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238. Pronunciation, as has been observed, Proverbs. 1. Endeavor to improve in conhad a very comprehensive meaning among versation. 2. He who is wise' in small matters, the ancients, taking in the whole compass of will be wise in large ones. 3. Never say a fooldelivery, and involving every thing we see ish thing. 4. None can speak so feelingly of an and hear in modern elocution: it is now con- advantage, as he who has suffered by neglecting fined within narrower limits, and has refer- it. 5. Let not the sun go down on your wrath ence only to the manner of sounding words. 6. Our minds are moulded and fashioned by the It is much to be regretted, that there is not books we read. 7. Better be good, and not seem more agreement, even among literary and so, than seem good, and not be so. 8. A pleasant scientific men, with regard to this important journey is dearly bought, with the loss of home. branch of our subject : but when we reflect, All have power to distinguish between right,
9. He, only, is a man, who governs himself. 10. that not one in a hundred, takes it up syste- and wrong. 11. Turn a deaf ear lo obscene matically, and masters its principles, it is not words. 12. All things are proven by contrast. su:prising that there is so much discrepancy.
Good Sense. It will preserve us from cenThis consideration of inattention to the sub- soriousness; will lead us to distinguish cirject should put us on our guard against fol- cumstances; keep us from looking after vislowing their examples in every respect, and ionary perfection, and make us see things in of yielding implicit obedience to their whims their proper light. It will lead us to study and oddities. There is so much self-love and dispositions, peculiarities, accommodations; pride of intelligence, as well as passion for to weigh consequences; to determine what novelty, prevalent in the world, that the stu- to observe and what to pass by; when to be dent in elocution, as well as in every thing immoveable, and when to yield. It will proelse, should cleave to acknowledged and well duce good manners, keep us from taking established principles; and regard what is freedoms, and handling things roughly; will most useful instead of what is new.
never agitate claims of superiority, but teach 839. There are general as well as specific us to submit ourselves one to another. Good rules, for pronunciation: a partial idea of sense—will lead persons to regard their own which, may be obtained from this manual of duties, rather than to recommend those of Elocution. The author has been engaged, Jothers. for many years, in compiling a Dictionary, Varieties. 1. Is not a true knowledge of on an entirely new plan, so arranged, that the Divine Being, the foundation of religion, when one has learned the definitions of a few and the corner-stone of the church? 2. hundred words, he can accurately define as Every improper indulgence of the passions, many thousands; and with the use of his increases their strength for evil. 3. Few perfect alphabet, he will know the sound of seem to be aware, how much' depends on the every letter, the instant he sees it, and how culture of our social nature. 4. It is a great to pronounce each word, without re-spelling, happiness—to be free from suspicion; but a with the same facility. All things are gov- greater, to be free from offence. 5. To be erned by fixed principles, when they are in without passion, is worse than a beast; and true order; and when the principles of Pro- to be without reason, is worse than a man. nunciation are properly developed, and ap. 6. The refined pleasures of a truly pious plied, they will be found as simple and effec- mind, are far superior to the coarse gratificative, as those of Elocution and Music. tions of sense. 7. God gave no faculty of
Notes. 1. As the voice is often affected, by a derangement mind, or body, to men, but those which he of the respiratory and articulating organs: a few observations are meant should be exerted, and honor him in made on some of their causes and remedies
. 2. Colds and Coughs his design; the perversion of those faculties, -are the effects of sudden exposure to a cold atmosphere, by and acting from, in, and by them, contrary which the pores of the skin, (which is an exhalent surface,) becomes constringed and obstructed; which obstructions may be re
to God's design, makes the evil, disease, and mored, by restoring to the skin, (which is the safety-valve of the death. system,) its usual offices. When one has taken cold, the mucus
THE DAY OF LIFE. membrane of the lungs, and air passages, (which are also exha
The morning hours-of cheerful light, lents,) emit a new fluid-to compensate for the interruption in the
Of all the day-are best ; office of the surface of the body; and, as this new secretion consists of humors, which can be of no further use to the system, it
But, as they speed their hasty flight, excites a muscular effort, called a Cough; by which it is detached If every hour-be spent aright, from the surface of this inner skin, and expectorated. One of the We sweetly sink-to sleep-at night, best remedies is a Vapor Bath, with an application of cold water,
And pleasant-is our rest. and friction immediately after.
And life-is like a summer's day, Anecdote. A parish clerk, having, accor
It seems so quickly past : ding to custom, published the banns of matri
Youth-is the morning, bright, and gay, mony, between a loving couple, was followed
And, if 'tis spent in wisdom's way, by the minister, who gave out the hymn,
We meet old age--without dismay, commencing with these words—“ Mistaken
And death-is sweet-at last. souls! that dream of Heaven."
Oft, the cloud, that wraps the present hour, Reason gains all men,---by compelling-none. Lives—but to brighten-all our future days.
240. PAUSES, are indications of silence; Proverbs.. 1. A bird is known by his note, they were introduced with the art of printing; -and a man by his talk. 2. There are many, and it is questionable, whether they have aid who glory in their shame. 3. A good character--ed us much in learning to read or speak: for is a badge of excellence, that cannot long be con
cealed. 4. Never more, or less, than enough. 5. if there were no pauses, we should be com
Some — rather imitate greatness, than goodness. pelled to exercise the mind, so far as necessary to understand the author. Pauses in 6. There is misery in want, and danger in excess.
7. Good sayings, belong to all; evil actions only speech, are analagous to rests in music; and there are seven different kinds in each art; all to their authors. 8. A knowledge of the way, is a
the of which must be thoroughly understood, in good part of the journey. 9. If we go wrong,
farther we go, the farther we are from home. 10. their essence, to read, write, or sing correctly. Reform yourself first, and then, others. 11. The The true principles of notation, or pauses, fool-wanders; the wise—travel. 12 Words are are found only in the measure of speech, wind; seeing is believing. which is based on the philosophy of mind,
Inadequacy of Language. Words involving the exercise of thinking and feel- are poor weapons. The most beautiful verses ing. The use of pauses is to aid in making -are those which we cannot express. The the sense clearer, and should be only just long diction of every language is insufficient; and enough to answer their end.
every day, the heart of man finds, in the de 241. There are two KINDS of pauses, licacy of his sentiments, and the imagination Grammatical and Rhetorical. Grammatical discovers—in the impressions of visible napauses are distinguished by characters, and ture, things, which the mouth cannot embody are addressed to the eye, as well as to the ear. for want of words. The heart, and the The shortest pause is called a comma, (,) thought of man-are like a musician—driven which indicates a silence of one second. The to play infinitely varied music on an organ, teacher is recommended to count, at every which has but few notes. It is sometimes pause, while the pupil reads; the same as is more advisable to be silent than to speak. done at the rests in music; this exercise, is Silence-is felt by the soul, and appreciated the surest to accomplish the object. Ex. 1. by God; and that is enough. Do to others, as you would they should do to
Varieties. 1. Is not the doctrine of the you. 2. None can be a disciple of the graces, divinity, and humanity-of the Lord Jesus but in the school of virtue. 3. Be armed Christ, the touch-stone, by which the chriswith courage, against thyself, against thy tian church is to be tried? 2. The life of a passions, and against thy flatterers. 4. Every christian-is his walk; Christ is his way, leaf, every twig, and every drop of water, and heaven-his home. 3. A coward in the teems with life. 5. The colors of the rain- field, is like a wise man's fool ; he does not bow are - violet, indigo, blue, green, yellow, know what he professes ; but a coward in the orange and red.
faith, is like a fool, in his wisdom, he does not 242. Examples to Illustrate the Pauses. jrofess what he knows. 4. Virtue—consists The three grand degrees of all existences are in the faithful performance of our duty, from -what is natural, human and DIVINE. love to God, and love to man; and vicemin The three grand divisions of all natural the neglect of our duty from a love of self, things are-earths, waters and atmospheres. and a love of the world. 5. The heart of a The three kingdoms of nature are—the min- worthless man - is as unfixed, and changeeral, the vegetable, and the animal.
able, as the fitful wind. 6. The tongue may three divisions of the mineral kingdom are speak the loudest ; but the heart—the truest. the soils, the rocks, and the precious stones. 7. Look at the form, consider the desire, and The three divisions of the vegetable kingdom act, and mark the end; for thereby you may are-grasses, plants and shrubs, and trees. know the nature of all created beings. The three divisions of the animal kingdom This world's not“ all a fleeting show, are-into those that creep and walk on the For man's illusion given;" earth, those that swim, and those that fly. He that hath sooth'd a widow's wo, Each of these divisions is divided in trines; Or wip'd an orphan's tear, doth know according to which, all things exist, and sub There's something here of Heaven.
And he, that walks life's thorny way, Anecdote. An agent, soliciting subscri
With feelings calm and even, bers for a book, showed the prospectus to a Whose path is lit, from day to day, man, who, after reading — “one dollar in By virtue's bright and steady ray, boards, and one dollar and twenty-five cents Hath something felt of Heaven. in sheep,"-declined subscribing, as he might He, that the christian's course hath run, not have boards or sheep on hand, when call And all his foes forgiven, ed upon for payment.
Who measures out life's little span The humble man, when he receives a wrong,
In love to God-and love to man, Refers revenge-to whom it doth belong.
On earth, hath lasted Heaven.
243. The Semicolon is an indication that Proverbs. 1. Prosperity-engenders sloth. we should pause long enough to count two, 2. Laziness-grows on people ; it begins in cobdeliberately; and while we are thus resting, webs, and ends in chains. 3. Many have done a from physical effort, we can carry on our wise thing; more a cunning thing; but very few mental effort, for the purpose of producing a generous thing. 4. What cannot be told, had the desired effect: for it is of the first impor- better not be done. 5. No patience, no true wistance, in reading and speaking, to keep the dom. 6. Those that are careless of themselves, can mind employed with the thoughts and feel hardly be mindful of others. 7. Contentment gives ings; even when there is no external act; a crown, where fortune hath denied it. 8. He, except it may be the play of the facial mus- who lives disorderly one year, does not enjoy himcles. 1. Envy not the appearance of happi- self for five. 9. Public men, should have public
minds : ness in any one; for you know not his secret
or private ends will be served, at the pubgrief. 2. The sign without the substance, is 11. While there is life, there is hope. 12. Good
lic cost. 10. Mildness-governs better than anger. nothing; the substance without the sign, is
men-are a public good. all things. 3. None are so innocent, as not to be evil spoken of; none so wicked, as to
Importance of Observation. The exwant all commendation. 4. We may know ternal world is designed, by its Creator, to what we will not utter ; but we should never mind. Ten thousand objects appeal to our
aid essentially in developing the human utter, what we do not know.
observation ; and each one is a book-of the 244. The following lines afford a good ex- most interesting character, which can be had ercise, in the placing and use of the gram- without money, and without price. But we
must attend to the animate, as well as to the I saw a peacock with a fiery tail
in-animate world,—to men, as well as to I saw a blazing star that dropt down hail
things. We should not be ashamed to ask I saw a cloud begirt with ivy round
for information, when we do not understand I saw a sturdy oak creep on the ground
the whys and wherefores; nor fail of con-
versing with every one, who can impart to us
useful knowledge. I saw a well full of men's tears to weep
Varieties. 1. Are christians prohibited I saw man's eyes all on a flame of fire the proper use of any natural good? 2. I saw a house high as the moon or higher
When the honor and interest of TRUTH are I saw the radiant sun at deep midnight concerned, it is our duty to use all lawful
I saw the man who saw this dreadful sight. means—for its support and defence. 3. Tol245. Natural History-involves the eration—is odious to the intolerant ; freestudy of all the productions of nature, ani- dom-to oppressors ; property to robbers ; mal, vegetable and mineral; their qualities, and all kinds of prosperity to the envious. relations and origin. It is divided into three 4. General Washington was born, Feb. 22nd, kingdoms, giving rise to the corresponding (0. S.) 1732; and died, Dec. 14th, 1797, aged sciences of Zoology, Botany and Mineralogy; 67; 21 years after the Declaration of Indewhich are divided into classes, orders, genera, pendence. 5. What is the most perfect Govand species, founded on prominent distinc- ernment? that, where an injury done the tions; in which, what most resembles the meanest citizen, is considered an insult upon earth, are placed nearest in relation to it.
the constitution. 6. Grammar-speaks ; Di
alectics-teach truth; Rhetoric-gives colorAnecdote. “How do you know,” (said a
ing to our speech; Music-sings; Arithmetraveler to a poor wandering Arab of the des- tic-numbers: Geometry-weighs; and Asert,) “ That there is a God?” “In the same tronomy—teaches us to know the stars. 7. manner,” (he replied,)“ that I trace the foot. As the Apostle saith, so it is, viz: The insteps of an animal,-by the prints it leaves visible things of God, and Divine Order, upon the sand."
seen, and understood by those things Nor let soft slumber--close your eyes,
which are made, in outward creation; even Before you've recollected thrice
his eternal power and God-head. The train of actions—through the day;
Words are like leaves; and where they most abound,
Its gaudy colors spreads-on ev'ry place;
Clears, and improves, whate'er it shines upon : Or into what new follies run?
It gilds—all objects, but it alters—none. These self-inquiries—are the road,
Excpression-is the dress of thought, and still That leads to virtue—and to God.
Appears more decent-as more suitable
246. A Colon, (:) marks a pause of three Proverbs. 1. Religion says - love all; and seconds; or while one can count three, delib- hate none. 2. Observe all those rules of politeness erately. Principles-are tested by their ap- at home, that you would among strangers. 3. At plication; but even then, we must think, as the close of each day, carefully review your conwell as feel, and ascertain the whys and duct. 4. Avoid unpleasant looks. 5. Be not over wherefores. 1. Read the sacred Scriptures: anxious for money. 6. Acquire the useful--first; they are the dictates of divine wisdom. 2. the brilliant -- afterwards. 7. A virtuous youth, Harbor no malice in thy heart: it will be a spoils many good precepts. 9. It costs more to re
will make a happy old age. 8. One ill examplsviper in thy bosom. 3. Do not insult a poor renge injuries, than to bear them. 10. For the man: his situation entitles him to our pity. evidence of truth, look at the truth itself. 11. A 4. He, that studies only man, will get the friend is known, when needed. 12. Who robs a body without the soul: he that studies only scholar, robs the public. books, will get the soul, without the body: wisdom says, study both. 5. Partially deaf
Experience. In early youth, while yet persons, more easily hear a moderately loud we live among those we love, we love without voice with a clear articulation, than a very
restraint, and our hearts overflow in every loud one, that is rapid and indistinct: so it look, word and action. But when we enter is with a weak voice, in addressing a large the world, and are repulsed by strangers, assembly.
and forgotten by friends, we grow more and 247. COINCIDENCE. Washington — was
more timid in our approaches, even to those
we love best. How delightful to us, then, born, Feb. 22d, 1732; was inaugurated, 1789; and his term of service expired in the all affection, they fly into our arms; and
are the caresses of children! All sincerity, 66th year of his age: John Adams was born, then only, we feel the renewal of our first Oct. 19, 1735; inaugurated, 1797; term ex
confidence, and first pleasure. pired in the 66th year of his age: Thomas Jefferson was born, April 2d, 1743; inaugu Varieties. 1. What is more revoltingrated, 1801; term expired in the 66th year of than the idea of a plurality of Gods? 2. An his age: Madison was born, March 5th, 1751; evil habit, in the beginning, is easily subinaugurated, 1809; term expired in the 66th dued; but being often repeated, it acquires year of his age: Monroe was born, April 20, strength, and becomes inveterate. 3. The 1759; inaugurated, 1817; term expired in bee and the serpent-often extract the same the 66th year of his age: all these five presi-juices; but, by the serpent, they are converdents were men of the Revolution, and ended ted into poison ; while by the bec, they are their term of service in the 66th year of their converted into honey. 4. He, that aims at the age.
sun, will not hit it,—but his arrow will fly 248. BREATHING. When we sit at our higher, than if he aimed at an object on a leease, and are not exercising the voice, our vel with himself. 5. Is there not a place and breathing is slow and regular; and the more state, for every one, and should not every one we speak, work, or sing, the more frequently be in his proper state and place? 6. Those must we inhale fresh air; because the expen- little words, “try,” and “begin,” have been diture is greater at such times: many persons great in their results: “I can't”-never did fall victims to this neglect; and little is our anything, and never will : “Ill try" — has primary instruction in reading calculated to done wonders. 7. The ministry of angels aid us in appropriate breathing; the results is that of supplying us with spiritual reasons, of which are, exceedingly bad habits, induc- truths, and love-principles, whensoever we ing impediments in vocal efforts, disease and stand in need of them. death. Oh, when shall we be wise, and un- Gold—many hunted, sweat—and bled for gold; derstand these things? How hard to learn, Waked all the night, and labored all the day: even by experience!
And what was this allurement, dost thou ask? Anecdote. A Mutual Mistake. Two A dust, dug from the bowels of the earth, gentlemen were riding in a stage-coach; when Which, being cast into the fire, came out one of them, missing his handkerchief, rashly A shining thing, that fools admired, and calledaccused the other of having stolen it; but A god; and, in devout and humble plight, soon finding it, had the good manners to beg Before it kneeled, the greater—to the less. pardon for the affront; saying it was a mis- And on its altar-sacrificed ease, peace, take: to which the other replied, with great Love, charity, benevolence, and all
Truth, faith, integrity ; good conscience, friends, readiness, and kind feeling, “ Don't be un- The sweet and tender sympathies of life ; easy; it was a mutual mistake: you took And to complete the horrid-murderous rite, me for a thief ; and I took you, for a gentle. And signalize their folly, offered up man."
Their souls, and an eternity of bliss,
To gain them—what? an hour of dreaming joyi
249. A Period, (.) shows that we should Proverbs. 1. Put not off repentance-till anpause four seconds; or while we can count other day. 2. Rashness—is the fruitful parent of four, deliberately. 1. Envy no man.
2. misfortune. 3. Self-exaltation—is the fool's paraKnow thyself. 3. Guard against idleness. 4. dise. 4. Sweet is the memory-of departed worth. Vilify no person's reputation. 5. Abhor a 5. The covetous man-is his own tormentor. 6. falsehood. 6. Blessed are the poor in spirit. Avail yourself of the wisdom and experience of 7. Jesus wept. 8. Hurt not thyself. 9. Cher- others. 7. Be ambitious of excelling, that you ish the spirit of benevolence. io. Perform may do and get the greater good. 8. The first step
to greatness is—to be honest. 9. Truth is the ba. your duty faithfully. 11. Make a proper sis of all excellence. 10. Unlawful love-generaluse of time. 12. Cultivate the affections. ly ends in bitterness. 11. They that hide, can find. 13. Do good to all. 14. Be punctual in 12. A penny spared, is twice got. our engagements. 15. Love humanity.
The Gentleman and his Tenant. 6. Obey the commandments. 17. Live the A COUNTRY gentleman-had an estate of Lord's Prayer. 18. Be holy and just. 19. two hundred pounds a year, which he kept Be perfect. 20. Live for immortality. in his own hands, till he found himself so
250. Pythagorus, about five hundred much in debt, that he was obliged to sell one years before the Christian era, called the visi- half to satisfy his creditors, and let the reble universe—by the very expressive Greek mainder to a farmer for one and twenty name, ho kosmos-THE ORDER, which we years. Before the expiration of his lease, the translate—the world. The Platonic school, farmer asked the gentleman, when he came afterwards, withdrawing attention from gen- one day to pay his rent, whether he would eral nature, and fixing it on the epitome-sell the land he occupied. Why, will you Man-began to call him-ho mikros kosmos, purchase it?" said the gentleman. “ If you the miniature world; or, order in miniature. will part with it, and we can agree,” replied How much useful and instructive history the farmer. “That is exceeding strange," there is in the origin of words! and it is said the gentleman. “Pray, tell me how it gratifying to know, that these same subjects happens, that I could not live upon twice as employed such minds as Plato's, more than much land, for which I paid no rent, and that two thousand years ago.
you, after regularly paying me a hundred a 251. The intellectual physiognomy of year for the half, are able, so soon, to purChatham-was of a severe, and commanding chase it.” “ The reason is plain," answered order ; his genius was eminently practical : the farmer. “You sat still, and said, Go. I and while no person-ever surpassed him, stood up, and said, Come. You lay in bed, in the lofty aspiration and generous enthusi- and enjoyed your ease. I rose in the mornasm of patriotism, few have equalled him, in ing, and minded my business." their calm and christian application. His Varieties. 1. Who should be more vir. private character,-shone with a lustre, very tuous and intelligent, than the Teacher, who different from the unhealthy glare of political is to educate, and form characters for time fame. His correspondence-presents him un- and eternity? 2. The happiness of every der an engaging aspect, and enables the rea- one-depends more on the state of his own der to admire the husband and father, not mind, than any external circumstance: nay less than the statesman and the orator. more than all external things put together.
Anecdote. The Far West. “Pray sir," 3. Borrowed money-makes time short. 4. said one gentleman to another, “Is not In- The lowest condition of life, with prudence, diana—the Far West.?” “Oh no sir," was is better than the most exalted station, withthe reply. “Well, is not Illinois ?” “ Very out it. 5. How absurd, to be complaining, far from it.” “Surely then, when we cross and tormenting ourselves, for what it is im. the Mississippi, you are in the Far West !" possible to avoid, or attain. 6. Pause, awhile, “No, not exactly.” “Where, then, is the Far ye travelers on earth, and candidates for eter. West!” “Why sir, it is about a hulf a mile nity, and contemplate the universe, and the this side of sunset."
Wisdom and Love of Him who made it. 7. Beware, proud man, the first approach to crime.
Where there is no unison with God, the only Indulgence-is most dangerous-nay, fatal,
source of order, love and light, there is neiResist, or soon resistance is in vain.
ther order, or love, or light, but their oppoThe first--leads to the second, then to the third
sites. 8. Art—is long, life—is short. The fourth succeeds, until, familiar grown
How terrible—is passion! how our reason With vice, we start not-at our own misdeeds. Falls down before it; while the tortured frame, Temptation comes, so clothed in speciousness, Like a ship-dashed by fierce encountering tides, So full of seeming, we behold her not
And of her pilot spoil'd, drives round and round, With apprehension, till her baneful pow'r The sport of wind—and ware. Has wrestled with our virtue : dreadful state! Our passions--always fatal counsel give; When vice steals in, and, like a lurking thief, Through a fallacious glass-our wrongs—appear Saps—the foundation of integrity.
Still greater than they are.