House of Commons, where scarce a day passes without some confusion, that makes the speaker hoarse in calling to order ; and how different from the mode of conversation in many polite companies of Europe, where, if you do not deliver your sentence with great rapidity, you are cut off in the iniddle of it by the impatient loquacity of those you converse with, and never suffered to finisn it!

The politeness of these savages in conversation, is, indeed, carried to excess; since it does not permit them to contradict or deny the truth of what is asserted in their prerence. By this means they indeed avoid disputes ; but then it becomes difficult to know their minds, or what impresfion you make upon them. The missionaries who have attempted to convert them to Christianity, all complain of this as one of the great difficulties of their mission. The Indians hear with patienee the truths of the gospel explained to them, and give their usual tokens of assent and approbation : you would think they were convinced. No such

It is inere civility. A Swedish minister having assembled the chiefs of the Susquelannah Indians, made a sermon to them, acquainting them with the principle historical facts on which our religion is founded ; such as the fall of our first parents by eating an apple; the coming of Christ to repair the mil, chief; his miracles and suffering, 836 - When he had finished, an Indian orator stood up to thank him. have told us," says he, “ is all very good. It is indeed bad to cat apples. It is better to make them all into cyder. We are much obliged by your kindness in coming fo far to tell us those things which you have heard from your mothers. In return,

I will tell you some of those we have heard from ours.

" In the beginning, our fathers had only the flesh of animals to subsist on; and if their hunting was unsuccessful, they were starving. Two of our young hunters having killed a deer, made a fire in the woods to broil fome paris of it. When they were about to satisfy their hunger, they beheld a beautiful young woman descend from the clouds, and seat herself on that hill which you see yonder among the Blue Mountains. They said to each other, it is a spirit that perhaps has smelt our broiling venison, and wishes to

16 What you

cat of it ; let us offer some to her They presented her with the tongue : she was pleased with the taste of it, and said, 6 Your kindness shall be rewarded. Come to this place after thirteen moons, and you shall find something that will be of great benefit in nourishing you and your children to the latest generations.” They did so, and to their surprize, found plants they had never seen before; but which, from that ancient time, have been constantly cultivated among us, to our great advantage. Where her right hand had touched the ground, they found maize; where her left hand had touched it they found kidney-beans, and where her backside had sat on it, tobacco.” The good missionary, disguíted with this idle tale, faid, '“ what I delivered to you were sacred truths; but what you tell me is mere fable, fiction, and falsehood" The Indian, offended, replied, " My brother, it seems your friends have not done you justice in your education; they have not well instructed you in the rules of common civility. You saw that we, who understand and practise those rules, believed all your stories, why do you refuse to believe ours ?!!

When any of them come into our towns, our people are apt to crowd round them, gaze upon them, and incommode them where they desire to be private; this they efteem great rudeness, and the effect of the want of instruction in the rules of civility and good manners.

“ We have,” say they, " as much curiosity as you, and when you come into our towns, we wish for opportunities of looking at you; but for this purpose we hide ourselves behind bulhes where you are to pass, and never intrude ourselves into your company."

Their manner of entering one another's villages has likewise its rules. It is reckoned uncivil in travelling strangers to enter a village abruptly, without giving notice of their approach. Therefore, as soon as they arrive within hearing, they stop and hollow, remaining there till invited to

Two old men usually come out to them, and lead them in. There is in every village a vacant dwelling, called the strangers' house. Here they are placed, while the old men go round from hut to hut, acquainting the inhabi. tanis that strangers are arrived, who are probably hungry and weary: and every one sends them what he can spare


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of victuals, and skins to repose on. When the strangers are refreihed, pipes and tobacco are brought: and then, but not before, conversation begins, with enquiries who they are, whither bound, what news, éc. and it usually ends with offers of service; if the strangers have occasion for guides, or any neceffaries for continuing their journey; and no:hing is exacted for the entertainment.

The same hospitality, elleemed among them as a principle virtue, is practised by private persons; of which conrad Heijer, our interpreter, gave me the following instance. He had been naturalized among the Six Nations, and spoke well the Mohock language. In going through the Indian country, to carry a message from our governor to the council at Únondaga, he called at the habitation of Canofletemo, an old acquaintance, who embraced him, spread furs for him to sit on, placed before him fome boiled beans and venison, and mixed some rum and water for his drink. When he was well refreshed, and had lit his pipe, CanafTetego began to converse with him ; afked how he had fared the many years since they had seen each other, whence he then came, what occafioned the journey, &c. Conrad answered all his queitions; and when the discourse began to flag, the Indian, to continue it, said, Conrad, you have lived long among the white people, and know something of their customs; I have been sometimes at Albany, and have observed. that once in seven days they shut up their shops, and assemble all in the great house ; tell me what it is for ! What do they do there ?" " They meet there," says Conrad, “ to hear and learn good thing," as I do not doubt," fays the Indian, “that they tell you so; they have told me the same : but I doubt the truth of what they say, and I will tell you my reasons. I went lately to Albany, to fell my skins, and buy blankeis, knives, powder, rum, &c. You know I used generally to deal with Hans Hanson; but I was a little inclined this time to try some other inerchants. However, I called first upon Hans, and asked him what he would give for beaver. He said he could not give more than four shillings a pound: but, fays be, I carnot talk on busine's now; this is the day when we meet together to !carn good things, and I am going to the inerting. So I thought to myleif, fince I cannot do any business to-day, I

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fray as well go to the meeting too, and I went with him. ! There stood up a man in black, and began to talk to the people very angrily. I did not understand what he said; but perceiving that he looked much at me, and at Hanson, I imagined he was angry at seeing me there : fo I went out, {at down near the ho vise, ftruck fire, and lit my pipe, waiting till the meeting should break up. I thought too that the man had mentioned something of beaver, and I fufpected it might be thë subject of their meeting. So when they came out I accosted my merchant. “ Well, Hans,” says I, I hope you have agreed to give more than four shillings a pound.” No," says he, “I cannot give fo much, I cannot give more than three Millings and fixpence." I then spoke to several other dealers, but they all sung the same fong, three and fix-pence, three and sixpence. This made it clear to nie that my suspicion was right; and that whatever they pretended of meeting to learn good things, the purpose was to consult how to cheat Indians in the price of beaver. Consider but a little, Conrad, and you must be of my opinion. If they met so often to learn good things, they would certainly have learned some before this time. But they are still ignorant. You know our practice. If a white man, in travelling through our country, enters one of our cabins, we all treat him as I do you; we dry him if he is wet, we war in him if he is cold, and give him meat and drink, that he may allay his thirst and hunger : and we spread soft furs for him to rest and sleep on : we demand nothing in return*. But if I go into a white man's house at Albany, and ask for victuals and drink, they say, Where is your money? and if I have none;

* It is remarkable, that in all ages and countries, hofpia tality has been allowed as the virtue of those, whom the civilized were pleased to call Barbarians; the Greeks celebrated the Scythians for i The Saracens possessed it emi; nently; and it is to this day the reigning virtue of the wildl Arabs. St. Paul too, in the relation of his voyage and Shipwreck on the island of Melita, says, “ The barbarous people shewed us no little kindness, for they kindled a fire, and received us every one, because of the present rain, and because of the cold." (This note is taken from a small collection of Franklin's papers printed for Dilly.]

they say, Get out, you Indian dog. You see they have not yet learned those little good things that we need no meciings to be instructed in, because our mothers taught them to us when we were children : and therefore it is impossible their meetings shouid be, as they say, for any such purpose, or have any such effcet; they are only to contrive the cheating of Indians in the price of beaver.

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LONDON, October 2, 1770. I

SEE with pleasure that we think pretty much alike on the subjects of English America. We of the colonies have never insisted that we ought to be exempt from contributing to the common expercos necessary to support the profperity of the empire. We only affert, that having parliaments of our own, and not having representatives in that of Great-Britain, our parliaments are the only judges of what we can and what we ought to contribute in this case ; and that the English parliament has no right to take our money without our consent.--In fact, the British empire is not a single state; it comprehends many; and though the parliament of Great-Britain has arrogated to itself the power of taxing the colonies, it has no more right to do so, than it has to tax Hanover. We have the same king, but not the same legislatures.

The dispute between the two countries has already cost England many millions sterling, which it has loft in its commerce, and America has in this respect been a proportionable gainer. This coinmerce conlisted principally of superfiuities : objects of luxury and fashion, which we can well do without; and the resolution we have formed of importing no more till our grievances are redressed, has enabled many of our infant manufactures to take root; and it will not be easy to make our people abandon thein in future, even should a connection more cardial than ever fueceed the present troubles.--I have, indeed; no doubt that the parliament of England will finally abandon its

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