent persons of the state in proposing ways and means to raise money for the public exigencies. He also obtained an appointment as Accountant to the Commissioners of the Glass Duty. This tax being repealed in 1699, he became Secretary to the Tile and Brick-kiln Works at Tilbury, in Essex. Pan-tiles had hitherto been brought from Holland, and were now first made in England; the speculation did not, however, succeed, and was abandoned about the year 1703. De Foe lost 3000l. which he had embarked himself in a share of the undertaking. While he was resident at Tilbury, he relates an incident which will be read with interest by the lovers of natural history. Speaking of the


ant being supplied with wings at a certain period of its growth, he proceeds:

"I once knew a flight of these ants come over the marshes from Essex, in a most prodigious quantity, and black cloud; they began to fall about a mile before they came to the Thames, and in flying over the river they feil so thick that the water was covered with them. I had two servants rowing a small boat over the river just at that time, and I believe near two pecks of them fell into the boat. They fell so thick, that I believe my hat full came down the funnel of two chimneys in my house, which stood near the river's edge; and in proportion to this quantity they fell for the space, as I could observe, of half a mile in breadth, at least. Some workmen I employed there said they spread two miles; but they then fell not so thick, and they continued falling for near three miles."-Review, vol. iv. 317, 319.

Under the year 1694 we have a notice of the death of Queen Mary; and we are told, on the authority of Oldmixon, that the King said, "during the whole course of their marriage he had never known one single fault in her; and that there was a worth in her, which nobody knew besides himself." The King cherished her memory during life, and after his own death a ringlet of her hair was found attached by a black ribbon to his arm. Tillotson died a few weeks before the Queen, and a well deserved tribute is paid by Mr. Wilson to this eminently good man, and champion of sincere and unostentatious religion.

"Tillotson had what was far better than the praise of bigots, the approbation of an enlightened conscience, and the esteem of the wise and good, of all religious persuasions. King William's eulogy upon him was, 'I never knew an honester man, and I never had a better friend.' He was, in all respects, an ornament to his order. As he was a careful observer of human nature, so he made a large allowance for the frailties of others, and was disposed to put the best construction upon their actions. This amiable prelate died in his sixty-fifth year, upon the 22d November, 1694. It was observed of him, that he despised wealth any further than as it was a means for charity."-p. 240.

The affair at Glenco afforded a subject for De Foe's pen, in defence of King William. This unfortunate bu siness presented too good a handle for the King's enemies to be neglected by then. In February, 1692, the Highland chieftain Macdonald, and about thirty of his clan, were put to the sword on account of their suspected


adherence to the cause of the ex-king, and their having neglected, within the time limited by a proclamation, to come in and take the oaths to the existing government. The just summary of this business appears to be, that the faithful attachment of the Highland ers to the line of Stuart rendered some measures of extraordinary severity necessary, as their disaffection towards the ruling powers was ripe to shew itself in open revolt at the first opportunity. The discretionary faculty lodged in the King's agents, was carried to an extent of cruel severity which William himself had never in-, tended to authorize. Lord Stair, then Secretary of State for Scotland, is charged with this abuse of the King's commission, and his instructions were executed with all the cruelty that is the consequence of party violence, by the subordinate agents concerned. Indeed all historical experience has taught us, that party violence is inseparable from the existence of men as a body politic. All that therefore can be done by prudent statesmen, is to endeavour to keep its consequences within the bounds of humanity, and to give it a right direction, as to its ultimate purposes. As to concessions to faction, they are but weak and shallow experiments in the Utopian state of liberalism, which are sure to endanger the wisest institutions, to generate anarchy and confusion, and to subject good men for a time to the dominion of the worst of tyrants, the mob.

In 1697, De Foe published his "Essay upon Projects." It may be observed, as years have rolled on, that most of these have, sooner or later, been adopted by the public. Among them are found schemes for banks in general, and a royal national bank in particular, which was to lower the interest of money, by discounting bills for merchants, and making advances on their goods, and other securities. He recommends branch banks in the country, in connexion with the national bank; the improvement of highways, in structure and durability; friendly or benefit societies; a pensionoffice in every county, to receive the deposits of the poor, an anticipation of savings banks; an asylum for idiots; an academy for military studies. "Men," says he," are not born with muskets on their shoulders, nor fortifications in their heads; neither is it natural to

REVIEW.-Wilson's Memoirs of De Foe.


shoot bombs, and undermine towns. As long as nations continue the prac tice of war, they should be prepared to enter upon it with effect." An office for registering seamen ; and an institution for the education of females, are suggested; which last gives occasion to his breaking out into a beautiful eulogy on the female character, of which we subjoin a portion.

"If a woman be well bred, and taught the proper management of her natural wit, she

proves generally very sensible and retentive; and, without partiality, a woman of sense and manners is the finest and most delicate part of God's creation, the glory of her Maker, and the great instance of his singular regard to man, to whom he gave the best gift either God could bestow, or man receive; and it is the sordidest piece of folly and ingratitude in the world, to withhold from the sex the due lustre which the advantages of education give to the natural and well taught, furnished with the addibeauty of their minds. A woman well bred tional accomplishments of knowledge and behaviour, is a creature without comparison. Her society is the emblem of sublimer enjoyments; she is all softness and sweetness, love, wit, and delight; she is every way suitable to the sublimest wish; and the man that has such a one for his portion, has nothing to do but rejoice in her, and be thankful."

An academy for the English Janguage, to polish and preserve it in purity, was a matter which engaged the consideration of De Foe, as well as of Swift.

An occurrence which took place in the year 1697, gave rise to the controversy about occasional conformity.

The dissenters, on accepting office, had not refused to comply with the qualifying test established by the legislature, and the church party accepted this compliance as an approximation in point of charity and good-will towards their tenets. Sir Humphrey Edwin, a Presbyterian, being elected to the mayoralty, carried this principle as far as it could go, and attended the church and the conventicle on alternate Sundays. Halting thus between two opinions, it is not surprising if he gave satisfaction to the advocates of neither. On one occasion, it being the turn of the Puritans, he ventured to carry the regalia of his office to the meeting-house.

Swift, in his admirable allegory, the "Tale of a Tub," alludes to the official influence obtained by dissenters in the


manner above related, by telling us that Jack's tatters had come into fashion in court and city, that he got upon the great horse, and ate custard.* De Foe strenuously opposes the propriety of dissenters, under any plea, submitting to the test; he says, none but Protestants halt between God and Baal: "Christians, of an amphibious nature, who have such preposterous consciences, that can believe one way of worship to be right, and yet serve God another."-"How can you take it (the sacrament) as a civil act in one place, and a religious act in another? This he calls " playing bo-peep with the Almighty." And by these remarks he indeed but proves the impossibility of divesting the opponents of the Reformed Church of that degree of party feeling, which determines them to see nothing in her sublime offices and decent ceremonies but a remnant of Romish superstitions. This is the trite and vulgar objection, which is current even in the present day. It is vain to argue with such cavillers, unless they would approach the subject in a different spirit.

In the year 1700, De Foe produced his historical poem, "The True-born Englishman" of the popularity of which it is sufficient to say, that he himself published nine editions, at the price of a shilling; and that of pirated cheap copies, above 80,000 were disposed of in the streets of London. The object was to show the absurdity of his countrymen abusing King Wil liam as a foreigner, and his followers as upstart nobility and gentry. He levels some keen strokes of satire at "the boast of heraldry."

REVIEW.-Wilson's Memoirs of De Foe.


"A true-born Englishman's a contradiction,
In speech an irony, in fact a fiction;
A metaphor, invented to express
A man akin to all the universe!"

"'Tis well that virtue gives nobility,
Else God knows where we had our gentry,
Since scarce one family is left alive
Which does not from some foreigner derive.
Of sixty thousand English gentlemen,
Whose names and arms in registers remain,
We challenge all our heralds to declare
Ten families, which English Saxons are."

And he sums up all with the axiom "virtus sola nobilitas," expressed in two lines:

"For fame of families is all a cheat, "Tis pers'nal virtue only makes us great.”

The famous Kentish petition of remonstrance to the Parliament, was presented to the House of Commons on the 8th of May, 1701, and drew down upon the five Kentish Gentlemen, who brought it to London as deputies for the county, the severest censure of the House. They were committed to the Gate-house (Newgate) during the session. It was on this occasion that De Foe drew up his celebrated Legion Paper; and it was reported at the time, that, disguised as an old woman, he delivered it to the Speaker as he entered the House. The fact however seems to be, that he gave it in person, accompanied by about sixteen gentlemen of quality, who, in case of necessity, were prepared to act as his protectors. The Legion Memorial was enclosed in the following letter to Robert Harley, esq. the Speaker:

A state horse was kept for the Mayor, before a coach was provided for him in processions. As to the custard, it was an important dish at the civic feast-See De Foe's own lines, as quoted by the Editor, in


To ride the city horse, and wear the


Reformation of Manners.

"Mr. Speaker-The enclosed memorial you are charged with, in behalf of many thousands of the good people of England. There is neither Papist, Jacobite, seditious, court or party interest concerned in it, but honesty and truth. You are commanded by 200,000 Englishmen to deliver it to the House of Commons, and to inform them that it is no banter, but serious truth, and a serious regard to it is expected. Nothing but justice and their duty is required; and it is required by them, who have both a right to require, and power to compel, viz. the people of England. We could have come to the House strong enough to oblige them to hear us, but we have avoided any tumult, not desiring to embroil, but to save our native country. If you refuse to communicate it to them, you will find cause in a short time to repent it."

The language of the Memorial itself was bold, and even threatening, pointing out to the Parliament, in fifteen articles, various imputations against them, as violating the Bill of Rights, imprisoning subjects for exercising the right of petition, suffering saucy and indecent reproaches upon his Majesty's person, delaying to grant him the necessary supplies, being scandalously vicious themselves, both in morals and

REVIEW.-Excerpta Historica.


religion, lewd in life, and erroneous in doctrine, having public blasphemers, and impudent deniers of the divinity of our Saviour among them, and suffering them to go unreproved and unpunished, to the infinite regret of all good Christians, and the just abhorrence of the whole nation; that whatever power was above law was tyrannical, and might be reduced by extrajudicial methods. They were not above the people's resentment; they made them inembers, and might reduce them to the rank whence they were chosen, and give them a taste of their abused kindness they might not be pleased with. (p. 398.) This extraordinary composition was subscribed, "Our name is Legion, for we are many;" and assured the house, in a postscript, that if they wished the Memorial to be signed with their names, it should be done on the first order, and personally presented. The Legion Memorial at once incensed the Commons, and threw the party who had committed the Kentish members into the deepest consternation. A committee was appointed to draw up an address on the subject of these seditious acts to his Majesty, but it was ultimately thought better to let the matter pass off in silent contempt. Ex post facto proceedings had been threatened against the five Kentish deputies; but this demonstration stayed them, and on the termination of the session, on the 24th of June, they were discharged. A splendid entertainment was given at Mercers' Hall on this occasion, where De Foe, the author of the Legion Letter, was seated next to them. They were dignified by the title of the five Kentish Worthies, and their return to the county was hailed by public de


monstrations of joy, all along their road.*

The first volume closes with a particular detail of the death of King Wil liam, whose character is made the subject of a just eulogy. De Foe was not deficient in paying the last tribute of his pen to the memory and public services of his deceased patron, a duty to which he was inclined from private gratitude and political principle.

(To be concluded in our next.)

Excerpta Historica; or Illustrations of English History. Parts II. and III. 8vo, pp. 216. Samuel Bentley.

THE extracts from the Privy-purse Expenses of Henry the Seventh, with which the First Part broke off, are here continued; and afford abundant proof how many historical facts and illustrations, of great importance and at present entirely unknown, may yet be recovered from these interesting but hitherto much neglected records.† In the present case there is scarcely a political circumstance in the thirteen years comprised by the record, to which some reference does not occur. For the expeditions into France, the costs of the necessary preparations in arms and shipping are mentioned; the date of the proclamation of the peace in October 1492, is corrected; and mention is made of the payment of a bribe of 500l. to Sir Robert Clifford, for the betrayal of his accomplices in the conspiracy in favour of Warbeck, in January 1495. Notices occur of the arrival of, and rewards given to, various ambassadors; of payments to numerous spies; of the apprehension and execu tion of criminals and traitors, particularly of Sir Edward Stanley, K.G. the King's Chamberlain, and of Lord Aud

*They were gentlemen of family and respectability in the county: William Colepeper, Thomas Colepeper, David Polhill, Justinian Champneys, and William Hamilton, esquires. Mr. Polhill, whose seat was near Otford, was met on Blackheath by 500 of his tenantry and friends on horseback.

+ We are happy to announce the appearance of the Privy-purse Expenses of Henry's Queen, Elizabeth of York, edited by Mr. Nicolas, in 8vo, uniformly with those before published of King Henry the Eighth. A similar volume, edited by Mr. Madden, will contain those of the Princess Mary, afterwards Queen: and we shall thus have such a Tudor series, as, though broken, will be sufficient to throw great additional light on the reigns and characters of the sovereigns of that house. When the original of Henry the Seventh's book is found (now supposed to be buried among the ill-stored records in the body of Westminster Hall) that also, with additions, may form a valuable volume.-We must not omit to mention also in this place, the proposal of Mr. T. Duffus Hardy to publish the Wardrobe Accounts of the 6th, 13th, 14th, and 18th years of King Edward the First, from the originals in the Tower. These are the earliest records of the kind that have been hitherto discovered.

REVIEW.-Excerpta Historica.


ley, the leader of the rebels at the battle of Blackheath, in 1497. The King's journey into Devonshire, and his measures to suppress the rebellion in favour of Perkin Warbeck, in the autumn of that year, receive particular illustration. On the 4th Oct. Henry arrived at Taunton; and on the following day "came Perkin Werbek ;" an entry which corrects the statement of Lord Bacon that Perkin was not taken until after the King's arrival at Exeter. Each of the places visited by the King is named; the marriages and burials of several members of the royal family are mentioned; and in a word, these accounts corroborate and add to that which was previously known; they bring many new facts, some of them of importance, and all of interest, to light; and, what is scarcely of less value, they fix the precise dates of most historical events of the time. We shall conclude these remarks by showing, in the editor's own words, the impression these private records create of Henry's personal character:

"There is not a single entry which justifies the generally received opinion, that he was miserly or avaricious; that he lived on terms of unkindness with his wife; or that he was a harsh and vindictive sovereign. On the contrary, many payments show that he was merciful, considerate, and liberal. His taste for literature, and patronage of its professors, was displayed in numerous rewards bestowed on persons for writing and presenting books to him, and more particularly on poets; who are said by Warton to have swarmed about his Court, and one of whom appears to have been attached to most of the members of his family. The King moreover supported several scholars at the University; and, as well as the Queen, maintained children, who had been given to them. The printers at Westminster, including by name Richard Pynson, are mentioned, as well as the purchase of several books for his library, the care of which was confided to a person called Quintin Paulet. Pictures were also objects of his attention; and his predilection for architecture would seem, from the large sums laid out in his palaces at Shene, Woodstock, and Langley, on St. George's Chapel, and on his Chapel at Westminster, to have amounted almost to a passion. Gratuities were frequently given to astronomers and physicians; and musicians were paid for composing masses and carols."


In Bacon's History of Henry the Seventh, it is stated that the King "bad, though he were no good scoleman, the honour to convert a heretick by dispute at Canterbury." It is remarkable that under the date of April 20, 1498 (at which time the King was in that city), occurs the entry "To the herytik at Canterbury, 6s. 8d. ;" and we are inclined to regard this as a confirmation of Bacon's story. It may be thought, that, as when a certain corporeal malady was submitted to a Royal physician, or as with the Jew conversions of our own day, the 6s. 8d. was a main instrument in effecting the cure.


Under the 25th of May in the same year, we find, For a rewarde yeven at the paper mylne, 16s. 8d." This is particularly remarkable, because it has been generally asserted that the first Paper Mill in England was erected half a century later, in the reign of Eliza


We thus find that an account-book of the private expenses of one of our ancient monarchs may even illustrate the history of science; and, to that of geographical discovery, various notices of the first intercourse with Newfoundland are not without their value. It was on March 5, 1495-6, that Henry granted letters patent to Sebastian Cabot, and his two sons, authorising them to sail under his banners with countries, and to plant the said banfive ships, for the discovery of new ners on, and to take possession of, whatever lands they might discover. (Foedera, vol. xii.) We shall conclude our notices from these accounts, by placing together the several entries regarding the New-found-land. It is first mentioned

"1497. Aug. 10. To hym that founde the new Isle, 107.

"1498. March 22. To Lanslot Thirkill of London, upon a prest [a levy of ready money] for his shipp going towards the new Ilande, 201.

"Delivered to Launcelot Thirkill going towards the new Ile in prest, 201.

"April 1. To Thomas Bradley and Launcelot Thirkill going to the new Isle, 301. "To John Carter going to the new Ile, in rewarde, 27.

"1502. Jan. 7. To men of Bristoll

* "On the 25th of September," says the note, "Henry wrote from Knaresborough ;" quoting for authority Ellis's Letters, where the King's billet is dated "Knaresburgh." The original (in the Bodleian Library) must, we imagine, have been here misread; the place appears to be between Woodstock, where the King was on the 23d of September, (Ellis, p. 38); and Cirencester, where he was on the 27th (Excerpta, p. 113).

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