430. STILE. The character of a person's Marims. 1. It does not become a laro-maker, style of reading and speaking depends upon to become a law-breaker. 2. Friendship is stronger his moral perceptions of the ends, causes, and than kindred. 3. Idleness is the sepulchre of a liv. effects of the composition: thus, STILE may ng man. 4. An orator, without judgment is like a be considered the man himself, and, as every horse without a bridl. 5. He that knows when to one sees and feels, with regard to everything, speak, knows when to be silent. 6. The truest end according to the state or condition of his of life is to know the life that never ends. 7.

Wine has drowned more than the sea. 8. Impose mind, and as there are and can be no two

not on others a burthen which you cannot bear persons alike; each individual will have a manner and style peculiar to himself; tho* yourself. 9. He overcomes a stout enemy, that in the main, that of two persons of equal as well as books.

overcomes his own anger. 10. Study mankind education and intelligence, may be in a great

Anecdote. Note of Interrogation (?). degree similar.

Mr. Pope, the poet, who was small and de431. RULES FOR THE'. When ques formed, sneering at the ignorance of a young tions are answered by yes or no, they gen- man, who was very inquisitive, and asked a erally require the '. Exs. Are you will ? good many impertinent questions, inquired Is he gone? Have you got your hat? Do of him if he knew what an interrogation you say yés? Can he accómmodate me? point was? “ Yes sir,” said he, “ it is a little Will you call and sée nie? But when the crooked thing, like yourself, that asks quesquestions are emphatic, or amount to an affir- tions." mative, the 'is used. Are you well ? As much Ideas, acquired by taste-are compound as to say: tell me whether you are well. Is and relative. If a man had never experihe gone? Have you done it? All given enced any change, in the sensation produced in an authoritative manner. Hath he said by external things, on the organs of taste, it, and shall he not do it? He that planted that which he now calls sweet, (if it had been the èar, shall he not hear? Is he a màn, the quality, subjected to the sense,) would that he should repènt?

have conveyed to the mind no possible idea; 432. IMPORTANT QUESTIONS. 1. Is the but, alternating with the quality we call bitcasket more valuable than the jewel? 2. ter, contrariety-produces the first impresWill not the safety of the community be en- sion, and he learns to distinguish the qualities dangered, by permitting the murderer to live? by names. The sensation - awakened by 3. Are theatres beneficial to mankind? 4. Madeira wine, must be very acute, to enable Did Napolean do more hurt than good to the a man to discriminate, accurately, without a world? 5. Were the Texans right-in re- very careful comparison. Let a particular belling against Mexico? 6. Ought the license kind of Madeira wine remain a few years on system to be abolished? 7. Is animal mag- the lees of many other kinds, and who would netism true? 8. Who was the greatest mon- detect the compound flavor, but the contriver? ster-Nero, or Catiline? 9. Should we act

Varieties. 1. Inspire a child with right from policy, or from principle? 10. Is not feelings, and they will govern his actions : the improvement of the mind, of the first im- hence, the truth of the old adage, Example portance ?

is better than precept. 2. The great difficulty Nature. Man is radiant with expressions. is, that we give rules, instead of inspiring Every feature, limb, muscle and vein, may sentiments ; it is in vain to lead the undertell something of the energy within. The standing with rules, if the affections are not brow, smooth or contracted,—the eye, placid, right. 3. Benjamin West states, that his modilated, tearful, flashing,—the lip, calm, quiv- ther kissed him, eagerly, when he showed her ering, smiling, curled, — the whole counten- the likeness he had sketched of his baby sisance, serene, distorted, pale, flushed, — the ter; and, he adds,—that kiss made me a hand, with its thousand motions,—the chest, painter. 4. Lay by all scraps of material still or heaving,—the attitude, relaxed or firm, things, as well as of knowledge, and they cowering or lofty,-in short, the visible char- will certainly come in use within seven years. acteristics of the whole external man,--are 5. Gain all the information you can, learn all NATURE'S HAND-WRITING; and the tones and that comes in your way, without being intruqualities of the voice, soft, low, quiet, broken, sive, and provided it does not interfere with agitat d, shrill, grave, boisterous, -are her the faithful discharge of other duties. 6. It ORAL LANGUAGE: let the student copy and was a maxim of the great William Jones, learn. Nature is the goddess, and art and never to lose an opportunity of learning science her ministers.

Since trifles—make the sum of human things,

A wise man poor,
And half our misery from our foibles springs;

Is like a sacred book, that's never read;
Since life's best joys-consist in peace and case,

To himself he lives, and to all else seems dead:
And fewo-can save or scrue, but all-can please;
O let the ungentle spirit-lonrn from hence,

This age-thinks better of a gilded fool,
A mall unkindness is a great offence.

Than of a threadbare saint-in wisdom's school

433. STYLE. The numerous examples Maxims. 1. Punctuality begets confidence, given throughout this work, afford the neces- and is the sure road to honor and respect. 2. A sary means for illustrating all the principles picture is a poem, without words. 3. Sensible men of elocution: let the taste, and judgment, as show their sense, by saying much in few words. well as the abilities of the student-be test-4. He, who thinks to cheat another, cheats himed by a proper selection and application of self

. 5. Pride is easily seen in others; but we them. He must not expect too much from rarely see it in ourselves. 6. Wealth is not his others, nor take it unkindly, when thrown who gets it

, but his who enjoys it. 7. A bad book upon his own resources : the best way to in- should spring from charity, not from indifference.

is one of the worst of thieves. 8. Toleration crease our strength, is to have it often tested. 9. Too much prosperity makes most men fools. All who become orators, must make them- 10. He, who serves God, has the best master in selves orators.

the world. 11. One love drives another out. 12. 434. IMPORTANT QUESTIONS. 1. If we Health is better than wealth. do well, shall we not be accepted? 2. Which is more useful, fire, or water ? 3. Ought cir

Influence. Few are aware of the full ex. cumstantial evidence to be admitted in crim

tent of meaning contained in this word. If inal cases ? 4. Can we be too zealous in we can measure the kind and quantity of rightly promoting a good cause ? 5. Which influence, that every variety of heat and cold is worse, a bad education, or no education? has on the world of matter; if we can tell 6. Are not bigotry and intolerance-as des: the influence, that one individual has on antructive to morality, as they are to common other, one society on another, and one nasense?.7. Are we not apt to be proud of tion on another, both for time and eternity; that which is not our own ? 8. Ought there itual beings have on one another, and on

if we can estimate the influence, that spir. not to be duties on imported goods, to en- the human race, collectively, and separately; courage domestic manufictures ? 9. Is slavery right? 10. Have steamboats been the also the influence of the Great Spirit on all cause of more good than evil?

creation, then, we are able to see and realize

the mighty meaning of this important word. 435. IGNORANCE AND ERROR. It is al- Contemplate and weigh the influence, that most as difficult to make one unlearn his er different kinds of food and drink have on the rors, as to acquire knowledge. Mal-information is more hopeless than non-informa- innumerable parts; the influence on body

human system, by being appropriated to its tion; for error is always more busy than igo and mind of keeping and violating the laws norance. Ignoranceis a blank sheet, on of life, by thinking, feeling, and acting; the which we may write; but error—is a scrib- influence, which a good or bad person has on bled one, from which we must first erase. his associates and also their influence on othIgnorance—is contented to stand still, with ers, through all coming time, as well as in the her back to the truth; but error—is more eternal world, and you will perceive some presumptuous, and proceeds in the same di- thing of the importance of ceasing to do evil, rection. Ignorance has no light, but error and learning to do well; of living and pracfollows a false one. The consequence is, ticing what is good and true, and thereby that error, when she retraces her footsteps, being saved from all that is evil and false. has farther to go, before she can arrive at the truth, than ignorance.

Varieties. 1. Lord Coke-wrote the folAnecdote. Virtue before Riches. The-lowing, which he religiously observed; “Six mistocles—had a daughter, to whom

two men hours to sleep, to law's great study six, Four were wishing to make love ; one—was very spend in prayer, the rest to nature fix.” 2. rich, but a simpleton, and the other---poor, Wm. Jones, a wiser economist of the fleeting but a very wise man: the father preferred the hours of life, amended the sentiment thus; latter,-saying, “I would rather have a man Seven hours to law, to soothing slumbers without riches, than riches without a man." seven, Ten to the world allot, and all to

heaven. 3. The truly beautiful and sublime The primal duties—shine aloft, like stars ; The charities, that soothe, and heal, and bless,

are to be found within the regions of nature Are scattered at the feet of man, like flowers ;

and probability: the false sublime sets to itThe generous inclination, the just rule,

self no bounds : it deals in thunders, earthKind wishes, and good actions, and pure thoughts. quakes, tempests, and whirlwinds. 4. Is it No mystery is here; no special boon

any pain for a bird to fly, a fish to swim, or For high, and not for low; for proudly graced,

a boy to play? 5. Confound not vociferation And not for meek of heart. The smoke ascends with emphatic expression; for a whisper To heaven as lightly from the cottage hearth, may be as discriminating as the loudest tones. As from the haughty palace. He, whose soul 6. Speech—is the gift of God. 7. Order--is Ponders this true equality, may walk

the same in the world, in man, and in the The fields of earth-with gratitude and hope. church; man—is an epitome of all the prino

Our wishes lengthen-as our sun declines. ciples of order.

436. STYLE, &c. To accomplish your ob

Maxims. 1. Revenge, however sweet, is ject, study the true meaning and character dearly bought. 2. Life is half spent, before we of the subject, so as to express the whole, in know what it is to live. 3. The world is a worksuch a way as to be perfectly understood and shop, and the wise only know how to use its tools. felt : thus, you will transport your hearers 4. A man is valued, as he makes himself valuable. to the scene you describe, and your earnest- 5. Heaven is not to be had, merely by wishing for ness raise them on the tiptoe of expectation, it

. 6. As often as we do good, we sacrifice

. 7. Be and your just arguments sweep everything

careful to keep your word, even in the most trifling before them like a MOUNTAIN torrent: to exe fer. 9. Honest men are easily bound; but you can

matter. 8. Hearts may agree, tho' heads may difs cite, to agitate, and delight, are among the most powerful arts of persuasion: but the never bind a knave. 10. Experience keeps a dear

school; but fools will learn in no other. impressions must be enforced on the mind by

Anecdote. Curious Patriotism. Some a command of all the sensibilities and sym- years ago, one of the convicts at Botany Bay, pathies of the soul. That your course may wrote a Parce, which was acted with much be ever upward and onward, remember, none applause in some of the theatresi Barrings but a good man can be a perfect orator; un ton, the notorious pick-pocket, wrote the corrupted and incorruptible integrity is one prologue; which ended with these lines : of the most powerful engines of persuasion.

True patriots we; for, be it understood, 437. IMPORTANT QUESTIONS. 1. Is any We left our country--for our country's good. government-as important as the principles Ignorance-Willfulness. The ignorit should protect and extend? 2. Should we ant--oppose without discrimination. Harremain passive, when our country, or politi- vey, for asserting the circulation of the blood, cal rights are invaded? 3. Are banks bene- was styled a vagabond, a quack; and perse-. ficial? 4. Have the crusaders been the cause cuted, through life, by the medical profession.. of more evil than good? 5. Was the war In the time of Francis I., Ambrose Pare-inwaged against the Seminoles of Florida, just? troduced the ligament, to staunch the blood 6. Which is the more important acquisition, of an amputated limb, instead of boiling hot wealth, or knowledge? 7. Is there any neu- pitch, in which the bleeding stump had fortral ground between good and evil, truth and merly been dipped; and he was persecuted, falsehood ? 8. Which should we fear most, with the most relentless rancour, by the Fathe commission of a crime, or the fear of pun- culty, who ridiculed the idea of risking a ishment? 9. By binding the understanding, man's life upon a thread, when boiling pitch and forcing the judgment, can we mend the had stood the test for centuries. Medicines heart? 10. When proud people meet toge- have been proscribed as poison, and then prether, are they not always unhappy? 11. Is scribed in great quantities; the proscriptions not common sense a very rare and valuable and prescriptions being both adopted with article? 12. What is the use of a body, with equal ignorance and credulity. There is no out a soul?

hope for man, but a thorough and correct 438. MANNER AND MATTER. The secret education in the school of truth and goodness. of success in Music, as well as in Elocution, Vartettes. 1. Does the nature of things is, to adapt the manner perfectly to the mat- depend on the matter, of which they are ter: if the subject be simple, such must be formed; or on the laws of constitution, by the manner : if it be gay and lively, or solenn which matter is arranged? 2. Is not vegetand dignified, such, or such must be the able matter formed from oxygen and hydromanner: in addition to which, the performer gen; and animal matter from these two and must forget himself, or rather lose himself in carbon? But what are their constituent the subject, body and soul, and show his re- parts? Were their essences created, or are gard to his audience, by devoting himself to they eternal ? 3. What large portions of the the subject : and hence he must never try to world there are of which we know compara. show himself off: but hide behind the thought tively nothing ! and although we are familiar and feeling, and depend upon them to pro- with our bodies, externally, yet how little of duce the effect: if there is any affectation, their internals do even the best physiologists the hold on the heart is in that proportion know? 4. How much is really known of relinquished. Oh, when shall we take our the nature of mind? and yet there is preappropriate place and regard use as the grand sumption enough in some, to decide at once, object!

upon all the phenomena of the mind, and But sure-to foreign climes we need not range, prescribe its limits. 5. Thus, man clothes Nor search the ancient records of our race,

himself with his fanciful knowledge, and To learn—the dire effect of time and change, Which, in ourselves, alas! we daily trace;

plays such insane tricks before the world, as Yet, at the darkened eye, the withered face,

make the angels weep. Or hoary hair-1 never will repine;

The fisher-is out on the sunny sea,
But spare, O T'ime! whate'er of mental grace,

And the reindeer-bounds o'er the pasture free;
Of candor, love, or sympathy divine;

And the pine-has a fringe of a softer green,
Whate'er of fancy's ray, or friendship's flame is mine.

And the moss-looks tright, where my foot hath been. 21


439. EFFECTIVE STYLE. The more your Maxims. 1. Happiness is the shadow of reading and speaking partake of the freedom contentment, and rests, or moves forever with its and ease of common discourse, (provided original 2. A drop of wisdom is worth a tun of you sustain the object and life of the compo- riches. 3. Whatever does not stand with credit, sition) the more just, natural, and effective will not stand long. 4. Business must be attendwill be your style of delivery : hence the need to, at the expense of every thing else of less imcessity of studying nature, of avoiding all portance. 5. Our states of mind differ as much affectation, and of never attempting that in as our spirits and temper. 6. Deathcannot kill public, which is beyond your ability. Some what never dies,-mutual love. 7. If you will mar, or spoil what they are going to say, by les. 8. Open rebuke is better than secret love. 9.

not hear reason, she will rap you over your knuckmaking so much ado over it, thinking they Good counsel is thrown away on the arrogant must do some great thing; when it isal most and self-conceited. 10. He, who resolves to amend, as simple as-wash and be clean : whatever has God, and all good beings on his side. is not natural is not agreeable or persuasive.

Anecdote. Vanity Reproved. “I am 440. IMPORTANT QUESTIONs. 1. Were very thankful, that my mouth has been openany beings ever created angels? 2. Is it ed to preach without any learning,"—said right ever to do wrong? 3. Why was a rev- an illiterate preacher, in speaking against elation necessary? 4. May we not protect educating ministers, to preach the gospel. our person and character from assault? 5. A gentleman present replied, “Sir, a similar Does civilization increase happiness? 6. event took place in Baalam's time.” Which excites more curiosity, the works of

Education should give us command of nature, or the works of art? 7. Ought a witness to be questioned with regard to his every faculty of body, and mind—call out all

our powers of observation and reflection, religious opinions, or belief? 8. Was the change the creatures of impulse, prejudice general bankrupt law a benefit to the coun- and passion, to thinking, reasoning, and lovtry? 9. Why are we disposed to laugh, even ing beings; lead to objects of pursuits, and when our best friend falls down! 10. Which hahits of conduct, favorable to the happiness is the greatest, faith, hope, or charity? 11. of every individual, and to the whole world, Should controversy interrupt our friendship and multiply all the means of enjoyment, and esteem for each other? 12. Have chris- and diminish every temptation to vice and sentians any right to persecute each other for suality; and true education will do all this, their opinions ?

Varieties. 1. What is moral virtue.? 2. 441. It is much to be regretted, that our teachers are so illy qualified to instruct their The greatest danger to public liberty, is from pupils even in the first rudiments of reading: vice and idleness. 3. He, that showeth merand they are all so much inclined to fall into cy, shall receive mercy. 4. Never attempt bad habits, and the imitation of faulty speak- anything more, than there is a prospect of

accomplishing. 5. Should not beastsas ers, that it requires constant watchfulness to

well as men, be treated with kindness? 6. keep clear of the influences of a wrong bias,

Rational libertyis diametrically opposed and false, and merely arbitrary rules. We never can succeed in this important art, until to the wildness of anarchy. 7. We should

never ascribe bad motives, when we can supwe take elementary instruction out of the hands of ignoramuses, and insist upon hav- pose good ones. 8. Nothing is more preju

dicial-to the great interests of a nation, ing persons fully competent to take charge than uncertain and varying policy. 9. Is of the cause. Away then with the idea, that it lawful—to contend with others, on any ocany one can teach reading and speaking, casion. 10. Prefer the evident interests of merely because they can call the letters, and the community, to the suggestions of the speak the words so as to be understood.

pride of consistency. 10. Cleanliness - is Operating Circumstances. We are too next to godliness. apt, in estimating a law, passed at a remote peri

Why have those banished and forbidden legs od, to combine in our consideration, all the subse

Dared once to touch a dust of England's ground? quent events, which have had an influence upon But more than why-Why have they dared to march it; instead of conforming ourselves, as we ought, So many miles upon her peaceful bosom;

Frightening her pale-faced villagers with war, to the circumstances, existing at the time of its

And ostentation of despised arms? passage.

Comest thou because the anointed king is hence ? So live, that, when thy summons comes to join

Why, foolish boy, the king is left behind, The innumerable caravan, that moves

And in my loyal bosom lies his power, To the pale realms of shade, where each shall take

Were I but now the lord of such hot youth His chamber-in the silent halls of death,

As when brave Gaunt, thy father, and myselt, Thou go not, like the quarry-slave, at night,

Rescued the Black Prince, that young Mars of men, Scourged to his dungeon; but, sustained and soothed

From forth the ranks of many thousand French; By an unfaltering trust, approach thy grave,

Oh, then, how quickly should this arm of mine, Like one, who wraps the drapery of his couch

Now prisoner to the palsy, chastise thee, About him, and lies down--to pleasant dreams.

And minister correction to thy fault!


442. ELOQUENCE. What were all the Maxims. 1. Old age and faded flowers, no attributes of man, his personal accomplish- remedies can revive. 2. Something should be ments, and his boasted reason, without the learned every time a book is opened. 3. A truly faculty of SPEECH ? To excel in its use is great man never puts away the simplicity of the the highest of human arts. It enables man child. 4. The gem cannot be polished without to govern whole nations, and to enchant, friction, nor man-perfected, without adversity. 5. while he governs. The aristocracy of Elo- The full stomach cannot realize the evils of hunquence is supreme, and, in a free country, ger. 6. When thought is agitated, truth rises. 7. can never be subdued. It is the pride of A child requires books, as much as the merchant peace, and the glory of war: it rides upon does goods. 8. Learn by the vices of others, how the zephyr's wings, or thunders in the storm. detestable your own are. 9. Judge not of men or But there is in eloquence, in painting, the things, at first sight. 10. Reprove thy friend prilife of the canvas, which breathes, moves, vately, and commend him publicly. speaks, and is full of action: so is there in the dance, the poetry and music of motion, attorneys overtaking a wagoner, with two

Anecdote. Sharp Reply. Two country the eloquence of action; whose power con- span of horses, and, thinking to be witty at sists in the wonderful adaptation of the gra- his expense, asked him, “How it happened, ces of the body to the harmonies of mind. that his forward horses were so fat, and the There is eloquence in every object of taste, rear ones so lean?" The wagoner, knowboth in art and nature; in sculpture, gar; ing them, answered, “That his fore span dening, architecture, poetry and music; all of which come within the scope and plan of

were lawyers, and the other clients." the orator, that he may comprehend that

Selfishness-seems to be the complex of intellectual relation, that secret clause in the all vices. The love of self, when predom. liberal professions, which, connecting one

inant, excludes all goodness, and perverts all with another, combines the influence of all. truth. It is the great enemy of individuals,

societies, and communities. It is the cause Virtue, alone, ennobles human kind,

of all irritation, the source of all evil. Peo. And power-should on her glorious footsteps wait. ple, who are always thinking of themselves,

Wisdom—finds tongues—in trees; books—in run- have no time to be concerned about others; ving streams; sermons—in stones, and good-in their own pleasure or profit, is the pivot, on werything.

which everything turns. They cannot even You pride you-on your golden hue;

conceive of disinterestedness, and will laugh Know—the poor glow-worm-hath its brightness to scorn all, who appear to love others, as

well as themselves. Selfishness-is the very When men of judgment-feel, and creep their way, essence of the first original sin, and it must The positive pronounce-without delay.

be corrected, or we are lost. 'Tis good, and lovely, to be kind;

Varieties. 1. The wind, the falling of But charity-should not be blind.

water, humming of bees, a sweet voice read. A little learning—is a dangerous thing;

ing monotonously, tend to produce sleep;

this is not so much the case with musical Drink deep-or taste not the Pierian spring: There, shallow draughts-intoxicate the brain,

tones. 2. The trilling and quivering of

the voice, which please so much, correspond But, drinking largely, sobers us again.

to the glittering of light: as the moonbeams Ah me! the laureled wreath, that murder wears,

playing on the waves. 3. Falling from a dis. Blood-nursed and watered with the widow's tears,

cord to a concord, which produces so much Seems not so foul,-so tainted,--and so dead,

sweetness in music, correspond to the affecAs waves the night-shade round the sceptic's bed. tions, when brought out of a state of dislike;

443. Music—is the oral language of the and also with the taste; which is soon cloyaffections; as words are the natural language ed with

what is sweet alone. •4. Music has of the thoughts. The notes of a tune are great effect on mind and body, making us analogous to letters; the measures--to words; warlike or the reverse, soft and effeminate, the strains—to sentences; and the tune, or grave and light, gentle, kind and pitiful, musical piece, to a discourse, oration, or po- &c., according to its nature, and performem. As there is a great variety of affections, ance; the reason is, because hearing is more and states of affection in the human mind, closely associated with feeling or spirits, so there is a great variety of tunes, through than the other senses. Observe the effect of the medium of which these affections, and Yankee Doodle, God save the King, Marstates of affection are manifested. There seilles Hymn, &c. 5. When music speaks are three grand divisions of music, which, to the affection, affection obeys; as when na. for the sake of distinction, may be denomin ture speaks, nature replies. ated the upper, or that which relates to the Let gratitude-in acts of goodness flow; Supreme Being; the middle, or that relating Our love to God, in love to man below. to created, rational beings, or social music; Be this our joy—to calm the troubled breash, and the lower, or what appertains to that Support the weak, and succor the distress'd; part of creation below man-called descrip

Direct the wand'rer, dry the widow's tear; tive music.

The orphan guard, the sinking spirit cheer: Ambition is like love,-impatient

Tho'small our power to act, tho' small our skill, Both of delays,-and rivals.

God-sees the heart; he judges by the will.

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