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ed on by private persons to advantage; and if not, it is a folly to think of forcing nature. Great establishments of manufacture, require great numbers of poor to do the work for small wages; those poor are to be found in Europe, but will not be found in America, till the lands are all taken up and cultivated, and the excess of people who cannot get land want employment. The manufacture of silk, they say, is natural in France, as that of cloth in England, because each country produces in plenty the first material : but if England will have a manufacture of filk as well as that of cloth, and France of cloth as well as that of silk, these unnatural operations must be supported by mutual prohibitions, or high duties on the importation of each other's goods; by which means the workmen are enabled to tax the home confumer by greater prices, while the higher wages they receive makes them neither happier nor richer, since they only drink more and work less. Therefore the governments of America do nothing to encourage such projects. The people, by this means, are not imposed on, either by the mer* chant or mechanic: if the merchant demands too much profit on imported shoes they buy of the shoemaker ; and if he asks too high a price, they take them of the merchant; thus the two professions are checks on each other. The shoeinaker, however, has, on the whole a considerable profit upon his labour in America, beyond what he had in Europe, as he can add to his price a sum nearly equal to all the
expence's of freight and commiffion, risque or insurance, &c. necessarily charged by the merchant. And it is the same with every other mechanic art. Hence it is that artifans generally live better and more easily in America than in Europe ; and such as are good æconomists make a comfortable provision for age, and for their children. Such may therefore remove with advantage to America.
In the old long-settled countries of Europe; all arts, trades, professions, farms, &c. are so füll, that it is difficult for a poor man who has children to place them where they may gain, or learn to gain a decent livelihood. The artisans, who fear creating future rivals in business, refuse to take apprentices, but upon conditions of money, maintenance, or the like, which the parents are unable to comply with. Hence the youths are dragged up in ignorance of every gainful art, and obliged to become soldiers, or servants, or
thieves, for a fubsistence. In America, the rapid increase of inhabitants takes a way that fear of rivalship, and artisans willingly receive apprentices from the hope of profit by their labour, during the remainder of the time ftipulated, after they shall be instructed. Hence it is easy for poor families to get their children instructed ; for the artisans are so desirous of apprentices, that many of them will even give money to the parents, to have boys from ten to fifteen years of age bound apprentices to them, till the age of twenty-one; and many poor parents haye, by that means, on their arrival in the country, raised money enough to buy land sufficient to establish themselves, and to subsist the rekt of their family by agriculture. These contracts for apprentiees are made before a magistrate, who regulates the agreement according to reason and justice; and having in view the formation of a future useful citizen, obliges the master to engage by a written indenture, not only that, during the time of service stipulated, the apprentice shall be duly provided with meat, drink, apparel, washing and lodging, and at its expiration with a complete new fuit of clothes, but also that he shall be taught to read, write and caft accounts; and that he shall be well instructed in the art or profession of his master, or some other, by which he may gain a livelihood, and be able in his return to raise a family, A copy of this indenture is given to the apprentice or his friends, and the magistrate keeps a record of it, to which recourse may be had, ‘in case of failure by the master in any point of performance.
This desire among the masters to have more hands employed in working for them, in, duces them to pay the passages of young persons, of both sexes, who, on their arrival, agree to serve them one, two, three, or four years; those who have already learned a trade, agreeing for a shorter term, in proportion to their skill, and the consequent immediate value of their service; and those who have none, agreeing for a longer term, in consideration of being taught an art their poverty would not permit them to acquire in their own country.
The almost general mediocrity of fortune that prevails in America, obliging its people to follow some business for sublistence, those vises that arise usually from idleness, are in a great measure 'prevented. Industry and constant employu.
ment are great preservatives of the morals and virtue of a nation. Hence bad examples to youth are more rare in America, which must be a comfortable consideration to pa
To this may be truly added, that serious religion, under its various denominations, is not only tolerated, but respected and practised. Atheism is unknown there; infidelity rare and secret; so that persons may live to a great age in that country without having their piety shocked by meeting with either an Atheist or an infidel. And the Divine Being seems to have manifested his approbation of the mutual forbearance and kindness with which the different sects treat each other, by the remarkable prosperity with which he has been pleased to favour the whole country.
FINAL SPEECH OF DR. FRANKLIN IN THE LATE
MR. PRESIDENT, I CON
CONFESS that I do not entirely approve of this constitution at present: but, Sir, I am not sure I Mall never approve it; for having lived long, I have experieneed many instances of being obliged by better information, or further consideration, to change opinions even on important subjects,
which I once thought right, but found to be otherwise. It is, therefore, that the older I grow, the more apt I am to doubt my own judgment, and to pay more respect to the judgment of others. Moit men, indeed, as well as most fects of religion, think themselves in possession of all truth, and that whenever others differ from them, it is so far error. Steel, a protestant, in a dedication, tells the Pope, that " the only difference between our two churches, in their opinions of the certainty of their doctrines, is, the Romish church is infallible and the church of England never in the wrong." But, though many private perfons think almost as highly of
*Our reasons for afcribing this speech to Dr. Franklin, are its internal evidence, and its having appeared with his name, during his life-time, uncontradicted, in an American periodical publication.
their own infallibility as of that of their sect, few exprefs it so naturally as a certain French lady, who, in a little dispute with her filter, said, I don't know how it happens, sister, but I meet with nobody but myself that is always in the right. Il n'y a que moi qui a tonjours raison In these sentiments, Sir I agree to this constitution, with all its faults, if they are fuch: because I think a general government necessary for us, and there is no form of government, but what may be a blefling, if well administered ; and I believe farther, that this is likely to be well administered for a courte of years, and can only end in despotism, as other forms have done before it, when the people shall become so corrupted as to need despotic government, being incapable of any other. I doubt too, whether any other convention we can obtain, may be able to make a better conftitution. For when you assemble a number of men, to have the advantage of their joint wisdom, you assemble with those men, all their prejudices, their passions, their errors of opinion, their local interests, and their selfish views. From such an assembly can a perfect production be expected ? It therefore astonishes me, Sir, to find this system approaching so near to perfection as it does; and I think it will astonish our enemies, who are waiting with confidence, to hear that our councils are confounded, like those of the builders of Babilon, and that our states are on the point of separation, only to meet hereafter for the purpose of cutting each other's throats.
Thus I consent, Sir, to this constitution because I expect no better, and because I am not sure that this is not the belt. The opinions I have had of its errors, I sacrifice to the public good. I have never whispered, a syllable of them abroad. Within these walls they were born; and here they shall die. If every one of us, in returning to our constituents, were to report the objections he has had to it, and endeavour to gain partisans in support of them, we might prevent its being generally received and thereby lose all the salutary effects and great advantages resulting naturally in our favour among foreign nations, as well as among ourselves, from our real or apparent unanimity. Much of the strength or efficiency of any government, in procuring and securing happiness to the people, depends on opinion; on the general opinion of the goodness of that government, as well as of the wisdom and integrity of its governors.
I hope, therefore, that for our own fakes as a part of the people, and for the sake of our pofterity we shall act hear. tily and unanimously in recommending this constitution, wherever our influence may extend, and turn our future thoughts and endeavours to the means of having it well administered.
On the whole, Sir, I cannot help expressing a wish, that every member of the convention, who may ftipl have objec: tions, would with me on this occasion, doubt a little of his own infallibility, and to make manifeft our unanimity, put his name to this inftrument.
[The motion was then made for adding the last formula, viz.
Done in Convention, by the unanimous confent, &c. which was agreed to, and added accordingly.]
SKETCH OF AN ENGLISH SCHOOL.
FOR THE CONSIDERATION OF THE TRUSTEES OF THE PHI.
It is expected that every scholar to be admitted into this
school, be at least able to pronounce and divide the sylla, bles in reading, and to write a legible hand. None to be received that are under
years of age.
FIRST, OR LOWEST CLASS.
Let the first class learn the English Grammar rules, and at the same time let particular are be taken to improve them in orthography. Perhaps the latter is best done by pairing the scholars; two of those neareft equal in their spelling to þc put together. Let these strive for victory; each pro. pounding ten words every day to the other to be spelled. He that spells truly most the others words, is victor for that day; he that is victor molt days in a month, to obtain
* This piece did not come to hand till the volume had been fome time at the press. This was the case also with several other papers, and must be our apology for any defect shat may appear in the arrangement.