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fees instances of, that particular pieces of fuccess are apt to produce presumption, and its confequent inattention, by which the loss may be recovered, will learn not to be too much discouraged by the present success of his adversary, nor to despair of final good fortune, upon every little check he receives in the pursuit of it.
That we may, therefore, be induced more frequently to choose this beneficial amusement, in preference to others, which are not attended with the same advantages, every circumstance which may encrease the pleasures of it should be regard ed ; and every action or word that is unfair, disrespectful, or that in any way may give uneasiness, fhould be avoided, as contrary to the immediate intention of both the players, which is to pass the time agreeably.
Therefore, first, if it is agreed to play according to the strict rules; then those rules are to be exactly observed by both parties, and should not be insisted on for one side, while deviated from by the other for this is not equitable.
Secondly, if it is agreed not to observe the:: rules exactly, but one party demands indulgencies, he should then be as willing to allow them to the other,
Thirdly, no false move should ever be made to extricate yourself out of a difficulty, or to gain an advantage. There can be no pleasure in playing with a person once detected in such unfair practice.
Fourthly, if your adversary is long in playing, you ought not to hurry him, or express any uneasiness at his delay. You should not fing, nor whistle, nor look at your watch, nor take up az
book to read, nor make a tapping with your feet on the floor, or with your fingers on the table, nor do any thing that
may disturb his attention. For all these things displease, and they do not show your skill in playing, but your craftiness or your rudeness.
Fifthly, You ought not to endeavour to amuse and deceive your adversary, by pretending to have made bad moves, and saying that you
have now lost the game, in order to make him secure and careless, and inattentive to your
schemes ; for this is fraud and deceit, not skill in the game.
Sixthly, You must not, when you have gained a victory, use any triumphing or insulting expres. fon, nor show too much pleasure; but endeavour to console your adverfary, and make him less disfatisfied with himself, by every kind of civil expression that may be used with truth, such as, 6. You understand the game better than I, .but you are a little inattentive;" or, 6 You play. too faft;" or,
• You had the best of the game, but something happened to divert your thoughts, and that turned it in
favour.” Seventhly, If you are a spectator while others palay, observe the most perfect filence. For if you give advice, you offend both parties; him against whom you give it, because it may
caule the loss of his game ; him in whose favour you give it, because, though it be good and lie follows it, he loses the pleasure he might have had, if you had permitted him to think until it had occurred to himself. Even after a move,or moves, you must not, by replacing the picces, how how it might have been placed better :
For that displeases, and may occasion disputes and doubts about their true situation. All talk ing to the players lessens or diverts their atten. tion, and is therefore unpleasing. Nor should you give the least hint to either party, by any kind of noise or motion. If you do, you are unworthy to be a spectator. If you have a mind to exercise or shew your judgment, do it in playing your own game, when you have an oppor. tunity, not in criticising, or meddling with, or counselling the play of others.
Lastly, If the game is not to be played rigoroully, according to the rules above mentioned, then moderate your desire of victory over your adversary, and be pleased with one over yourself. Snatch not eagerly at every advantage offered by his unskilfulness or inattention ; but point out to him kindly, that by such a move he places or leaves a piece in danger and unsupport. ed; that by another he will put his King in a perilous situation, &c. By this generous civility (so opposite to the unfairness above forbidden) you may, indeed, happen to lose the game to your opponent, but you will win what is better, his esteem, his respect, and his affection; together with the filent approbation and goodwill of impartial spectators.
THE ART OF PROCURING PLEASANT
Being written at her request.
As a great part of our life is spent in fileep,
S during which we have some times pleasing, and sometimes painful dreams, it becomes of some consequence to obtain the one kind, and avoid the other ; for, whether real or imaginary, pain is pain, and pleasure is pleasure. If we can sleep without dreaming, it is well that painful dreams are avoided. If, while we sleep, we can have any pleasing dreams, it is, as the French say, tant gagné, so much added to the pleasure of life.
To this end it is, in the first place, necessary to be careful in preserving health by due exercise, and great temperance ; for, in sickness, the imagination is disturbed ; and disagreeable, sometimes terrible, ideas are apt to present themselves. Exercise should precede meals, not immediately follow them : the first promotes, the latter, unJess moderate, obitructs digestion. If, after exercise we feed sparingly, the digestion will be easy and good, the body light some, the temper cheerful, and all the animal functions performed agreeably. Sleep, when it follows, will be natural and undisturbed. While indolence, with full feeding, occasion night-mares and horrors inexpressible : we fall from precipices, are als faulted by wild beasts, murderers, and demons, and experience every variety of distress,
serve, however, that the quantities of food and exercise, are relative things : those who move much may, and indeed ought to eat more; those who ule little exercise, should eat little. In general, mankind, since the improvement of cookery, eat about twice as much as nature requires. Suppers are not bad, if we have not dined; but restless nights naturally follow hearty suppers, after full dinners. Indeed, as there is a difference in constitutions, some rest well after these meals; it costs them only a frightful dream, and an apoplexy, after which they sleep till doomsday. Nothing is more common in the newspapers, than instances of people, who, after eating a hearty supper, are found dead a-bed in the morning.
Another means of preserving health, to be attended to, is the having a constant supply of fresh air in your bed-chamber. It has been a great mistake, the sleeping in rooms exactly clofed, and in beds surrounded by curtains. No outward air, that may come into you, is so unwholesome as the unchanged air, often breathed of a close chamber. As boiling water does not grow hotter by longer boiling, if the particles that receive greater heat can escape : fo living bodies do not putrify, if the particles, as fast as they become putrid, can be thrown off. Nature expels them by the pores of the skin and lungs, and in a free open air, they are carried off ; but, in a close room, we receive them again and again, though they become more and more corrupt. A nuinber of persons crowded into a
thus spoil the air in a few minutes,