adapted for the stage, took great pains in came famous. In rapid succession she played teaching her; he even, it is said, taught her Emilie in Cinna, Hermione in Andromaque, the very needful art of reading. He made Amenaide in Tancrède, Eriphile in Iphiher act in several tragedies in a private thea- genie en Aulide, Monime in Mithridate, and tre, and she acquitted herself in a manner Roxane in Bajazet. Her first appearance in which gave promise of future excellence, but the latter satisfied neither the critics nor the the bent of her own inclinations was towards public, but her second was a triumphant succomedy. At this theatre she was once seen cess. She repeated this round of characters by chance by M. Jouslin, director of the for some time, and then came out in Phèdre, Théâtre Français, and he was so pleased in which she produced a great sensation. with her talent, her fine tragic face, and her For four years she confined herself exclusplendid voice, that he caused her to be sent sively to the old classical tragedies, adding, to the Conservatoire de Declamation ; but be however, to the parts mentioned those of specially prohibited her from thinking of Pauline, Chimène, Athalie, Bérénice, Agripanything else but tragedy. This was in 1836. pine, and a few others. In 1842 she first Before long she was seen in a private per- appeared in a new play, Fredegonde, by a formance by M. Poirson, director of the modern author, M. Lemercier ; and in followGymnase, and he thinking her a little pro- ing years she played in Madame de Girardin's digy, engaged her for £120 a year. He an-Judith, M. Latoue St. Ubar's Virginie, M. Sounounced her first appearance with a tremen- met's Jeanne d'Arc, M. Ponsard's Lucrece, and dous flourish of trumpets, and had a vaude- Horace et Lydie, Victor Hugo's Thisbé, Madville, called La Vendéenne, written especially ame de Girardin's Cleopatre, and Lady Tarfor her ; but when she came out she was a tuffe, Alexander Dumas' Mdlle. de Belle-Isle, complete failure, or rather she made no im- M. Scribe's Adrienne Lecouvreur, and five or pression whatsoever on the public. Irritated six other pieces. But she never appeared to so at this check, the director gave her none but much advantage in modern as in the old tragethe most insignificant parts, and struck her dies; she seemed, in fact, to be born to revive name from the bills. Her wish was then to the admiration in which Corneille, Racine and enter the Théâtre Français, but her pro- their school were once held. She was richly fessor at the Conservatoire declined to recom- endowed for classical tragedy. In face and mend her, and one of the principal actors of person she was, to use the expression of a the theatre, Provost it is said, whom she French writer, " like an animated statue of consulted, told her that she had no chance Phidias ;” her walk, poses, and gestures were of succeeding on the stage, and advised her full of mingled dignity and grace; she wore to take to some honest trade. In despair the Greek and Roman costume with consumshe applied to Samson, another eminent mate art; she had a silvery voice which none actor of the same theatre, and he, though at could hear unmoved; and, like all true first struck more by her singularly fine voice actors, she identified herself completely with than by her aptitude for the stage, gave her the part she was playing, and the position in lessons, and afterwards procured her an en- which she stood. Of all her characters she gagement at the Théâtre Français. On the was perhaps greatest in that of Phèdre; in 12th June, 1838, she came out at that house it she was really terrible, and none could in the part of Camille in Les Horaces. The witness her without profound emotion. Yet, theatre was almost empty;--in the stalls of in spite of the extraordinary dramatic power the orchestra there were, it is said, only five she possessed, she was not strictly speaking persons; but one of the five was the famous a dramatic genius, 'for she did not create her Dr. Véron of journalistic, operatic, and quack- characters, but followed with extreme docility medicine-selling celebrity, and he, as he the lessons given her respecting them; she writes in his "Mémoires d'un Bourgeois,” executed admirably what others conceived. was so surprised by her strange and expres- This is so true, that in the few roles in which sive physiognomy, by the elegance of her she abstained from asking counsel, and relied gestures, by her general intelligence, and entirely on her own conception, she failed to especially by her voice, that he hurried for attain much success. Jules Janin, who was lounging in the saloon, Before she was engaged at the Théâtre and made him, though sorely against his will, Français, it was in anything but a prosperfor the weather was very hot, enter. Janin, ous condition ; but afterwards she filled its in his turn, was surprised and pleased, and coffers, and for years was its main stay. She, in his next Monday's feuilleton in the Jour-however, took good care not to work for nal des Débats, he proclaimed that a great nothing. The moment her success was as. actress had arisen. "The theatrical critics of sured she exacted double salary, and almost the other newspapers said “ ditto to Janin : " month after month she obtained augmenta-the public flocked to the theatre, and rati- tions; until at last, at the end of about two fied the judgment of the critics. Rachel be- l years, she was in receipt, for salary and

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allowances, of £2400 a year-an exhorbitant

From The Examiner, 23 Jan. sum at the Théâtre Français, exceeding by

SIR COLIN CAMPBELL. one-third that obtained by Malle. Mars. For three long years the people of EngShe besides constrained the theatre to employ land have been looking out for a general; at liberal salaries all her brothers and sisters. and they have found one at last, not among She subsequently got more advances and the aristocracy, but in the ranks of the midmore favorable conditions, and eventually dle classes, or among themselves. We proreceived a fixed salary of £1680 for playing pose to give our readers a brief account of only twice a week for six months in the year, Sir Colin Campbell, who has already acquired with, besides, a certain sum for each per- so much reputation, and is likely, if his life formance, and a share in the general profits is spared, to gain many an additional laurel. of the theatre : also a right to a pension. This soldier of fortune, who has raised himDuring the time she was not engaged at the self to the head of his profession by pure Française she accepted engagements in the merit, possessing many friends, but no patprovinces, or visited foreign countries, Eng-rons, is properly a native of one of the reland being the first foreign country to which moté Hebrides, the island of Islay, in the she went, and the United States the last county of Argyle, his birth in the city of Her average earnings for many years are Glasgow having been purely accidental. At stated to have been about £16,000. In ad- eight years of age he came to England for dition, she was constantly receiving most val- his education, so that he is more indebted to uable presents. The city of Lyons once gave England than to Scotland for the eminence her a crown of gold, and almost every sove- he has since attained. One of his uncles reign and pretty nearly every prince in died a colonel in the English army; another Europe offered her cadeaux worthy of their a gallant youth, after whom he is named, rank and her renown.

lost his life in our piteous contest with Rachel, though the idol of the public, was America, scalped by the Red Indians, a foe not popular with the theatrical fraternity. less savage than the Sepoys, for they kill only In spite of the liberality of the Théâtre in battle. Français towards her, she was often engaged Of Sir Colin's pedigree, although with such in unseemly quarrels and lawsuits with the a man the matter is one of the smallest conmanagement: and in spite of her wealth, the sequence, we shall say a few words, chiefly instances in which she lent a helping hand because it is in itself rather curious. At to a brother or sister performer are rare in the period of the Revolution the Highland deed; whilst, unfortunately, those in which clans were still troublesome, and two of she treated her confrères with indifference, them the Macdonalds and Macleans, fought harshness, contumely, and even positive a pitched battle for the possession of Islay, cruelty, are said to have been very numer- the fairest of the Hebrides, as well as for

In fact, she appeared to have made it the adjacent island of Jura. * The governa rule never to give anything to anybody ment of the Revolution made short work under any circumstances. To her parents with the combatants by confiscating the two . and to her brothers and sisters she was, how- isles in dispute, and handing them over to ever, generous.

James Campbell of Calder, a near relation of As a theatrical performer may, in Paris at the Argyle. This powerful chieftain, like a all events, be said to live in a glass house, feudal conqueror, took possession of the isthere is no impropriety in mentioning what lands, planting in them a colony of Campall Paris knows, and what Rachel herself bells, his kinsmen and clansmen, and partimade no attempt to disguise—that, though tioning among these the best lands on a never a wife, she was the mother of three tenure, at that time nearly equal in value to or four children.

the fee simple. Among the foremost of the Attempts were made several times by families so planted were the forefathers of ladies of rank, and by bishops and clergymen, Sir Colin Campbell, and thus, as far as such to convert her from Judaism, in which she a pedigree can confer the distinction, he is of was born and nurtured, to Christianity. On “gentle blood.”. one or two occasions she talked as if she

Let us, if only for mere curiosity's sake, was willing to be converted, and more than follow up the history of the place of Sir once announcements of her conversion went Colin's nativity. Sir James Campbell of abroad without her contradicting them. But Calder, the ancestor of the present Earls of she never did change her religion, and never, Cawdor, unable to get from the two islands it may safely be said, had the slightest inten- sufficient reventie to pay his quit-rent of tion of so doing. On her death-bed she was £500 a year to the Crown, sold them to a attended by a rabbi, and she gave orders prosperous trader of Glasgow, also a Campthat she should be interred in the Jews' bell," for the sum of £12,000 which is about burial-ground at Paris.

one half the amount of their present rental!


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758 SOCIAL AND POLITICAL RESULTS OF THE MARRIAGE. In the family of this individual, a very dis- owed up by his forced marches that enatinguished one, the principal island contin- bled him to repair the errors of a lieutenant ued for five generations, but a few years ago by defeating an enemy flushed by a moment's it was again purchased by a London mer- success, numbering double his own force. chant, the late highly intelligent Mr. James Military men will, we think, be prepared to Morrison, like Colin Campbell, sprung from admit that in the conduct of these enter.. the people, and the founder of his own great prises Sir Colin Campbell has displayed an fortune. The sum paid for it was £450,000 amount of strategic skill perhaps never bewhich is about seven and thirty-fold what it fore exhibited in our Indian warfare, from fetched about 140 years ago.

the sublime of Clive and Coote down to the The Campbells, we may add, were always opposite profound of Gough and Ellenbora very loyal, very Presbyterian, very diffusive, ough. We except only the two battles of even very intrusive brood. They were origi- Sir Charles Napier, but not the one battle of nally, or at least their chiefs were, French or the Great Captain, who wanted when he Norman invaders, who, coming through fought it, for it was his first, the quarter of England, seized all they could lay hold of a century's longer experience of Napier and in Perth, and pearly posssessed themselves Campbell

. Our Indian battles, indeed, have of all Argyle. In both counties they be too often consisted in the mere hurling of came quasi Highlanders, speaking good ver- British battalions against artillery in position, nacular, and by way of accomplishment, now the reliance being on the heart and arm of and then bad Scotch, and worse English. the soldier, and not in the head of the genNo country comes amiss to the Campbells. eral. The pluck of our forefathers, before One of their chiefs, the descendant of the the invention of gunpowder, would have enaforesaid Campbell of Calder, is now a abled them to win such fights as these with Welshman. A good many of them are at Asiatics, even with cross-bow, the pike, or present English, even to the height of being the broad-sword. Peers and Chief Justices, while many are

Sir Colin has done already a great deal, Yankees, Canadians, Australians, and Anglo- but he has much more to accomplish; he has Indians.

not only to conquer a kingdom more popuBut to return from this digression to the lous and incomparably more full of resources Dian who is now engaged in suppressing the than his own native country, swarming with mutiny and rebellion of 100,000 trained sol- a warlike population and bristling with fortdiers, and in putting down insurrection over resses. He has, moreover, to raise, organize, an area of a million and a half of square and discipline a loyal and effective army in miles. Sir Colin is now sixty-four, with the the room of one that was formidable only to constitution and activity of forty. He en- its employers. The country prays for the tered the army in 1808, and his first feat of preservation of a life so valuable, and perarms was at San Sebastian; he led the for- haps rather too freely exposed to danger. lorn hope in the assault of that place on the The popular vows are the more earnest, as if 25th of July 1813.

Sir Colin Campbell should unhappily fall, it “I beg (says Lord Lynedoch, in his des- is impossible to see, far or near, a compatch to the Duke of Wellington), to recom- mander worthy to succeed him. mend to your lordship Lieut. Colin Campbell, of the 9th who led the forlorn hope, and who

From Tre Economist, 23 Jan. was severely wounded on the breach.

THE SOCIAL AND THE POLITICAL Lieut. Campbell's section consisted of RESULTS OF THE ROYAL MARRIAGE. twenty-five, and, with one exception, every The alliance about to be formed between man of it was either killed or wounded. England and Prussia is a subject for hearty

In the long period of five-and-forty years congratulation, not only to the young Prince which have since elapsed, Sir Colin Campbell himself, but to both the great nations whose has served his country in almost every quar- sympathies and interests will be drawn closer ter of the globe,—during fourteen of them by the union. There are few of the great in India and China. How he led his column continental nations whose natural temper at the Alma, spared his men, and defeated and character are really so much in harthe enemy opposed to him, is fresh in the mony with our own as the people of Northrecollection of the public, as is also his con- ern Germany. No doubt we admire and duct at Balaclava. These achierements, how- envy the French more for the possession of erer, have been far surpassed by his relief a class of talents and capacities totally dif of the garrison of Lucknow, his retreat from ferent from our own; we envy the poignancy that place in the face of an organized force of their wit, we delight in the piquancy of of fifty thousand men posted exactly in their tastes; but when we come to the essenthe position most favorable to native tactics. tials of life which lie beneath the surface of These masterly movements are instantly fol-' society, we find ourselves entirely out of uni



SOCIAL AND POLITICAL RESULTS OF THE MARRIAGE. 759 son with French modes of thought and feel- | pose that any Court influence, however ing. The ground of our daily thoughts, the strong, could have altered the course of Eng. substance of our daily ambition, the world of lish statesmanship during the Russian war, our poets and norelists, the ideal life of our simply because the leaning of Prussia was in middle class, the passion for liberty among a different direction,-is to suppose that that all classes, are of a totally different type in war was the result of ministerial and not England and in France. But with the peo- popular resolve. The truth is obvious, that ple of Northern Germany, we have far more any

alliance of this kind, whichever of the in common. If we find less to admire, it is two States is by its position and resources because we find far more to understand and the most independent, may naturally hope to love. There we find a simplicity of manner give rather than to receive support. That the and feeling surpassing even the simplicity of cordiality between Prussia and England will England, -less enterprise and more light- be quickened by the close alliance between hearted content,-less reserve and more hu- the heads of the Executive Goverument, we mility,--less success in practical life, but cannot doubt; and whether that increased even more diligence and caution,-less auda- cordiality will tend rather to increase Ruscity and self-confidence in external things, sian influence in England, or to decrease Rusmore boldness and self-confidence in theo- sian influence in Prussia, is not, perhaps, a retic pursuits,-less freedom of action, more question that is very difficult to answer. It freedom of thought,—less faith, more spon- is, for example, in all probability, quite imtaneous and child-like feeling. All these possible to over-estimate the influence which characteristics are so closely allied to our English institutions and habits of friendship own, and yet so different, that when fairly with English public men, have had in hielpknown, they form the natural ground of a ing the King of Belgium to establish on a very permanent bond between the two types secure foundation the political institutions of of national character ; and it is easy to see that youthful kingdom. We have lately had that German literature and thought has reason to admire the firmness, the tact, the taken a far deeper, though at present a nar- energy with which he held the reins of Govrower, hold of the English mind than the ernment during a conflict of no slight magFrench literature and thought could ever nitude, which threatened either to overthrow take. The defects of the English mind are the constitutional rights of the laity or to not the defects of the German, and yet both plunge the State into civil war. No one can nations respect the same qualities of charac- doubt that it was Leopold's familiarity with ter-two conditions without either of which English political traditions and English hisno cordial and lasting sympathy can exist. tory which at once enabled him so to rule It is the accident of language and imperfect Belgium, as to render constitutional and intercourse which has alone isolated us so moderate measures at that crisis decisive completely from Germany ;-and we may be with the people, and which taught him what sure that closer intercourse will tend—not those measures ought to be. And can we perhaps, as in the case of France, to make doubt that the same spectacle of English German habits and tastes admired and fash- politics, and the same close connection with ionable amongst us—but, what is of far English statesmen, will produce a similar higher importance, to foster hearty mutual effect on the mind of the young Prince of esteem between the great middle classes of Prussia, and confirm in him the habits of a the two nations.

constitutional monarch far more effectually But it is not simply as promoting the so- than all the historical and legal lore of his cial alliance of the two nations that we may German University training? All the politicongratulate ourselves on the marriage of the cal philosophy of Bonn and Berlin would Princess Royal. That indeed is the deepest, never endear to him the constitutional freebut it is not the most obvious and tangible dom of Prussia, as will his personal experiresult which this alliance will have on Eng-ence of English politics and politicians,—his lish affairs. We may, without vanity, be knowicuge how real is the national life of Englieve that it will extend the influence of Eng- land, and how much more real than it could land on the Continent, and tend to wean ever have been had not kings and ministers from exclusive bias to Russian interest one known how to yield to the people as well as of Russia's most powerful neighbors. Those how to guide them. who, when this alliance was first suggested, And, last of all, we cannot doubt for a seemed to fear that it might tend to weaken moment that the alliance just about to be the independence of England, and indirectly formed will be a real security for the peace draw her diplomatists into the jealousies and of Europe. The misunderstandings which intricacies of German politics, far underrated arise because there is no cordial spirit bewe think, the substantial dependence of Eng-tween the Executive Powers in different lish statesmen on the national will. To sup-Icountries are numerous ; the misunderstand



ings which, having arisen, are not removed, of the time when the same policy extended but fostered into actual conflict, because there its shelter to himself. And, indeed, the reis no such cordial spirit at work in the mu- mark fell with little fitness from the President tual explanations that take place, are perhaps of a French Legislative Assembly, who ought more numerous still. More than once lately to have still vividly before his mind the mulwe have beheld how a cordial understanding titudes of all political opinions whom State between France and England has either persecution has driven within the last seventy arerted disagreement or subdued disagree years to take refuge on the shores of Engment in its earliest stage. So, too, it will land,-some of them Royalists, and some of doubtless be between England and Prussia. them Republicans,—some of them partisans Frank good-will is the first essential of po- of a constitutional assembly, some of them litical concord ; and frank good-will must advocates of a Socialist anarchy. Certainly ever exist where the heads of the Executive France is not the nation to complain of the would look upon war as a personal grief. refuge which England affords to political They would know, indeed, that if the politi- exiles. Count de Morny must well know cal purposes of the two nations were ever that England cannot act in one way at one directly to cross each other, no power in the time, and in another way at another time. Executive could prevent a conflict: but they If she is to apprehend on suspicion,—to overwould be resolved that no merely apparent hear every word of conspiracy,—to track variance should be the occasion of so painful every thought of resistance to established a struggle: and thus, by taking care to re- authority which is cherished on her soil,—she move all the false conceptions of diplomacy must alter her policy towards Royalist and they would remove the grounds of every merely Republican, Legitimist and Anarchist alike. formal strifa Wemay feel completely satisfied, She cannot shelter the Napoleonist and imtherefore, that, on public as well as on person- prison the Bourbon ; she cannot set spies on al grounds, the marriage of our Princess is a the leaders of the Red Republicans unless subject of mutual congratulation to Germany she also set spies on the leaders of the Or and England; and indulge ourselves with leanists,-nay, should the Imperial dynasty the hope that for once, a source of private of France ever cease to be the one in power, happiness is to be also a source of perma- unless she also set spies on all its adherents nent political gain.

who may be suspected of organizing a return

to power upon our shores. Unless England From The Economist, 23 Jan. is to cease to be what she has been to COUNT DE MORNY'S ATTACK ON all the parties which have so long divided ENGLAND.

France,—Royalists, and Girondists, and BuoALL Englishmen must rejoice heartily in napartists, and Orleapists, and Socialists—she the failure of the detestable plot to assassi- cannot undertake or attempt to destroy these nate the Emperor of France. There is, per- “ nests of assassins." Without shackling the haps, no man living whose life is of so much liberty of the exile, there is no mode of either value to France and Europe, as that of the discovering or preventing secret conspiracy; Emperor of the French. Not that we sym- and Count de Morny must well know that it pathize with his system, or greatly admire is impossible in England to apply one policy his régime; but because his is at least a firm to one set of exiles and another policy to and sensible government,—a fixed centre of another. Yet if ever there were a country order amid the fluctuating waves of French that as a whole owes gratitude to the gene political opinion,--a strong and sagacious ad- rous traditions of English hospitality, that ministration, amidst much weakness and folly country is France. Hither came the Hugue

-a government, in short, that actually governs nots during the time of Louis the fourand knows its own mind. But Count de Morny teenth, and hither came the priests in the is not content with expressing his conviction on time of the Revolution. The old nobles, these subjects,-on which he would command whose chateaux were forfeited by the Conventhe sympathy, not only of France, but of Eng- tion, came to England to bide their time; land,-he adds a foolish and impertinent sar- the quiet middle classes followed during the casm on the policy of England, because she Reign of Terror; those who made themselves has "not the power to destroy these nests of obnoxious to the first emperor found refuge assassins," because she does not violate the here; those who adhered to his policy and “ laws of hospitality” in the case of men who dreaded his successors were equally welcome; turn out to be less men than “wild beasts.” twice has a Freneh king recently found hosWe do not believe that this imprudent and pitality in England; and French statesmen impudent reflection on the traditional policy of every class have turned to England in of England, can have found any approval in their need. Does Count de Morny suppose the mind of the Emperor, who retains, we that, if England adopted a different policy, doubt not, a generous and cordial recollection such infamous plots as these could be sup

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