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From The Examiner, 2 Jan. covite. Now this is not in the present set of RETIREMENT OF LORD STRATFORD the French fashion, which is all for the proDE REDCLIFFE.

pitiation of the North. France has no mind THE retirement of Lord Stratford de Red- to try conclusions again with Russia, and her cliffe from the post he has so long and so government is well pleased at the removal of ably filled at Constantinople will occupy a a man from a post of observation who was place in history'far more considerable than it sure to detect and raise the alarm against now does in the attention of the public. the first overt acts of breach of faith and Lord Stratford de Redcliffe has acted a great encroachment. It is not thought convenient part in the affairs of Europe. He has been to watch Russia too closely. For peace sake ever on the watch to guard against the the eyes are to be closed, and the policy is machinations of Russia. The cause of civil- not to see what might be matter of dissension, ization has had in him its foremost and most if not of quarrel. Widely indeed are we puissant champion. In knowledge of the mistaken if the retirement of Lord Stratford East he has probably never had his equal, de Redcliffe does not serve for a new deparand he has turned his thorough conversance ture in the Eastern policy. Certain we are with the Asiatic character and habits, virtues that it is an event which has long been most and vices, to the promotion of the policy ardently desired by the Government of Naadopted by our country for the preservation poleon III., and that it is regarded with joy of the Turkish empire. What Todleben was

as the removal of a rock ahead, an impedito the Russians at Sebastopol, Lord Strat- ment to smooth accommodations with Russia. ford de Redcliffe has been to the European The intention of our Ministry is no doubt outworks of civilisation. He left no weak steadily and steadfastly to hold its course as point unguarded. He was ready with a heretofore, but the hand of a master, the eye counter-work, or a counter-move, against of the lynx, is withdrawn from the place every approach of the wily enemy. Russia where both are still most needed for the concould not take a step towards her long-de- duct of affairs, so that their currents may sired object without encountering the British not be turned awry and lose the name of Envoy. He was everywhere baffling her action. schemes, and confounding her devices. Menchikoff measured forces with him, and there

From The Examiner, 9 Jan. by only precipitated the defeat of his master's THE FATE OF GENERAL HAVELOCK. dearest projects. We firmly believe that no WHEN Parliament was voting inadequate other hand than Lord Stratford's could at rewards to this brave and triumphant soldier, that critical juncture have supported the his admiring country little dreamed that he failing courage of the Porte. He was in was already gone where the voice of honor, himself a host. We care not to be told of though never louder or more universal, will the faults of this truly great diplomatist. not reach him. The tidings of his sad fate We have eyes only for his great services. It have afflicted the public more intensely than is a satisfaction to us now to reflect that we any event of the Indian struggle, if we exhave never joined in, or countenanced the cept the news of its worst tragedies. We attacks which from time to time have surged doubt if the people of England in any of up against him. He was arrogant, opinion- their wars ever took a deeper interest in the ated, wilsul, self-sufficient, overbearing; be it fortunes and career of a general in the field so, nay, stretch the list of faults farther, and than they took in Havelock's. In him they it is surpassed by his merits and services a admired the union of the greatest qualities hundred-fold. Thankless, however, in some both of the man and the soldier; they saw respects, have been his labors. The office of the achievements of sheer personal merit; saving is not often an acceptable one, and an eminence due neither to wealth, patronage, Turkey has been a froward, untoward patient or connections; a man of genius and energy under the care of its wisest and best friend. winning the highest professional distinction, We have not a doubt that the Porte rejoices with nothing but the brave heart and the at deliverance from its most faithful and suc- wise head; proceeding from service to sercessful guardian. Corruption, and every form vice, and viciory to victory, proving his ability of misrule, will feel easier when their great and prowess m a hundred Asiatic fields, until foe quits the field where he lias so often made he reached the crowning honor of the post in them quail and yield.

which he fell, covered withi as much glory as No little joy, too, will there be at the ever surrounded the name of a British hero. French Court, to which Lord Stratford de Havelock lived long enough for his counRedcliffe has for some time past been bitterly try's service, and its renown, but not for a obnoxious. lle would not, could not, Rus- knowledge of its gratitude, and its hearty apsianise. lIe is unaccommodating; He is preciation of its foremost champion. How it sturdily British, Turkish, anything but Mus-'would have gladdened his noble natura to

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have known how generously public opinion for the Government now to represent the vindicated his claims, and extorted reward feeling of the country, and to mark in every more commensurate with his deserts, though way its sense of the services and worth of inadequate indeed after all. The gladdening the departed hero. His monument wants no thought might have been his at his dying place in Westminster Abbey, and will stand hour, “My son shall find mankind his friend." imperishably in the very noblest page of But still we cannot look back at what has English history; his family should be the been done with any satisfaction, and its in- present concern. It would have cheered the sufficiency must now strike every mind. The hero's dying hour to have foreknown that first proposal was £1,000 a-year, and had those dearest to him would be the care of his that arrangement been made, it would have admiring and grateful country. The loving requited Havelock's inestimable services up study should be to do all as he would have to his death with a sum of about a couple of wished it done. hundred pounds or less; this was happily amended to a pension of the same niggardly

From The Mutiny of the Bengal Army. amount, extended, indeed, to the life of his

GENERAL HAVELOCK had seen perhaps That son may be cut off by the sword more Indian service than any living man or disease, and the rewards of the nation He had served throughout the first Burmese thus become a thing precarious, and depen- war, of which he wrote a clear and graphic dent on the accidents of a life the most ex- history. In 1838-9 he went into Affghanistan, posed to accident. Is this accordant with and only left it in 1842 in company with the

sense and justice? Should not avenging armies of Pollock and Nott; he rewards be as substantial and fixed as the had in fact remained one of the illustrious services to wnich they are due ? Should it garrison of Jellalabad, throughout our terridepend on the chances of life whether a ble disasters in that country. In the carrequital of the most important public service paign of Gwalior, in 1843, and in the Sutlej should be thousands, hundreds, or possibly campaigns of 1845-6, he took a distinguished even tens? Surely the sensible course in a part, having in one action had two horses, in case of this nature is the grant of a sum of another a third horse, shot under him. It money, rendering at the usual rate of interest was after this that he became first Quarterthe income thought befitting. The Princess master-General, and subsequently AdjutantRoyal is not dowered with a life annuity, and General of H.M. forces in India. In his the same arrangement of capitalising should private life, and in manner, Havelock was the be adopted for still better reasons in instances most quiet and retiring of men. He ate and like that of Havelock. As for the title drank little-sufficient only for the purposes thrown in to make weight, the baronetcy, the of life, and devoted his whole time to his question may now arise whether it is really a profession and to his God. Religion was not reward or an incumbrance. Many a man with him a mere outward sign ; it was a part, with slender means has had to deplore the and by far the most important part, of his barren addition to his name standing in the daily exercises. He had mourned over the way of his exertions to better his fortunes. idolatry-encouraging system of the GovernA peerage for life would have beer the suit- ment of India, but he was powerless to pre able honor for the lamented Havelock. It vent it. Nevertheless, he was one of those may be objected that this is not the time to men who, in olden days, would have led the revert to these things, but such is not our Crusaders to Ascalon, and whose deep en. opinion, and it is at a moment of grief like thusiasm would have inspired all around him the present that the people take the just with equal fervor in the cause. view of what has been done, or left undone, Who indeed that saw that spare figure, for the reward of desert of the highest below the middle height, that pale thoughtorder.

ful face, seldom showing any interest in the The event which has spread a sorrow over general conversation, but often lighted up the land only to be likened to the grief for by the latent fire within, would have thought the death of Nelson, was not uncontemplated. him capable of mighty deeds? He would There was a general instinctive feeling of sit silent and meditative. He might be apprehension that Havelock would never thinking of the yet possible destiny of India know the value which his country set on his under a bold and God-fearing policy. The services, and the honor and affection in which smile would gleam on his face, but as quickly his name is held. We remember especially, die away, for what chance seemed there then that in a very admirable article in the Times of action for him ? He was approaching the on his merits, and the proposed requital, the term of life, the end of his days, and all India very event which we have now to deplore lay before him calm and still, not a breath was anticipated as amongst, not merely the agitating her bosom, not even a ripple indipossibilities, but the sad probabilities. 'It is cating the quarter from which a storm might

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be approaching. The faith of our rulers in performed in Oude was the time at which it Hindooism was never stronger.

was done, with all India in commotion, all Who that saw him then would have be- England in anxiety, and peculiarly sensitive lieved that that pale, thin, spare man, studi- to the service; while Havelock's unaffected ously avoiding all fare but the plainest, but conspicuously asserted piety helped to was the hero who would place his heel on endow him with the aspect of a conscious inthe neck of this terrible rebellion ?-_was the strument in the hand of Providence. The man who, under a July, August, and Septem- feelings of the man individually entered ber sun,-deadly to the strongest-would largely into his power of leading his soldiers, march without tents against twenty times his and into the estimate which his country has number, would baffle all their attempts to formed of his character. Instead of being a overwhelm him? Who would ever make a mere general officer, highly successful in retreat the prelude of a further step in ad- field operations, he was but partially tried vance; and finally, after three months' en- in those,—Havelock brought to the art of counters with a persevering foe, would suc- war the feelings of chivalry, its earnestness, ceed in forcing his way, at the head of 2,500 devotion, and self-forgetfulness : qualities in British troops, through 50,000 fanatics, hold- which he resembled Napier, whose monuing the largest and most defensible city in ment is placed on one side of the square, and Asia, and be the first to bring relief to our Nelson who would stand between the two.countrymen ?

Spectator 23 Jan.
And yet Havelock did all this.
This day (27th November) intelligence has

From The Spectator, 2 Jan reached Calcutta that he is dead. Mourn PROPOSED INTERNATIONAL COMnot for him, my countrymen, for a nobler

MITTEE ON THE SLAVE-TRADE and a purer spirit never winged its way to its

TREATIES. God. Mourn rather for India, that at such a A NEW idea has dawned upon those who crisis as this, a God-fearing soldier, a Chris- are anxious for the economical redemption of tian warrior, as yet unsurpassed in the the West Indies; or rather, two ideas have been present crisis unequalled by any—should put together, and a third has been struck out have been removed from the head of her by the process. The want of labor in the armies !

West Indies is a matter only too notorious.

The best source of all for the genuine supHAVELOCK’S MONUMENT.—It is proposed ply of labor is Africa ; but we stand excluded to erect a monument to Havelock, and a cor- from that source by circumstances that any respondent of the Daily News suggests for form of free emigration might be the pretext the site " the angle of Trafalgar Square cor- and justification for a spurious counterfeit responding to that which contains the statue carried on by nations that have traded in of Sir Charles Napier; of whom our de- slavery. Thus, the so-called plan of free parted hero was a favorite lieutenant." There African emigration conducted by M. Régis are other reasons for the choice. In reply to appears to labor under the threefold disadcomplaints that the recognition of Havelock vantage of arousing British jealousy, of beby the Government had not been originally ing: in itself a very unsuccessful experiment, spontaneous and hearty enough, representa- and of setting the example to Spain, Portutions have been put forth that he rose to dis- gal, Yankee adventurers, and other slavetinction more rapidly than any officer of his traders, for reëstablishing a slave-trade in rank-more rapidly even than Wellington. disguise. Various expedients have been But the claims urged in his behalf were not adopted to supply labor without seeking it of a kind that depend upon precedent, or from Africa ; and the most promising sources could be regulated by it. It was far from have been China and the Hill regions of Inbeing, a simple case of military suocess. It dia, which produce Coolies. But on trial would indeed be difficult to meet the exact that plan may again be pronounced a failure. amount of military trouble that would have The races are too weak for the English idea ensued if Havelock had failed in his advance of labor, and cannot be put in competition through Oude; still more frightful to think with good specimens from Africa. The of the moral consequences, both personal and question still presses: the British West Indies political

. In its nature his march appears to languish in the competition of the sugar

been absolutely without precedent. trade for want of hands; our own subjects We have before had marches through hostile suffer injury through our philanthropical polcountries, but never, we believe, such a icy, without success, in the extinction of the steady, persevering journey, through apparent slave-trade.. Whatever may be the failure impossibilities, and in the midst of what of the Régis plan as its author designed it, looked like certain death. But what above it has undoubtedly opened the door for a all determined the estimate of the service I new form of African emigration; and the

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LIVING AGE.

DCCXXI.

VOL. XX.

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Ministerial papers of this country are very

From The Spectator, 16 Jan. anxious to put a spoke in the wheel of that EARTHQUAKES AND THEIR TREATscheme. It is understood that the Emperor

MENT. of the French has shown signs of yielding,

It is calculated that more than 30,000 and the plan may after all be abandoned : persons, some reckon 40,000, have lost their but what then ? Both for the sake of our lives by the recent earthquakes in the kingown West Indies and of those countries dom of Naples. In some towns, Montemurro which need Tropical labor, it is desirable to and Saponaro for example, the whole of the find a source which may supply the want inhabitants have perished ; in others, Brienza without reëstablishing the African slave- and Tramuttola, the greater part of all living trade.

beings were destroyed. In some places the Eureka! some journals, including the Min- earth opened, swallowing every creature on isterial Morning Post, have hit upon the the face of it.. The details of this grand source. They are for executing two great natural phenomenon are altogether frightful; duties at once they would supply the want we must go back to times loug past to parallel of labor in the Tropical English Colonies, them. Exactly one thousand years ago, at and at the same time supply an appropriate the end of December 857, a similar cataspunishment for the mutinous Sepoys. Let trophe happened throughout Europe. At the Hindoos be branded “M. D.," (not Med- that time, however, the ravages of the earth icinæ Doctor, but Mutineer-Deserter,] and quake extended much further North than at condemned to be beasts of toil for the ben present; even towns on the Rhine, Mayence efit of those Whites whom they would have among them, suffered severely. This proves injured; the West Indies thus becoming a that, after all, these commotions are losing penal prison for the Sepoys, and recovering in intensity, extent, and frequency; for the supply which they have so long lacked. whereas in former times the whole of Europe The idea may be specious, but it will not was frequently disturbed by them, and mil. stand a moment's criticism. All the hor- lions lost their lives, they are at present rors, the crimes, the vices, the corruptions, more rare, they do not extend beyond a that attended White-convictism in Australia single kingdom, and the losses may be would here be repeated (we say it without a counted by thousands. In that long interval pun) with an infinitely blacker dye. The there have been many other visitations, but workmen in the sugar-plantations, we can none perhaps so extensively felt as that of easily foresee, would be infinitely more ac- 1755, in which the town of Catania was detive in the field of vice. The forms of atroc- stroyed, a quay at Lisbon was submerged, ity would be such that their very existence and the commotion was felt even in this would contaminate the world.

country, the water in Stonehouse Pool near The problem of the West Indies still re- Plymouth, with the boats upon it, being mains unsolved. Notwithstanding the fail- swayed to and fro like water in a basin that ure of M. Régis, the system of the preven-is violently shaken. On the whole, however, tire squadron has been broken through, and observation of the past appears to prove a can scarcely be made whole again. The decline, if not in the horrors of the infliction,

Times is for staving off the difficulty by a still in the extensiveness and in the frequency. .. continuance of Coolie immigration ; but, we Something perhaps may be due to the hyper.

repeat, the Coolie is a failure, not strong bole with which ancient writers wrote; but enough to keep out the African. It appears about some of the greatest facts which hapto us that the time is arrived when the whole pened in public, such as the destruction of subject ought to be reconsidered with a view the quay, there can scarcely be any doubts to the best arrangement of all interests in- and if we trust to the experiences of so short cluding the true interests of Africa as well a time as a thousand years, we might accept as those of the West Indies and of the plan- the facts as evidence of a standing suppositation-owning powers of Europe. Most cir- tion that our old earth is gradually cooling ilized governments of the world are parties down. to the virtual alliance which is embodied in But there is one great fact which comes the Slave-trade treaties; and the best of al home nearer to us,—the total want of any tribunals for a reconsideration of the subject progress in the treatment of these great would be a Joint Commission appointed by phenomena. They happen mostly in coun all the states signataries to the Slave-trade tries where there is little energy, and where treaties, that Commission empowered to re-invention is cramped by the artificial bondo view the whole subject and to report upon it. of bad government. In Naples we have an

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intensity of horror and an intensity of inert- , Government, for the freedom and familiarity

Travellers throughout the districts with which the lecturer handled the element that have suffered in Naples see towns de ascribed in ancient times to Jupiter. But stroyed, with the inhabitants sitting upon the who does not feel, that if the Royal Instituruins, mourning, not acting. In Polla the tion were situated at the foot of Vesuvius, cries of the victims were heard under the that the same bold and searching inquiry would ruins;

but no assistance could be had. The be conducted into the volcano and the earthcountry people fled in fear; the thousands of quake? Perhaps the boldest of us would men in the pay of the Government were not never think of preventing the earthquake; permitted to come, perhaps did not wish it; but we know that we could not study it and there is reason to suppose that enormous without profit; and even if we were not able numbers have perished through starvation or to counteract its effect upon the globe, we suffocation, though they might have been should hope at least to adopt a style of buildsaved by the slightest exertion. It is the ing perhaps more light and elastic, and thus custom to leave everything to the Gorern- more suited to the neighborhood. No man ment, and the Government affects to act, can ever tell on the threshold of inquiry but does not. While these events are pro- what its results will be; but inquiry itself is ceeding, the official journal of Naples sp on- impossible in a land where the journals are taneously pays worship to the King as to a instructed to hush up an earthquake, 2.d are god upon earth, towards whom his beloved only permitted to exist so long as they make people look,—but look in vain ; and obeys their news mere foot-notes to the sermons of its instructions to make as light as possible the priesthood. of the ruin and suffering endured. In fact, Government is trying to hush up the earth

From The Literary Gazette. quake. This is a natural consequence of the rule in a country where the sole object is to

MIDLLE. RACHEL. subserve the interest of the one man at the WITH regret we learn that Malle. Rachel, top, not of the body of the people; in a the great French tragic actress, died at about country where the journals are under the eleren o'clock on Monday morning, at the control of the clergy, as we see now in the village of Cannet, near Cannes, in France. case of a journal at Bergamo, whose editor She for a long time had been laboring under has just made submission.

a malady of the chest, and recently spent In our country we can scarcely enter into some months in Egypt, in the hope that the the mental condition of a people thus gov- climate of that country would be favorable erned. If there still are restraints of preju- to her. Her Egyptian sojourn did her good, dice, or even of authority in some few cases, and she returned to France; but she was far we are in the habit of accepting every visita- from recovered, and was sent to Cannet, in tion as the stimulus to a new inquiry. At the balmy south, and on the shores of the the present moment, in spite of the material Mediterranean. There all that medical art interests engaged, we have volunteers or could do for hier was done, and at times oflicial investigators exploring mischiefs aris- hopes of her cure were entertained ; but it ing from the influences, natural or artificial, was written that she was to die. which are injurious to life. Incorporated. Her father and mother, a couple named bodies are inquiring into the best mode of Felis, were Jew pedlars in Switzerland and cleansing our towns. Science anticipates Germany, and she was born on the 24th the suggestions of experience, and points to March, 1820, in a low public house in the danger from the use of paper tinted with village of Munf, canton of Argau, in the arsenical coloring matter: the hint is re- former country. Her parents afterwards obsponded to, and fresh evidence is brought tained their livelihood for some time by dealagainst the poison. The papermakers defend ing in second-hand clothes at Lyons, and their wares; and there is a thorough discus- about 1830 they went to Paris, where they sion, which will end, no doubt, in the acquittal carried on the same calling. At Paris they or condemnation of the accused. The whole sent out their elder daughter to sing in pubbody of graziers is placed under judgment lic houses, cafés, and dancing gardens, and for a course of feeding which tends to results after a while they made Rachel accompany injurious to human health; and that is done her. A professor of a singing school fell in in a country where the meat is the best in with the girls one day, and, struck with the world ; the graziers themselves not scru- Rachel's voice, proposed to her parents to pling, to assist and patronize the inquiry. give her lessons in singing. They consented, The inquiry and experiments in electricity, but before long he found that the voice was conducted by Professor Faraday at the Royal better suited for declamation than for singInstitution before the Prince of Wales, might ing, and he sent Rachel to a professor of challenge suppression under a Neapolitan / declamatio. who, finding that she had talents

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