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lost his life ; and in India the conquests of nity,” and “far more disposed to cultivate Clive transferred a new empire to our keep- the acquaintance of those he could serve ing. It was in the midst of these splendid than of those who could serve him.” He successes of the Pitt Administration that had some steady old friends, indeed, such as George II. died (October, 1760.)

Armstrong, who had kept up their intimacy So far as the “Critical Review” took part with him in his own way; Wilkes, also, then in politics, it seems to have gone along with a dashing young wit about town, had found the general feeling in applauding the change him out, and taken to him very cordially; from the dregs of the Whig Ministry of the but, with a few such exceptions, his company Pelhams to the triumphant dictatorship of at his Sunday dinners and receptions at Pitt. In form, however, the new journal was Chelsea had consisted mainly of a motley more literary than political. The articles crowd of literary waifs, related to him by consisted exclusively of reviews and notices clientage, and forming what might have of new books, British and foreign. From been called a Smollett set. In becoming the the glance we have been able to bestow on editor of the “ Critical Review,” however, he the earlier numbers, we should say that the necessarily enlarged the circle of his acquaintReview was creditably conducted. Among ance. We do not find that he became as the works reviewed in the first number are intimate as some others with that society of Sheridan's “ British Education," Grieve's artists, politicians, and men of letters in which “ Translation of Celsus,” Macknight's “ Har- Johnson moved and ruled; but there does not mony of the Four Gospels,” Dr. Birch's seem to have been any important member of History of the Royal Society," Mr. Bor- it

, from Johnson himself downwards, with lase's “ Account of the Scilly Islands," Dr. whom he did not come into occasional conThomas Blackwell's “ Court of Augustus,” tact. Goldsmith he probably knew as soon Dr. Huxham “On Antimony,” Murphy's as any one in London did ; for, though Goldfarce of " The Apprentice,” Foote's farce of smith's first connections, on settling in Lon“The Englishman returned from Paris," one don in 1756, were with the “ Monthly Reof Crebillon the younger's Tales (which is view," he was a contributor to the “ Critical denounced as an immoral publication), and Review” not long afterwards. Of the kind Voltaire's “Pucelle d'Orléans.” In subse- of acquaintance he had with Johnson there is quent numbers, from 1756 to 1760, there an interesting record in a letter of his to occur notices of successive volumes of Hume's Wilkes of the date March, 1759, in which he History and Essays, and of such works as asks Wilkes to use his influence with the AdHome's “ Douglas,” Burke's “ Essay on the miralty to procure the discharge of Johnson's Sublime and Beautiful,” Dyer's “ Fleece," black servant, Francis Barber, who had been Wilkie's “ Epigoniad,” Gray's Odes,” Smith's pressed on board a King's frigate. In this “Theory of the Moral Sentiments,” and But- letter he writes with a certain familiar reverler's “ Literary Remains." The notices are ence of Johnson as “our lexicographer," and generally very respectably written, and the the “great cham of literature; judgments pronounced on the more impor- pleased that, though Johnson and he“ tant works are, in the main, such as posterity never cater-cousins,” Johnson should have dehas ratified.

sired his assistance on the occasion; and he Smollett's position as principal editor of hints that Wilkes also may like the opportuthe “ Critical Review” was not without good nity of laying his well-known enemy under effects both on his temper and on his rela- an obligation. There are other instances, tions to his contemporaries. We are apt to too, proving that, whether owing to his fancy the author of " Roderick Random” better acquaintance with his contemporaries and “ Peregrine Pickle” as a man who must personally, or to a conscientious feeling that have been always dining out, always ready to he was not entitled as a reviewer to indulge go into a tavern, and always carrying a bois- in private grudges, his relations to the liteterous fund of good humor with him where- rary notabilities of his time became less those ever he went, There could not be a greater of an Ishmaelite than they had hitherto mistake. He was a proud, retiring, inde- been. He took an early opportunity, for expendent fellow; "in manner,” according to ample, to make amends to Garrick for some Moore, “reserved, with a certain air of dig. I former disrespectful allusions to him, which

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had arisen out of the business of the rejected keeping.” That topic “ Dr. James Grainger tragedy.

might with propriety have avoided," returns Editorship in any age, however, has its the critic, “ unless he could prove that ever dark side ; and Smollett soon found that, in Dr. Smollett solicited him to defray any part becoming connected with the “Critical Re- of his domestic expenses ;'

» to which is view," he had made himself liable to a host added, “that Dr. S. does keep house and of discomforts. In the first place he did not lives like a gentleman,” as Dr. James Grainwrite all the articles, but was only one of “a ger, and divers other authors of the age, society of gentlemen,” some of whom seem to might testify from experience. Such were have had the power of inserting articles with the literary amenities of London in 1757-8. out consulting him. This of itself brought What seems to have annoyed Smollett most inconvenience. Thus, as early as August, was the outcry against the Review as a 1756, we find him writing to Richardson to Scotch organ, partial to Scotch authors. He assure him that " a silly, mean insinuation took the trouble to inform the English against his writings," which had appeared in public that of the five persons who managed the Review, was inserted "without his priv- the Review he alone was a Scot; and in one ity and concurrence." He had not always of his letters to Moore of Glasgow he comthis explanation to give ; nor were the re- plains that it is rather hard that there should viewed authors always Richardsons. There be this outcry in England at the very time was the notorious Dr. Shebbeare, for exam- when he hears that Home and Wilkie, and ple, who, having been attacked in the Re- other writers in Scotland, are smarting under view, came out with a pamphlet entitled recent notices of their writings in the jour“The Occasional Critic, or the Decrees of nal and accusing him of having written them. the Scotch Tribunal rejudged,” in which The “ Critical Review” occupied but a Smollett was assailed with every epithet fraction of Smollett's time. In 1756 he known in the vocabulary of rage, and the edited for Dodsley, in seven volumes, 12m0., Review denounced as a nest of beggarly a “Compendium of Authentic and Enter Scots, pecking at Englishmen, and chirrup- taining Voyages, digested in a Chronological ing to one another. Then came honest Series," inserting in the collection sereral Joseph Reed, a rope-maker, whose mock contributions of his own, and amongst them tragedy of " Madrigal and Trulletta” had an account of the Carthagena expedition of not been sufficiently praised, and who in 1741. In the following year he issued a new consequence printed " A Sop in the Pan for edition of his “ Peregrine Pickle;" in which, a Physical Critic, in a Letter to Dr. Sm—- “ owning with contrition that,” in the first 1—1," beginning, “ Dear Toby," proceeding edition," he had in one or two instances ingeniously to references to " a certain Cale- given way too much to the suggestions of donian quack by the courtesy of England personal resentment,” he retrenches offensive called a Doctor of Physic," and ending with passages, and at the same time “reforms professional allusions to the writer's skill in the the manners and corrects the expression." manufacture of “halters." A more respectable Among the passages omitted were those opponent than either Shebbeare or Reed was reflecting on Lyttelton and Fielding. In the Dr. James Grainger. His translation of “Ti- same year (1757) he wrote “The Reprisal, bullus” having been sharply noticed, Grainger or the Tars of Old England; a Comedy in two retaliated in a “ Letter to Tobias Smollett, M. Acts," and had the satisfaction of seeing it D.” A writer in the Review, most probably performed at Drury Lane. The incident of Smollett himself, took the trouble to reply the piece is the supposed capture of an to this letter. Grainger had spoken of English pleasure-yacht with a young lady Smollett sneeringly as a writer for bread. and a young gentleman on board by : l'he "reflection," says the respondent, “is French frigate in the Channel; and the remarkably curious in two respects—first, humor consists in the exultation of Chamthat it should be held reproachful for a man pignon, the French captain, over his splendid to live by his talent for writing; and sec- prize, and the dialogue of Oclabber, an Irish ondly, that the reproach should be hinted by lieutenant, and Maclaymore, a Scotch ensign, Dr. James Grainger. Some allusion had who are serving as exiles on board the also been made to “ Dr. Smollett's house-'frigate, and make no secret of their disgust


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for the Frenchman, and of their joy. when | dignified strain to Pitt, was received with an English man-of-war comes in sight and much popular favor ; it was reprinted within rescues the prisoners. Notwithstanding that a year in weekly numbers, which are said to. Garrick behaved very handsomely on the have had a sale of 12,000; and a new edition occasion, and did all he could for the success was called for in 1763. Smollett's critics, on of the piece, it had but a brief run at first. the other hand, found enough in the History Afterwards it became popular from its adapt to attack and ridicule. Scholars mauled it. ation to the patriotic enthusiasm of the day. for its inaccuracies; it was represented in But Smollett was engaged in a service of a hostile reviews as a work of paste and scisfar more laborious kind than the composition sors; and both in England and Scotland the of a naral farce. If even at this time it is author was accused, in virtue of the tone matter of complaint that we have no com- of its later portions, of having changed from plete and continuous History of Great Bri- a Whig to a Tory. This last charge is tain of merit proportionate to the subject, noticed by Smollett in a letter to Moore. the case was worse a century ago. The only "I own,” he says, “I sat down to write with works of the kind in the language which a warm side to those principles in which I pretended to comprehensiveness or contin- was educated; but, in the course of my inuity were those of Echard and Carte and quiries, some of the Whig ministers turned: the translation of Rapin. David Hume, in- out such a set of sordid knaves, that I could deed, was at that moment occupied with his not help stigmatising them for their want of great work. The first volume, embracing integrity.” the reigns of James I. and Charles I., had It was an additional topic of offence to appeared in 1754; and the second was pub- Smollett's enemies that his History and his lished in 1757. As the remaining volumes, other writings of the same period were however, were still only in progress, and as noticed with praise in the “Critical Review." it was uncertain how far Hume's persever- The articles were, doubtless, by his colleagues ance might carry him, there was no reason in the editorship, but it was not to be exwhy a writer of more rapid powers of execu- pected that his enemies would make distinction should not step in to supply the desider- tions. Smollett, however, had not yet reaped atum which Hume's labors were but gradu- all the fruits of his connexion with the Re-. ally diminishing. This Herculean task was view. Admiral Knowles, who had comundertaken by Smollett. In 1758, after four- manded one of the ships in the Carthagena teen months of labor, he gave the result to expedition, had published a pamphlet in dethe world in four quarto volumes, under the fence of his conduct in another unsuccessful title of “The Complete History of England expedition—that against Rochfort in 1757. from the descent of Julius Cæsar to the This defence had been noticed by Smollett Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, 1748, containing in the Review in terms not very complimen-, the transactions of one thousand; eight hun- tary to the Admiral. The result was, that dred, and three years." A history written at the Admiral commenced a prosecution the rate of a century in a month was clearly against the printer. Smollett, having in not of the kind which Hume had reason to vain endeavored to compromise the matter fear, and Smollett himself had signified as through Wilkes and other friends, took the much in his preface. He made no claim to risk upon himself

, and in May, 1759, he was the discovery or use of original documents, fined £100 and sentenced to three months' but only to the merit of having presented imprisonment in the King's Bench. the public with " a succinct, candid, and com- While in prison Smollett was visited by plete history of England, more easy in the Wilkes, Garrick, and many other friends, purchase, more agreeable in the perusal, and and in order to pass the time as pleasantly less burthensome to the memory.than any as possible, he wrote his “ Adventures of Sir work of the same nature produced in these Launcelot Greaves.". The story is a somekingdoms.” The merit which Smollett what absurd travestie of Don Quixote. In claims, may be allowed to him. Even yet, lieu of the Spanish Knight we have a young so far as such compilations have any value at English gentleman of naturally noble diposiall, Smollett's may be considered useful. tion, but half crazed by love, riding with his The work, which was dedicated in a very l groom along English country roads, in quest

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of wrongs to be redressed, and, after sundry | for another man's fault. Although he made adventures, in which other odd characters no communication on the subject to Churchfigure, restored in the end to sound sense ill

, yet, understanding that Colman was also and his Amelia. In the course of the story, offended, he took means to have it explained, however, the author, as in former novels leads through Garrick, that he had had nothing the hero through a series of situations, afford to do with the article. “I envy no man ing matter for social description and satire ; of merit,” he says, “and I can safely say and he takes care to conduct him at sufficient that I do not even repine at the success leisure through the King's Bench. He did of those who have no merit.” Probably he not publish the novel, after his release from thought that his own “Advice” and “Reprison, as a separate work, but reserved it to proof,” written fourteen years before, at the appear in parts, throughout the years 1760 age of five and twenty, were quite as good and 1761, in a new periodical called “The as this “Rosciad,” about which the town was British Magazine,” begun at this time under making such a fuss. his direction in conjunction with Goldsmith. The nation was soon to be whirled out of His only other occupation in 1759 and 1760, that condition of comparative order and apart from the “ Critical Review," seems to unanimity in which it had been left by George have been in writing portions of the “Modern II., and, unfortunately for Smollett, he was Universal History;" but if the estimate of to be drifted in the turmoil into a position, what he contributed to this work is correct in comparison with which even his editorship his pen must have been far from idle. of the “ Critical Review” was one of ease.

1776–1763 (ætat: 39-42). A new reign From the accession of the new King it had had now commenced. For a time there was been determined by him, or, as rumor afterno apparent change in the current of British wards said, by his mother the Princesspolitics. Pitt remained at the head of Dowager, that the war should be brought to affairs; the war with France was carried on as a close, and, with it, the dictatorship of Pitt. hefore ; and all the difference seemed to be It had been with a view to a modification in that the nation had now a young sovereign of the conduct of affairs that the Earl of Bute, British birth, instead of the old Hanoverian till then known only as a quiet Scotch nobleGeorge II. To the same extent as this was man, who had been governor of the young true of the national life at large, it was true King, had been admitted to a share in the also of the life of Smollett. He had projected administration. When, however, in consea continuation of his “ History of England," quence of the obstruction thus established to so as to bring it down from 1748 to the a warlike policy, Pitt resigned (Oct. 1761), close of thie reign of George II. as the suit- and when, moreover, after a short interval, able termination of such a work. Occasion- the “ Scotch Favorite” himself assumed the ally he had a new cause of chagrin, arising Premiership (May, 1762), the soul of Engout of his connexion with the “ Critical Re- land was roused. Never before had a minisview,” but the only incident of this kind of ter been so unpopular. His Toryism, his any importance was a difference with the supposed indoctrination of the new King rising satirist Churchill. The “ Rosciad” with arbitrary principles, his avowed anxiety had appeared in March, 1761, without the to bring about a peace, all that he was, all author's name, and had been welcomed by that he had done, and all that it was feared the town as the most trenchant satire since he would yet do, were summed up for the the days of Pope. A writer in the “Criti- convenience of popular rhetoric in the single cal Review” dissented from this opinion, fact of his Scottish birth. The consequence and treated the satire as the joint work of was as might have been anticipated. It was Lloyd and Colman. Churchill retaliated by the acme of moral endurance to be a Scot in announcing his name, and at the same time English society in the year 1762. It was no publishing his “ Apology,” addressed to the new thing, indeed, for Scotchmen to suffer " Critical Reviewers," in which, though much raillery in England. Ever since the days of of the language is general, the reference James I. and the Charleses they had been from first to last is to Smollett. In this accustomed to sarcasm. But, balancing adcase, again, it seems that Smollett suffered vantage against abuse, the Scots had come


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into England all the same, till in process of “ The mean, despised, insulted Scot, time the old hatred of them had passed into Who, might calm reason credit idle tales, the milder form of mere occasional banter. Or starves at home, or practises, through fear

By rancor forged wliere prejudice prevails, Now, however, the accumulated antipathy of Of starving, arts which damn' all conscience generations burst forth afresh, and a host of new satirists rushed to the ancient theme, till So sang Churchill, and so, in lighter lannothing was heard of in England but the guage, wrote Wilkes, till the Bute ministry pestilence of Bute and his Scots. The tottered, and the arrest of Wilkes, on acclamor lasted, not only throughout the actual count of the famous No. 45 of the “North period of the Bute administration, from May, Briton,” made him for ten years to come the 1762, to April, 1763, in the course of which most popular man in the three kingdoms. Bute contrived to conclude the Seven Years' Before the arrest of Wilkes, and before War by the Peace of Paris, in February, Bute had resigned, Smollett had broken 1763, but also through the succeeding minis- down. Wilkes, Churchill, and others might tries of Grenville, Rockingham, Chatham, partly claim the triumph ; for the “ 6 Briton Grafton, and North, when the “ Scotch favor- closed its existence in February, 1763. But ite” was still supposed to have a backstairs other causes were at work. Smollett had influence.

been laboring at his “ Continuation of the It was Smollett's unhappy destiny to be History of England.” He had been engaged the most prominent party-writer of the Bute also in other literary schemes, including a ministry. He had been a great admirer of “ Translation of the Works of Voltaire,” in Pitt; but his admiration was not unqualified, twenty-seven volumes, and a compilation and the gradual tendency of his political entitled “ The Present State of all Nations." opinions, as we have seen, had been for Under such an accumulation of labor, his several years away from the Whiggism to health and spirits had given way; and when, which he had been born, and towards Tory- as the last and worst of his miseries, there ism, as at least worthy of a trial. Add that came the loss of his only and darling child, Smollett was a Scotchman, and there will just as she was passing from girlhood into appear no reason for surprise that, when womanhood, he was completely prostrated. Bute wanted to get wits and ready writers His friend Armstrong advised him “ to have on his side, Smollett should have lent him recourse again to the Bath waters," which his services. On the very day of Bute's ac- had been useful to him in the preceding cession to the Premiership his countryman winter ; but his wife “ earnestly begged,” he started the first number of a ministerial says, “ that he would convey her from a weekly newspaper called “ 'The Briton.” country where every object served to nourish Among his many antagonists there was one her grief.” He followed her advice.

- Trawhose opposition he had probably anticipated. duced,” as he says, " by malice, persecuted This was his friend Wilkes, now member for by faction, abandoned by false patrons, and Aylesbury. As late as March, 1762, Wilkes overwhelmed by the sense of a domestic had sent Smollett a copy of a political calamity, which it was not in the power of pamphlet he had written, and had received fortune to repair,” he “ Ned with eagerness from Smollett a cordial letter, expressing from his country “ as a scene of illiberal disdisagreement with his views, but wishing pute and incredible infatuation.” He crossed " that he may continue to enjoy his happy the Channel to Boulogne in June, 1763; he spirits and proceed through life with a flow- remained at Boulogne till September, and ing sail of prosperity.” As it happened, proceeded thence by Paris, Lyons, and Montwithin two months, the “flowing sail” carried pellier to Nice; he resided at Nice from Wilkes full tilt against Smollett's own bark. November, 1763, to May, 1765, making occaWhen it was resolved to start a paper in sional excursions in other parts of Italy; opposition to “ The Briton,” Wilkes under and in June, 1765, he returned through took it, and would have it called ironically France to England. He was thus absent

The North Briton.” Churchill joined him, exactly two years. and what with the prose of the one and the Among the circumstances attending Smolverse of the other, Smollett's office was no let's farewell to England, there was sinecure. It was wit against wit with the which imparted to it a character of grace. laughi all on one side:


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