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267. DELIVERY AND PAINTING. There Proverbs. 1. The act—does not constitute is a striking analogy or correspondence, be guilt in the eye of the law so much as the design. 2. tween painting and delivery. We have, what a certain degree of modesty and reserve, in young are called, seven primary colors, and seven persons, is a sure passport to the good will of their pitches of sound-though strictly speaking, superiors. 3. The diligent and industrious-gebut three of each. Letters are like compound- nerally prosper; while the indolent-pine in want. ed paints; words like paints, prepared for use; 4. Keep your passions in subjection ; for unless and, when these words are arranged into pro- they obey you, they will govern you. 5. In imper sentences, they form pictures on the parting to a friend-a knowledge of our misforcanvas of the imagination. * Let the follow tunes, we often feel them lightened. 6. The body ing beautiful landscape be sketched out in may be enslaved; but no human power can con. the mind : “ On a MOUNTAIN, (stretched be-trol the mind, without its consent. 7. A flowery neath a hoary willow) lay a shepherd swain, path-is not that which conducts us to glory. 8. and view'd the rolling billow." Now Let us use, not abuse—the good things of life. 9. review it; and see every thing as it is--the A good reputation—is preferable to a girdle of gold. mountain covered with trees; the shepherd, 10. Lofty towers-tumble with a tremendous crash. reclining under the willow tree, with his 11. Dig not your grave with the teeth. 12. April flock near by, some feeding, and some lying showers, make May fiowers. down; and what is he doing? Looking out upon the ocean, covered with pleasure boats, Enjoyment. When I walk the streets, I vessels, &c. In this way, you may behold, use the following natural maxim, viz. that he with the mind's eye, (for the mind has its is the true possessor of a thing who enjoys it, eye, as well as the body,) the ideas of the au- and not he that owns it without the enjoythor; and then picture out whatever you ment of it; to convince myself that I have a hear and read, and give to it life, habitation, property in the gay part of all the gilt chari. and a name; thus you will see the thoughts, ols that I meet, which I regard as amusereceive the light, and catch, or draw out iheir ments, designed to delight my eyes, and the latent heat; and having enlightened and warm- imagination of those kind of people, who sit ed your own mind, you will read and speak in them, gaily attired, only to please me. I from your own thoughts and feelings, -and have a real, and they only an imaginary, pleatransfer the living, breathing landscapes of sure from their exterior embellishments. your mind to others, and leave a perfect Upon the same principle, I have discovered daguerreotype likeness on the retina of their that I am the natural proprietor of all the mind's eye : you feel and think, and there. diamond necklaces, the crosses, stars, brofore speak ; and thus you can memorize, so cades, and embroidered clothes, which I see as not to forget : for you will have it by at a play or birth-night, as giving more natuheart.
ral delight to the spectator, ihan to those that
wear them. And I look on the beaux and 268. La Fayfette. I see the marshals ladies, as so many paroyuets in an aviary, or of Napoleon (gorged with the plunder of Eu- tulips in a garden, designed purely for my rope, and stained with its blood) borne on their diversion. Å gallery of pictures, a cabinet, flashing chariot-wheels-through the streets of Paris. I see the ministers of Napoleon my own. 'In a word, all that I desire is the
or library, that I have free access to, I think filling the highest posts of trust and honor use of things, let who will have the keepunder Louis the XVIII.; and I see the friend ing of them. By which maxim I am grown of Washington, (La Fayette,) glorious in his one of the richest men in the world; with noble poverty, looking down from the calm this difference, that I am not a prey to my and placid height of his consistency and his
or the envy of others. principles,-on their paltry ambition, and its more paltry rewards.
Varieties. 1. Can we be responsible,
without being endowed with freedom, and ra. Anecdote. Means of Happiness. Socra: tionality? 2. Perfect freedom is the birthtes, when asked his opinion of the king of right of man, and heaven forbid that any huPersia, and whether he judged him happy: man authority should infringe upon it; but replied, "he could not tell what to think in the exercise of this right, let us be humble of him; because, he knew not how much he and discreet, and never do wrong. 3. If the was furnished with virlue and learning.” roots be left, the grass will grow again. 4. Magic, wonder-beaming eye ;
Brutes-have a language peculiar to them. In thy narrow circle - lie
selves ; so have deaf and dumb persons. 5. All our varied hopes—and fears,
There are merchants--with the sentiments, Sportive smiles—and graceful tears;
and abilities, of statesmen; and there are per. Eager wishes,-wild alarms,
sons in the ranks of statesmen, with the conRapid feelings,-potent charms,
ceptions and characters of pedlars. 6. The
natural world is a world of dreams; for noWit and genius, taste and sense,
thing ismas it appears ; but the spiritual Shed through thee-their INFLUENCE.
world—is a world of realities, where we shall When lovers meet-in adverse hour,
see as we are seen, and know-as we are 'Tis like the sun-glimpse-through the shower, known. 7. The granary-of all heavenly A watery ray-an instant seen,
seed, is the Word of God; the ground-is The darkly changing clouds-between. our will, in which that seed must be sown.
269. This Word - Painting, being a sub Proverbs. 1. He, whose expenditure is more ject of such great importance, and one that than his income, must be poor; but he that receives is inseparably connected with emphasis, we more than he spends, must be rich. 2. What will dwell upon it a little longer, and apply some speakers fail in, as to depth, they make up it practically; for--unless we get into the in- as to length. 3. Money, earned with little labor, is ternals of the subject, all our efforts will be generally spent with little consideration. 4. We nearly unavailing. A very good way to often lose those things that are certain, while we perfect ourself in this style of painting, is—to pursue others that are doubtful. 5. He, who close the eyes, after having memorized the knows nothing, doubts nothing. 6. Many perwords, (or get some one to read them delibe- sons feel an irreconcilable enmity-towards those rately,) and infix the thoughts and feelings labor, no work is perfected. 8. Accumulated
whom they have injured. 7. Without sweat and of the author in the mind, and let there be a wealth--brings care, and a thirst for increasing commingling of them with your own, in such riches. 9. Whether in prosperity, or adversity, a way, that there will be an entire re-produc- we should always endeavor to preserve equation, and re-formation of them,-a new crea- nimity. 10. Do not grieve for that which is irretion. The effect of this kind of exercise on coverably lost. 11. Use soft words, and hard the mind, will be like that of the warm sun, arguments. 12. A full purse never lacks friends. and refreshing rain, in developing and per Dissimulation. Dissimulation in youth, fecting vegetation.
is the forerunner of perfidy in old age; its THUNDER STORM ON THE ALPS. first appearance—is the fatal omen of grow
Far along ing depravity, and future shame. It degrades From peak to peak, the rattling crags among, parts and learning, obscures the lustre of Leaps the live thunder ! not from one lone cloud, every accomplishment, and sinks us into conBut every mountain-now, hath found a tongue, tempt. The path of falsehood is a perplexing And Jura-answers through her misty shroud,
After the first departure from sin. Back to the joyous Alps, who called aloud.
cerity, it is not in our power to stop; one arThy spirit-Independence, let me share, tifice unavoidably leads on to another ; till,
Lord of the lion heart-and eagle eye ! as the intricacy of the labyrinth increases, we Thy steps I follow, with my bosom bare, are left entangled in our snaré.
Nor heed the storms that howl across the sky. Tis greatly wise-to talk with our past hours,
Pain—is perfect misery, the worst of evils; And ask them-what report--they bore to heaven;
And ercessive, overturns all patience.
'Tis base—to change with fortune, and deny 870. CHEMISTRY–treats of the composi
A faithful friend, because in poverty. tion of all material substances, their sensible
Who lives to nature,-rarely can be poor ; properties and relations, and the effects pro
Who lives to fancy, never can be rich. duced upon them-by cohesion, offinity, light, Music-resembles poetry ; in eachheat, and electricity. Its study-reflects light Are nameless graces, which no methods teach, upon all these effects, and is subsidiary to the And which a master's hand alone-can reach. natural and medical sciences: indeed, its ap Bright-eyed fancy-hovering o'er, plication extends throughout the wider range Scatters-from her pictured urn, of all the physical arts; and hence, ranks Thoughts--that breathe, and words--that burn. among the most useful of the sciences. If the If good-we plant not, vice-will fill the place, fair sex-would understand this subject, only And rankest weeds--the richest soil-deface. 80 far as it relates to house-keeping, they But the good man, whose soul is pure, would see, that there is no necessity of hav Unspotted, and of pardon--sure, ing poor soap, or bad bread, or of making Looks thro' the darkness of the gloomy night, other mistakes in their culinary preparations.
And sees the dawning-of a glorious light. Anecdote. Mad Man. A man, who was
Would you taste the tranquil scene? ay parently more of a wit—than a mad-man,
Be sure your bosom-be serene ; but who, notwithstanding, was confined in a
Devoid of hate, devoid of strife, mad-house, being asked how he came there,
Devoid of all that poisons life.
And much it 'vails you~in their place, answered—“Merely a dispute of words; I
To graft the love of human race. said that all men were mad; and all said I was ma?; the majority-carried the point,
How deep-yon azure-dyes the sky, and here am."
Where orbs of gold-unnumbered lie,
While, through their ranks, in silver pride,
The nether crescent-seems to glide!
Thou sun, said I, fair light!
And thou, enlightened earth, so fresh and gay! Where virtue-seeks to enter.
Ye hills and dales, ye rivers, woods, and plains, Lovers say, the heart-hath treble wrong, And ye that live, and move, fair creatures, tell, When it is barred-the aidance of the tongue. Tell if you cun, how came I thus, how here ?
271. RYTHM-poetical measure, or verse; Proverbs. 1. Truth-is but another name-for of which there are various kinds. Prose-is fact. 2. There is a mental, as well as civil comman's natural language, which is rather monwealth. 3. The end of learning, is usefulloose and unconfined. Poetry-originates in ness,--not reputation. 4. Study the principles of the affections, prose in the thoughts, of the things,—as well as their uses. 5. Common sense human mind; tho' some poems are occasion--which is very un-common, is the best sense ally prosaic, and some prose--poetic: feel in the world. 6. No one can hit a mark, without ing predominates in the former,-thought, aiming at it; and skill is acquired, by repeated in the latter. Our rules for reading and attempts. 7. Never do anything with indifference; speaking are the same, whether in prose or
and do everything as perfectly as possible. 8.
Never cut out a piece of a newspaper, till you poetry: for in all cases, the manner must be
have looked on the other side. 9. In prosperity, adapted to the matter ; the sound to the
-prepare for a change; in adversity,-hope for sense: in other words, the mind's perception
one. 10. Haste is a poor apology; take time, and and feeling of the matter, must dictate the ap- do your work well. 11. Personal effort-seldom propriate manner ; “ suit the action to the fails to obtain its object. 12. Some people never word, the word to the action; and o’erstep have enough. not the modesty of nature.”
Autumn. It was a glorious day in auYon cloud is bright, and beautiful-it floats tumn. The sky, of unsullied blue, glowed Alone in God's horizon ; on its edge
like a sapphire. The universal air-was fillThe stars seem hung like pearls; it looks as pureed with stillness. Not breeze whisperedAs 'twere an angel's shroud, -the white cymar not a bird flapped its wing. It was the triOf purity, just peeping through its folds
umph of reposemwhen the undying energies To give a pitying look-on this sad world.
of man--slumbered for a moment,--when Go visit it, and find, that all is false ;
even the conflict of his passions was suspendIts glories—are but fog, and its white form Is plighted to some coming thunder-gust ;-
ed. Beautiful, melancholy autumn! whose The rain, the wind, the lightning, have their source
ruddy ripeness--whispers of decay; whose In such bright meetings. Gaze not at the clouds, richest tints--mingle with the “sear and yelHowever beautiful. Gaze at the sky,
low leaf,” as if the lusty year--had toiled The clear, blue, tranquil, fixed, and glorious sky. through youth and manhood for wealth,
272. AGRICULTURE—is the art of cultiva- which overflows, just when waning life--inting the ground; it includes, also, the rear- dicates, that the power of enjoyment--is passing and management of domestic animals; ing away. it is sometimes called Farming, and Hus Varieties, 1. What is the difference bandry: and, although simple in its opera- between reading and reflection? 2. To look tions, it derives great benefit from Machinery, away from principles, and we only their ap-whence it takes its implements ; from plication, tends to idolatry, 3. Suspicion is Chemistry,—whence it derives a knowledge the effect--of the association of ideas--misof soils, and the means of fertilizing them; directed by the imagination; it never exists from Botany,—which teaches a knowledge of --without a shade of insanity. the plants—to be cultivated or destroyed; Tho' deep, yet clear ; tho' gentle, yet not dull ; and from Zoology--which teaches the habits Strong, without rage,--without o'erflowing-full. and peculiarities of the animals it rears, and 5. In what manner--is uniformity in events the means of improving them for use-and--depending, apparently, on contingent cirprofit.
cumstances, to be accounted for? 6. Only Anecdote. Kosciusko, the hero of Poland, by appealing to first principles--can we rewishing to make a present to a Clergyman, cover, or maintain--the spirit and essence, sent it by a young man, and desired him to of genuine wisdom, and intelligence. 7 The take the horse, which he himself usually rode. greatest degree of self-abasement, if real, is On his return, the young man said-he the nearest approach to the Divine Presence. would never ride his horse again, unless he Nay, shrink not-from the word “ Farewell,” gave his purse at the same time; for, said he, As if 'twere Friendship's final knell : “as soon as a poor man on the road takes off
Such fears-may prove but vain :
To souls, that heavenward soar;
May meet,--to part no more.
873. The three philosophical divisions of Proverbs. 1. Never begin things, and then Poetry (as well as of Prose) in relation to the leave them unfinished. 2. Have a place for every mind, are--RELIGIOUS, having reference thing: and when you have used it, put it back to the supreme Being, and what is above us again. 3. Proverbs—bear age; and he, who would in the scale of creation; the social and ci- do well, may see himself in them, as in a looking
- costs nothing, and may do VIL, or middle; what is around us, and glass. 4. Politeness
much good. 5. Tediousness—is often fatal to our within, relating to the great family of man: and the external, which refers, principally, to object. 6. Where there is no hope, there is no en.
deavor. 7. Unequal friendships—are easily dis. the kingdom of Nature, which is below us; solved. 8. Sloth-consumes faster than labor. 9. viz. the animal, vegetable, and mineral: (do Lost time is never found again; and time enough not include mankind in the animal king- yet
, is always little enough. 10. Industry-paye dom; they are human; it is sensualism debts; despair—increases them. 11. Troops of fuwhich has degraded man to rank with ani- ries--march in the drunkard's triumph. 12. Sucmals.) The common divisions of Poetry are cess-consecrates the foulest crimes. -Pastoral, Lyric, Didactic, Satire, Sonnets, Anecdote. The Boys and Frogs. L'Es Descriptive, Epic, Tragic, and Comic; to which trange tells us, in his fables, that a number some add, Sacred, Classic, Romantic, Elegiac, of boys were one day watching frogs at the Mythologic, Eclogue, Ballad, and Epitaph. side of a pond; and that when any of them
274. Management of the Breath. From put their heads above the water, the boys what we have said, you see the importance pelted them down again, with stones. One of attending to this subject. Very few per- of the frogs, appealing to the humanity of sons-breathe sufficiently often, when read the boys, made this striking observation, ing, speaking, or singing. All the directions "Children, you do not consider, that thougb the author has seen on this subject—are at this may be sport to you, it is death to us." variance with truth and nature. There are
Folly and Wisdom. Many parents.a few instances, when a long breath is neces- labor hard, and live sparingly, that they may sary; but they are very rare. To acquire a give their children a start in the world: but long breath, exercise on all the difficulties of setting a son afloat with money left to him respiration, — and pursue a similar course is like tying bladders under the arms of one for strengthening a weak voice; also, practice who cannot swim; and ten to one he will long quantity, walking up hill, and running, drown ; but teach him to swim, and he will. when reciting. In the following, breathe at never need bladders : give a child a good eduleast once, while reading each period. “He cation, and it will give him such a start--as died young, (breathe,) but he died happy. will secure usefulness and victory in the race His friends have not had him long, (breathe,) he is to run. but his death — (breathe) is the greatest Varieties. 1. Is it possible—for a created trouble and grief, (breathe,) they ever had. being to merit any thing-at the hands of He has enjoyed the sweets of the world— God? 2. The instincts of animals are their (breathe,) only for a little while, (breathe,) laws of life; they seem to be sensible of their but he never tasted its bitters.” The writer ends of being, and the means of attaining is aware of being, in this respect, in opposi-them. 3. Truth—is that resemblance to, or tion to authorities; but he cannot be influ- conformity with Nature, that is presented to enced by that, so long as he is persuaded that the mind, by the relation of ideas, whether truth and nature are with him. If one does simple, or complex. 4. There is a divinitynot breathe sufficiently often, he will be al- shapes our ends, rough hew them as we will. most sure to speak too rapidly: and, as the 5. 'Tis better, to be lowly born, and range object of Elocution is--to convince and per- with humble livers—in content, than to be suade, how can one expect to do this, if he pricked up-in glittering grief, and wear a does not give his hearers time to think, or golden sorrow. 6. Whatever is seen, by the reason, about what he says? How can a bodily eye, or perceived by the outward senses, jury-keep pace with a lawyer, whose lan- is but an effect-from the spiritual world, and guage rides post-haste? If his reason, and a true representative of some principle therearguments, are hurled upon the ear, like in, and proper to it; for that world is in the flashes of lightning upon the eye, how can human soul,-and mind. they be remembered, or produce the intended I ramble-by the evening sea effect? If one does not breathe at the proper The light-house-glimmering from afar, times and places, the sense is not fully con And fleecy clouds-are scouring free veyed, and the lungs are injuriously affected. O'er rising moon, and twinkling star; Too unfrequent breathing, and rapid speak
In distance-floats the waning sail, ing, must be avoided; but beware of the op Or brightly gleams the plashing oar, posite extreme, unless you wish to lull your And mingles with the shining gale hearers to sleep.
The billow-murmuring on the shore; Ask of mother earth-why oaks—were made
But one thing wants the wanderer thereTaller and stronger-than the weeds they shade. A kindred soul, the scene to share.
275. Emphasis. This is a very impor-| Proverbs. 1. Every act of violence leads tant part of our subject ; and unless the pu- to difficult results. 2. The house of a true friend pil is certain, that he perfectly understands is always a sure asylum. 3. It is sweet—to soothe Accent, he is advised to review it again. Ac- the wretched, and mitigate their misfortunes. 4 He cented syllables, are to other syllables, in the has done the mischief, and I bear the blame. 5. same word, what emphatic syllables, are to It is common to fools—to mention their neighbor's words in the same sentence,-hence, it may faults; while they are forgetful of their own. be seen, that as the idea—is always associa- Endeavor to conquer adverse circumstances; and
not submit to them. 7. It is wise-to derive knowted with the accented vowel, and changes, ledge, even from an enemy. 8. He, who flies
from when the seat of accent is changed; as in judgment, confesses the crime imputed to him. 9. Au-gust, and au-gust; so, the mind's eye-We are generally willing to believe—what we always accompanies the emphatic word. Ex. wish to be true. 10. Let justice be done, tho’ the Doctor Johnson, (says Cicero,) was a great heavens fall. 11. The more riches a fool has, the orator. Thus emphasised, we make Cicero foolisher he is. 12. When the heart—is past hope, say, that Dr. Johnson-was a great orator. the face-is past shame. 13. Despair-has ruined Corrected, thus: Dr. Johnson says—Cicero many a one. was a great orator. Practice on this sentence,
Philosophy of Mind. No philosophy of till every thing appertaining to correct em- the mind can be valuable, that does not prophasis is familiar. All the words in this pose an inquiry into the connection between book, printed in different type, are more or mind and matter. Attention to the subject less emphatic: and some are emphatic that of our own consciousness, alone, excludes the are in the common type.
possibility of their being well observed, be276. Emphasis—is an increase of accent cause the conditions of their being well seen on the accented vowels of important words, -are neglected. That there is a direct conthe more perfectly to convey the sense of the nection between mind and matter, the soul author. There are only two ways of ma- and body, is an indisputable fact; and it is king it: which are the same as in accent ; viz: perfectly idle, to pretend to examine the qualby STRESS and QUANTITY. First, by stress : ities of the former, without reference to the Ex. 1. The difference-between what is true latter. The comprehension of the action of -and false, good—and evil, is very great. mind and the reaction of matter, involves 2. Some reports—are true : others are false. the true principles of Intellectual Philosophy 3. Truth tells us, that certain affections, and Psychology. are evil: but False says, they are good. 4.
Varieties. 1. Which is the most desiraGood men-love, and practice, what is good ble, to know and understand much; or, to and true; but wicked men-love, and prac- make a right use of what we know and untice, what is false, and evil. 5. Heuven- derstand ? 2. The Jew—asks a sign ; the consists of all that is good and true ; but Greeks—seek after wisdom. 3. Do not the Hell-consists of all that is false, and evil.
shadows of great thoughts, sometimes fall 277. Horticulture--or Gardening, is on our minds? the art of preparing and cultivating gardens, Who friendship-with a knave has made, including pleasure-grounds, and ornamental Is judged a partner-in the trade; shrubbery: its close relation to Agriculture, 'Tis thus, that on the choice of friends, renders it difficult to distinguish between Our good, or evil name-depends. them. As involving principles of taste, and 5. Envy no man's good, or truth : seek not elements of beauty, it may be classed with to be him. If less than thee, give that which the Fine Arts; but its connection with the he asketh of thee, at all times; if more than Useful Arts--presents a stronger relation; thee, envy not: neither seek to depreciate ; and, whether considered in reference to use and beware of rashly condemning what is fulness, or ornament, it deserves much at- above thee, lest thou materially hurt thyself. tention, and exerts a salutary influence over 6. We may as soon take fire-into the buo its votaries.
som, without being burned, or touch tar, Anecdote. Working a Passage. An without being defiled, as to frequent and deIrishman, having applied to work his passage light in—bad company, without a stain upon on a canal-boat, and being employed to lead our moral character. the horses on the tow-path; on arriving at the place of destination, declared he would sooner
Mine eyes—have seen the beautiful,
My heart-has felt their potent rule
The fears of hope, the hope of joys_
But never-has my sight approved
A fairer—than my sister-no!
As, her “dear brother," spoken low.