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which they were doubtless indebted to the Schol. Aristoph. (or to the writer from whom he borrowed his infornation,) or assign to káunλos itself the double sense of "a camel," and "a rope," but still following the authority of the Schol. Aristoph.; or perhaps misled by the affinity or identity of the Arabic terms, which denote "a camel" and "a rope, " and not indisposed to adopt the latter, because it seemed better suited to the subject. At all events, we may safely conclude that, prior to the birth of Christ, the word κάμηλος or κάμιλος never had any
such sense as that of "cable"
rope," and that in this sense it is merely the Arabic word, which was introduced by the Hellenists subsequently to the birth of Christ.
There have at all times been some authors, who, evidently without due consideration, have adopted what appeared, to European ideas of metaphor, the more "6 analogous" and "natural" sense. A correspondent in your last number (p. 224), has adduced some examples of this from English authors of various dates; and I may here mention another amusing instance," noticed in "Adagia Hebraica: "
"Vieyra, quoting the text in one of his Sermons, (T. 10. p. 249) uses cable instead of camel, following a plausible but erroneous interpretation. It suited his purpose better in this place: What remedy then is there for the rich man, that he may enter heaven? I will tell you. Untwist the cable; and then thread by thread it may go through the needle. Christ himself has taught how this is to be done, by saying, Sell that thou hast, and give it unto the poor."
"There is a print of the camel and the needle in one of the little books of Drexelius, if I remember rightly; a man is beating the beast forward towards a needle, which some unseen hand is holding down, and though it is big enough to have been Gargamelle's stocking-needle, the camel appears perfectly sensible of the impossibility of effecting his
"That xanhos is to be rendered camel, is proved by three Hebrew adages, which Drusius has collected: 1. Facilius elephas per foramen acus; 2. Non est elephas, qui intret per foramen acus; 3. Forte ex Pambodita tu es, ubi traducunt elephantem per foramen acus. The latter applied to a liar;
A sketch of whose life and character, by the late Archdeacon Nares, appeared in our vol. xcvIII. i. 307.-EDIT.
the two former, what he calls proverbia TOû áðvváTOV.' 'Hoc adagium,' he adds, 'usurpat ó Σwrnp, Matt. 19, 24, in hyperbola. Non enim adúvarov divitem introire in regnum coelorum, sed admodum difficile. Ibidem pro elephante camelus legitur. Nam κáμnλos est camelus vel Syro intreprete, qui vertit, voce minime ambigua: quæ animans, cum notior sit vulgo in Judæa quam elephas, libet suspicari ideo in elephantis loco positam esse a Christo.""
It will have been perceived, that to understand cable by the word káμndos, is to rob the proverb of its nationality and its humour. In this light it is correctly regarded by Parkhurst, who, in his Greek and English Lexicon, observes, that, in the common interpretation given by our translators,
"The proverb seems quite agreeable to the eastern taste. Thus Matt. xxiii, 24. Straining off the gnat, and swallowing the camel,' is another proverbial expression, and is applied to those who at the same time they were superstitiously anxious in avoiding small faults, did without scruple commit the greatest sins. This latter proverb plainly refers to the Mosaic law, according to which prohibited for food.” both gnats and camels were unclean animals, Yours, &c.
E. H. BARKER.
A Greek and English Lexicon for the use of Schools and Colleges; containing a variety of Critical, Philological, and Scientific matter, not hitherto found in any Greek Dictionary. Also, an English and Greek Lexicon, comprising a number of Idiomatic Phrases, for the use of more advanced students. By George Dunbar, A.M. F.R.S.E. and Professor of Greek in the University of Edinburgh; and E. H. Barker, Esq. of Thetford, Norfolk. 8vo.
THE Greek is a language elevated to music, without diminishing its general utility. On the contrary, it often compresses the meaning of several of our words into one; e. g. eέwσTηs means one who drives out or expels, but we cannot say a driver out or expeller, without obvious barbarism; and eyxcipitw, to put into the hands, we inhand; and if we have to hasten, ought to be able to render by a verb σevdw, we have no ovoñevow, to make haste together. Then, with regard to euphony, there are comparatively few monosyllables in Greek, and in almost all words an equal number of vowels to counteract the consonants. Not that we believe the language to have
Lexicon, by Dunbar and Barker.
been formed upon the artificial principles so ingeniously exhibited by Scheidius, but because we think that the oriental accentuation did not hold in indifference cacophony, as did the northern nations. Improvements the language (like all others) did receive; for the Doric and Ionic are different; and certainly our ancestors talked more broadly than ourselves. But in all the modern languages, and their prototypes, there are, we repeat, the greatest defects compared with the Greek. We have no yepvpow, to build a bridge, no poßoσkew, to support the aged; and circumlocution is always bad, unless it be used for emphasis or illustration. Science has adopted many Greek words with the best success, because it confers both vigour and precision; and, if it be true that there is a secondary language, which in se teaches things as well as words (and it is true of the chemical nomenclature), that may be said of most Greek compounds.
With regard to the elevation of the language into music by mere enunciation, we assume the position. Adam Smith says "What are called the intervals; that is, the difference in point of gravity or acuteness between the sounds or tones of a singing voice, are much greater and more distinct than those of the speaking voice. Though the former, therefore, can be measured and appropriated by the proportion of chords or strings, the latter cannot. The nicest instruments cannot express the minuteness of these intervals." However this may be, it is certain that accents were known in the time of Alypius and much more ancient writers, as Aristotle, Plato, &c., and that if they were used chiefly for prosody, they were employed in music occasionally. Now, it is natural for prosody to unite musical sound, whereever feasible; and, as prose passages have been quoted from Livy, which fall undesignedly into hexameters, so there are words in Greek, and arrangements of words, which are in se musical, but which no translation can render so; e. g.
παιδες Αθηναιων εβαλοντο φαεινην κρηπιδ ̓ ελευθεριας
is composed of musical syllables, very unlike in sound, and in the English of which there is no music at all.
We cannot, however, indulge in further (to scholars, superficial) diatribes concerning this divine language. We have here to speak of the εγχειριdia by which it is taught. Now it would be a very curious feature in any Lexicon or Dictionary, that it should omit more words that it inserts. We cannot call it a lusus naturæ or a deceptio visus, but an inn, which tempts the traveller to alight, and yet, as Matthews says, has nothing in the house but an execution. Put any tyro into Eschylus, for instance, with no other aid but a Schrevelius. He will not find more than five words out of ten; and in such as he does find, he will often be misled by the definitions. We do not ascribe this to neglect or incompetency, only to the circumstance of there being but few Greek authors used in schools at the time of the original compilation, and long afterwards, viz. the Greek Testament, Esop, Homer, Xenophon, Theocritus, and Sophocles; to which were sometimes added, in the higher seminaries and universities, Herodotus, Thucydides, Demosthenes, Euripides, Lucian, Plato, and perhaps Aristophanes and Pindar. These, as well as various minor authors, were read through the media of annexed Latin translations, and therefore the desiderata of the Dictionaries were not felt. Since, however, Greek has been studied without these aids, the complaisant translation banker has stopped payment, and when we go to the Lexica, there is no drawing bills at sight or after date. Of course, as the language is more studied through itself, a larger extent of business ensues, and more easy acquisition of the needful is necessary, and the Dictionary banking-shops must be accordingly enlarged to meet the exigence. It is stated in the preface, that, to facilitate discount, many thousand additional words are added to this work of our authors; and, although we believe a perfect Greek Lexicon to be almost an impossibility, we honestly think that the authors have done more than they profess to claim. If they have
Greek and English Lexicon.—Modern Latin Poetry.
used English instead of Latin, we can say, in the words of Johnson, who replied to Boswell's question, whether a boy should learn Greek or Latin first. "Šir, it is no matter; it is only like a man, with his breeches in his hand, studying which leg he shall put in first." If Greek be the harder language, and requires more time, it is plain that it should be commenced first. Greek, however, is only of circumscribed application, compared with the Latin, and he who cannot learn both, ought to prefer the latter.
The present book is written for school use, and certainly a chest with abundance of tools is better than one with few. We know that the work is executed by most competent persons, and we think that the following extracts will prove it :
"IIporivo, propino, præbibo, to drink first or before, at an entertainment, from a cup of wine, which was just raised to the lips with the right hand, and slightly tasted by the host, who stood up, (Suid.' ATÉπivov μupov τῆς κύλικος, καὶ τότε παρείχοντο, ᾧ ἂν ἐβούλοντο, καὶ τὴν κύλικα, καὶ ἐκαλεῖτο Tроrive.) Thence, to pass the cup with the right hand to another, naming him, to drink to his health, offering the cup, to pledge him in drinking, to invite him to drink after you, to hand the cup to a guest, whom it was intended in this way to compliment, that he might drink after his host. Thence, to show respect, to honour, (Hesych. Iроñíwμev dià тоû ovov Tiμnowμev.) Thence to give to drink :
Videtur etiam adhiberi simpliciter pro dare bibere, vinum præbendum præbere, Martial. Epigr. 3, 82. 10, 49." Forcellin. Lex. totius Latin). Thence to offer or administer medicine: ("De medicis pharmacum præbentibus, Plin. 20, 10. 21, 2. 28, 16." Forcellin.) Thence to offer, hand over, deliver. Thence, in a spirit of hospitality, generosity, and friendship, to make a present of. Thence to give away with convivial levity, wantonness, and extravagance. Thence to give up, surrender, over the intoxicating bowl, amidst merriment and revelry. Thence to sacrifice for some momentary pleasure, abandon for some paltry consideration, betray from some unprincipled motive. These various significations of the verb may be easily traced. At splendid entertainments, given by kings, princes, and nobles, The host, desirous to shew his respect nd friendship for some particular
had been filled with wine, and pledged his guest by name to drink after him, and at the same time presented him with the cup itself, which the guest took away with him. From Pind. Olymp. 7, 1. we learn that an opulent father was accustomed to pledge in this manner, in the midst of his relations and friends, the youth, on whom he had fixed for his son-in-law, tendering to him a gold cup to drink after him, and at the same time making him a present of the cup itself: it was a public announcement, and a solemn sanction of the intended nuptials."— Schol.
''Yлшñá, Proprie dicitur de pugile, qui cæstu suo plagam infert adversario sub oculo, adeo ut inde tumor oriatur lividus; Latine suggillo dici potest. Glossa: Ynomia, suggillo. Ὑπώπια ποιεῖ, suggillat. Ὑπωπιασθεὶς, suggillatus. Cic. Tusc. 2. cæstibus contundere dixit. Occurrit h. v. ap. Diog. L. 6. Κράτης Νικόδρομος ἐξερεθίσας τὸν κιθαρῳδὸν, ὑπωπιάσθη, in faciem cæsus est. Inde metaphorice etiam ad alia transfertur, ut nomen ὑπώπιον, Aristoph. Pac. p. 661. πόλεις пшпασμévаs, urbes contusas dixit.'
TO execute the task which Archdeacon Wrangham declines (see p. 2), would require an unrelaxed cultivation of that high class of literature which does not belong to me. I am convinced that two volumes of the best productions of modern Latin poets would operate beneficially on the present corrupt public taste. Some of the Lyrics in the Selecta Poemata Italorum are exquisite. See "Res Literariæ," vol. I. and III. where much Italian biography is to be found, that no one who had not resided in Italy could collect. Vol. I. was printed at Naples during the three months of a free press, 1820.
Herrick's famous line,
"Gather ye rosebuds while ye may," is stolen from Spenser. And so is Dryden's celebrated line in Cymon and Iphigenia,
"Where two beginning paps were only signified."
Mr. Nicolas has done much towards the elucidation of the Peerage. I know not of any book more valuable on peerage law, than his "Report of the Lisle Claim," which must always continue a text-book on the subject.
REVIEW OF NEW PUBLICATIONS.
Illustrations of the Literary History of the Eighteenth Century; consisting of Authentic Memoirs and Original Letters of eminent persons; and intended as a sequel to the Literary Anecdotes. By John Nichols, F.S.A. Volume VI. pp. 900. THERE perhaps was never a period in which ignorance of literary history more observable, nor in which authors (perhaps we should say bookmakers, the tools of our modern Curls) seem either to want, or to despise all that have preceded them. Day after day we are presented with new histories, new systems, or new lives, compiled by men who never have supposed that any information preceded theirs, and who therefore endeavour to amuse their readers with the most grossly erroneous narratives, delivered with intolerable arrogance and conceit. Many of these candidates for temporary or periodical fame, appear, when discovered, to be youths just emerged from school, pretending to the diffusion of a knowledge which themselves have never acquired, and know not where to look for.
Publications like that now before us, are well calculated to check, by exposing, the perpetual intrusion of such crude efforts, and we hail with pleasure the continuance of a work which may detect the general ignorance to which we allude, and supply those defects in literary history, which have produced a disgraceful revolution in our periodical literature. This we trust may be counteracted by the vast mass of information contained in the present volume and its predecessors, and we are happy to remark that such authentic materials for history, biography, and antiquity, are likely to be continued with the zeal and spirit which animated its original author, Mr. Nichols senior, who might well have said, Non omnis moriar.
From the dedication to this volume, we learn that the editors are the son and grandson of Mr. Nichols. It consists principally of "selections from the yet far from exhausted stores of literary correspondence" in the possession of the late editor. Of these stores "three series of letters are included,
which would probably have been pubginal appeared too extensive to become lished before, had they not in the orionly portions of a volume." These are
correspondence with Mr. Gough, of three eminent antiquaries: Mr. EsBrooke, Somerset Herald; and the sex, the Cambridge architect; Mr. Rev. Samuel Denne. Of these we shall speak afterwards.
The other contents of this volume, perhaps more original, are the Letters which may be deemed more recent, of the late Lord Camelford; the autographical articles contributed by the biography of Mr. Chafin; twelve bioRev. James Ford, late of Ipswich, and namely, the lives of George_Richard now vicar of Navestock in Essex, Savage Nassau, Esq.; the Reverend William Clubbe, LL.D. and John Clubbe, M.D.; Rev. Samuel Darby, A. M.; Rev. John Price, keeper of the Bodleian; Richard Beatniffe; Rev. M. A.; Edmund Gillingwater; Rev. John Brand; Rev. Richard Canning, Thomas Bishop, D.D.; the Dawson family; Rev. George Burton, A. M.; and Mr. John Mole. We have also Turner; Memoirs of the late Edmund some MSS. of the late Rev. B. N. Turnor, Esq. F.R.S. communicated by rich, librarian of Cambridge, by his his brother; and of the late Mr. KerBuckeridge, Mr. Green, Rev. Thomas son; Memoirs of the Rev. Theophilus Leman, &c. &c. &c.
The first article in the volume, to which we have not yet adverted as forming any part of it, is a long biograGifford, Esq. the translator of Juvenal, phical account of the late William terly Review. In this are many very and for many years editor of the Quarinteresting particulars of Gifford's early fixed to his Juvenal, which is very prolife, taken from his own account previewer, it is here said that "at times perly given here entire. As a rehis pen was at least sufficiently severe," specified, it would be impossible to but unless the articles he wrote were know how far this character is just, as depending only on his criticisms. We this point. His avowed publications, are not, however, left to conjecture on
REVIEW.-Nichols's Literary Illustrations, vol. VI. [April,
Thomas Pitt, first Lord Camelford, was born March 3, 1733, and educated at the university of Cambridge. It was during his residence at Clare-hall, that he was favoured by his uncle the first and great Lord Chatham, with a series of sensible, affectionate, and estimable letters, which, in 1804 were published by his son-in-law Lord Grenville, accompanied by an excellent preface from the pen of that illustrious statesman. Omitting other particulars of the parliamentary progress of Mr. Thomas Pitt, until he was called to the House of Peers by the title of Lord Camelford, all which are accurately detailed in the memoir prefixed to his "Letters," it may be sufficient to mention that the present letters begin in 1780, and end a short time before his death, which took place at Florence, Jan. 19, 1793. This period, short as it may seem, includes many important events on which he imparted his opinions to his correspondent Mr. Hardinge, with great freedom and strong sense. The principal of these events were the general election in 1780, which brought Mr. Fox into parliament for Westminster-the change of administration
and his prefaces to the dramatic authors whose works he edited, sufficiently betray the selfish irritability of his temper. To this we may add, his "Examination" of the article of his Juvenal, which appeared in the Critical Review, and "The Supplement to that Examination," written in great bitterness of spirit, and much and low personal abuse; but they were not answers, nor did he know that the articles in the Review were written by an Oxford scholar (still living) of classical abilities far superior to those of Gifford.
This memoir is followed by short but accurate lives of two eminent mathematicians, the Rev. John Hellins, F.R.S. and the Rev. Malachi Hitchins.
The Letters of the Rev. Peter Cuningham, addressed to the Rev. Thomas Seward, father of the Poetess, afford some instances, if any were wanted to complete her character, of her love for the adulatory and the bombast in writing, as well as an excellent specimen of what Miss Seward considered "as an easy and elegant epistolary style." We can well remember the fame of this lady, and of her flatterer Mr. Hayley. In this last article they long carried on a successful partnership, and ran their course together. Fifty years ago no poetry was mentioned but that of Miss Seward and Mr. Hayley, or rather "the Muse of Lichfield" and the " poet of Eartham." This exchange of titles met the eye in every Review and Magazine, but the fame that accrued was somehow short lived. Their works are no longer sought after, and their biographers have contributed largely to bury what remained.
Our readers are aware how much Mr. Nichols's preceding volumes were indebted to the valuable communications of Mr. Justice Hardinge. The correspondence of Lord Camelford in the present volume is, as the editors observe," the composition of a highly cultivated mind, of a literary turn, and polished by an intercourse with the best society of Europe; and, although their theme is in a great degree politics," they were the politics of a very interesting period both of English and continental history, and the noble writer's sentiments cannot fail to be read even now with considerable inte
the coalition ministry—the trial of Mr. Hastings-the affecting illness of his Majesty George III-and the French Revolution, with all its mischiefs. What renders these letters the more interesting is, that they embrace many of those political dogmas which are distracting the minds of men at the very period (1831) at which we are now arrived.
On Mr. Fox's first election for Westminster, his Lordship says
"Mr. Fox will run us hard at Westminster at last, but it is our own fault, in suffering him to poll not only all the legal votes his Duchesses could seduce by every mode of application, but troops from Spital-fields, and any where else, which the indolence of the High Bailiff, and the treachery of his deputy, have admitted."
On this event, it was well remarked, that it would not be difficult to prove that Mr. Fox was upon the whole no great gainer by representing a city in which the arts of popularity, even when most honestly practised, are no security for its continuance; and indeed the time was not far distant when he had to experience the fatal effects of preferring a seat which the purest vir