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of whose epistles begin “Dear Cousin,” and pamphlets—the first entitled “ Advice," and contain requests for favors mixed with family the second, professedly a sequel to the first, and political gossip. It may, easily, there- "The Reproof.” Both poems are in the fore, be perceived how upon Scotch principles form of dialogue. The imaginary colloTobias might have been blamed by his rela- quists are the Poet and a Friend. Neither tives for deserting the navy at such a prom- the Pelham Ministry nor the public took ising crisis.

much notice of Smollett's satires; a poem Smollett was only twenty-three years of named “ Alceste," which he wrote about the age when he settled in London. It was the same time for Mr. Rich of Covent-Garden time of the so-called Carterat Administra- Theatre, by way of libretto for some music tion, which had succeeded that of Walpole, of Handel's, was rejected as unsuitable; and and was itself just about to give place to the his darling tragedy of “The Regicide " still ten years' Ministry of Pelham (1744-1754). remained on his hands. It was just when Scarcely had the change of administration his affairs were at their worst that the Crebeen effected when the country heard of the ole beauty, Miss Lascelles, who had come defeat at Fontenoy (April 30, 1745); during over from Jamaica to England, consented to the same yea: there were rumors of French marry him. People who knew her afterinvasion : and before the year was over there wards thought her a “fine lady, but a silly was the domestic explosion of the Highland woma..." He married her in 1747, when he Rebellion.

was twenty-six years of age, and immediFrom the time of his setting up his brass- ately, on the strength of her £3000, took a plate in Downing-street, the young sailor- new house, and began to give parties. As surgeon found more to ļo in talking about it turned out, however, the £3000 were not public affairs than in attending patients. So forthcoming. After a lawsuit with trustees, far as appears however, he let the Carteret only a fraction of it was found to be recovadministration pass without hearing from erable; and Smollett, with his delicate, darkhim ; and it was not till the year 1746, when complexioned wife, and with one little daughthe Pelham ministry had been nearly two ter, was remitted again, for his household years in office, that he allowed his pugnacity expenses, to physic and literature. The into show itself in print. What then roused come to be expected from physic was but him was his indignation at the treatment of trifling; and the metrical form of literature Scotland after the suppression of the High- not having answered his expectations, there land Rebellion. Inheriting the Whig prin- only remained the alternative of prose. ciples of his family he had doubtless, while Richardson had published his “ Pamela” in the Rebellion lasted, as little sympathy with 1741; Fielding had followed with his it as any subject of King George. But the “ Joseph Andrews” in 1742, and had since Scot was still stronger in him than the then published his “ Jonathan Wild ;” and Whig; and when, after the Rebellion, there by these, as well as by what was known in came the news of the butcheries at Culloden, England of the works of Le Sage, a tenand the trial and execution of the rebels by dency had been created towards that form scores, and all the measures for breaking up of prose-fiction which is distinguished as the Highland clan-system, and incapacita- the Modern Novel.” Instinct as well as ting Scotland for giving any trouble to Eng- calculation prompted Smollett to attempt land in future, Whiggism was absorbed in a this new species of composition; and in sudden access of the amor patriæ, and there 1748 he published, in two small volumes, his was not a wilder patriot to be found in Lon- novel of “ Roderick Random.” The success don. His - Tears of Scotland," written of the book was far greater than he had anabout this time, cannot even now be read ticipated. As there was no name on the without some enthusiasm by those who call title-page, some at first attributed the book him their countryman.

to Fielding; and when the truth was known. He was by this time pretty well cured of it was said that Fielding would have to look. any hereditary affection which he may have to his laurels. The first use which Smollett had for the Whige. The years 1746 and made of his popularity was to publish (1749) 1747 accordingly saw the publication of two his “ Regicide ' by subscription, at 58. a copy, political poems in the form of small quarto with the words, “ By the author of Rode

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rick Random,"" on the title-page, and with a to London to push his fortune; he goes to preface informing the public how shamefully sea in a king's ship as a surgeon's mate; he that piece had been treated by patrons and makes acquaintance there with all sorts of managers during the preceding ten years. odd characters, and experiences all kinds of

Whatever we may think of “ Roderick hardships; he is present at the attack on Random ”now,

it was no insignificant addi- Carthagena; be comes back to England and tion to the current literature of the year in sees town-life in all its varieties, and somewhich it was published. Of the established thing of English country-life to boot; he literary celebrities of the day, the two whom has “a passion for the Belles Lettres,” and it touched most nearly were Richardson and seeks the society of wits and unfortunate Fielding What were the claims of this poets; and finally, after two volumes of acnew comer as compared with these popular cidents and reverses he is rewarded above favorites ? In answering this question, the his deserts by the happy possession of Narfirst thought would have been one to Smol-cissa. The substance of the whole story is lett's advantage. He was far younger than evidently furnished by actual reminiscences ; either of his two rivals. Richardson was and though incidents are purposely disfifty-two when he published his “ Pamela," torted, and there is a superabundance of and Fielding thirty-five when he published comic invention in the filling up, yet to this his “ Joseph Andrews.” Inconveniently for day the reader of “ Roderick Random ” Smollett, however, just as the critics might not divest himself of the idea that he is have been weighing this fact in his favor, reading about Smollett. So much is this Richardson came out with his “ Clarissa Har- the case, that both Smollett himself, and his lowe,” and Fielding with his “ Tom Jones.' friends for him, had a good deal to do afterBoth were published in 1749, and both were wards to persuade people that he had not the master-pieces of their respective authors. intended the ruffianly old judge in the story Smollett was at once cast back in the com- to be a picture of his own grandfather ; nor parison; and all that could be said in his the pedagogue to be Mr. Love of Dumbarbehalf was, that there was quite as much ton; nor Potion the apothecary, to be worchance that he had not done his best in thy Mr. Gordon of Glasgow. To some of “ Roderick Random,” as there had been, the personal caricatures he must have pleaded eight years before, that Richardson had not guilty; and we are not sure but that actions done his best in “ Pamela,” or Fielding in his for libel might have been brought against “ Joseph Andrews.”

him with some chance of success by several Had Mr. Thackeray been alive at that day Navy Captains and well-known civilians. (and we are happy to think that he was not)

This was a different method from Fieldhis more subtle criticism would have pointeá ing's, and the difference was intrinsically one to at least one reason which made it probable of inferiority., “ Roderick Random” was an even then that Smollett never would be equal example of a lower style of literary art than as a novelist, to Fielding.

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either “ Tom Jones 66 Clarissa Harlowe." els,” he says, are recollections of his own ad- Unable to deny this, all that Smollett's ventures : his characters drawn, as I should friends could do was again to fall back upon think, from personages with whom he be- his youth, and to suggest that he might herecame acquainted in his own career of life. after eclipse his previous efforts. How far He did not invent much, as I fancy, but had their hopes were realized will be seen, by the keenest perceptive faculty, and described the next fourteen years of Smollett's life what he saw with wonderful relish and de- (1749—1763). The eyents of these fourteen lightful, broad humor.” This is pre-emi- years and their literary results will be best nently true of “Roderick Random.” It is

exhibited in chronological form. a kind of burlesque autobiography. The

1749–1751 (ætat. 28—30). Smollett had hero in the main is Smollett himself.' He is not given up his hopes of reconciling mediborn in Scotland, and educated for a time cine with authorship. He obtained the deat his grandfather's charge; he is sent to a gree of M. D. in June, 1750, from Marischal Scotch University; he studies medicine, and College, Aberdeen ; and he published, about is apprenticed to an apothecary; he comes

the same time, “ An Essay on the External

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Use of Water; with Remarks upon the wrath by some offensive remarks against the Method of using the Mineral Waters at Scotch. In short, what with the use of the Bath.” We have never seen this production, materials hastily gathered in the course of but from numerous allusions of a medical this visit to the continent, and what with a kind scattered through Smollett's other bolder range in search of incidents and charwritings, we should judge that one of his acters through the phases of English life, hobbies as a physician was the therapeutic Smollett contrived to make his “Peregrine use of water, and that he had notions on Pickle” twice as long as its predecessor, and, this subject approaching those of our mod- in the opinion of many, twice as good. The ern Hydropathists. Had he persevered in book, it is true, encountered on its first apthe profession, his friends thought there was pearance a storm of opposition. “ Certain little doubt of his ultimate success. Practice booksellers and others," says Smollett himcoming in but slowly, however, he gradually self

, “ were at uncommon pains to misrepreceased to solieit it; and though continuing sent the work and calumniate the author. to designate himself “ Dr. Smollett,” turned The performance was decried as an immoral his thoughts wholly to literature,

piece and a scurrilous libel; the author was As was natural, his first project was charged with having defamed the characters another novel. It was to be somewhat after of particular persons to whom he lay under the model of “Roderick Random,” and with considerable obligation; and some formidaa repetition of those sea-characters which ble critics declared that the book was void of had pleased so well in that story, but with humor, character, and sentiment.” Considfresh materials and on a larger scale. It was ering that not only Akenside but also Lyttelpartly with a view to pick up hints that he ton, Cibber, Fielding, and other persons of determined on a continental trip. The Peace more or less influence were satirized in the of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748) had thrown France book, the opposition was natural; and the once more open to British tourists, and in only wonder is that the audacious young the autumn of 1750 Smollett went over to author escaped so well. “ Luckily for him," Paris. Here he found his young country- he says, “ his real character was not unknown, man Moore, afterwards a novelist like him- and some readers were determined to judge self, but then only completing his medical for themselves.” The consequence was a studies, after having attended the classes in very rapid sale of the novel both in England Glasgow, and been an apprentice there to and Scotland, and, what pleased the author Smollett's old master Gordon. Moore, who still more, such a demand for it on the conwas but nineteen years of age, had been in- tinent, that it was very soon traslated into troduced to Smollett in London, and was French. now his cicerone in Paris, helping him with 1751—1754 (otat. 30—33). Dr. Smol. his superior knowledge of French, in which lett, the author of " Roderick Random ” and tongue Smollett was by no means expert. Peregrine Pickle,” was a man of metropoliThey made excursions together to St. Cloud, tan note. He took a good house in Chelsea Versailles, &c., and Smollett made no secret (the house has been pulled down, but prints that he was picking up characters to be in of it are to be seen) so as to be out of the troduced into his novel. Moore remembered bustle of London, and here he began to be particularly one English artist whom they visited by not a few of the celebrities of the encountered perpetually in the picture gal- day, as well as by numbers of young men, leries and other places of resort, and who chiefly from Scotland and Ireland, who laid disgusted Smollett by his incessant talk about his generosity under contribution. He seems vertà. Smollett had evidently marked this from his open-handed disposition to have man for his purpose ; and, accordingly, in been peculiarly liable to incursions of this his “ Peregrine Pickle,” which was published sort, and to have always had about him a in 1751, shortly after his return to England, bevy of literary and other unfortunates whom Moore had no difficulty in recognizing the he assisted “even beyond what his circumunfortunate painter in the character of Pallet. stances could justify.” In one case his benevLess justifiably, as Moore and everybody else olence led him into a scrape. A Scotchman, thought, Smollett had introduced a caricature named Gordon, “ whom he had saved from of Akenside the poet, who had provoked his imprisonment and ruin, and clothed and fed

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for a series of years,” had prevailed upon him to a life of further probation under a him “ to endorse notes for the support of his feigned name. As if to prove the wisdom of credit,” and had then thrown himself into this procedure, we again encounter Fathom the Insolvency Court. Irritated by the fraud in a subsequent novel in the guise of a thorand by insolent letters sent in defence of it, oughly reformed gentleman neatly dressed in Smollett went into town and gave Gordon a black, with a visage of profound melancholy, beating, on which Gordon brought an action and doing much good in his neighborhood. against him for assault. Smollett gained the 1754–1756 (ætat. 33——35). Although day, but the Hon. Mr. Hume Campbell, who " Count Fathom” had been Smollett's only acted as Gordon's counsel, having, as he acknowledged publication during the three thought, attacked his character unwarrant- years which we have thus traversed, he had ably in his address to the jury, it was with doubtless been occupied with other work. difficulty that he restrained himself from an- It was the time, as every reader of Boswell's other breach of the peace on the person of Johnson knows, when the booksellers of that gentleman. As it was, he wrote him a London were rapidly breaking up the system thundering letter, demanding an apology; of private and aristocratic patronage, under and, when no apology came, he printed the which literary talent had till then mainly letter in the newspapers.

subsisted, and when, in the competition of By this time he had confirmed, if not ex- different bookselling-schemes, there were tended, his literary reputation by the publica- hundreds of ways, some of them odd enough, tion of his third novel, “The Adventures of as it seems now, in which a ready pen could Ferdinand Count Fathom” (1753). The be turned to account. To write a preface or hero is not, as in “ Roderick Random” and dedication for a book in the

press, super" Peregrine Pickle,” a young scapegrace with intend a translation or correct it when it was good and bad qualities intermixed, but an finished, to compile a treatise on a profesabsolute and unmitigated villain, whose sional subject, or write a pamphlet which career is a series of knaveries more con- was to appear under another person's name, sistently fiendish than those of Mephisto- was not an uncommon method, even with pheles himself

. There had been a precedent honest Johnson, of eking out his earnings. for such a fiction in Fielding's “ Jonathan Smollett seems to have avoided miscellaneous Wild ;” and Smollet did his best, by intro- work this kind as much and as long as ducing characters of romantic virtue, and by possible; but he could not avoid it altogether. leading the scoundrel himself through a There are probably remains of his industry succession of scenes affording scope for cir- yet untraced among the periodicals of the cumstantial description, to impart to the tale late years of the Pelham ministry. It was the necessary amount of interest. As in the after the modification of that ministry caused

“ Jonathan Wild,” however, the by Mr. Pelham's death in 1754, that he ghastliness of the subject defeated the chances began a task which is said to have been of more than a temporary popularity for the suggested to him by the booksellers, but book; and now it is only known, if known which he carried on eventually as a speculaat all, through a few of its striking episodes. tion of his own. This was his translation of Among these are the Schiller-like description, "Don Quixote," published by subscription near the beginning, of the storm at night in 1755. Though the list of subscribers was and of Fathom's adventure in the hut of the numerous and the speculation was profitable, French robbers, and the tragi-comic descrip- Smollett's qualifications for the task were tion, near the end, of " Majesty in eclipse,” much called in question while the work was as represented in the person of the unfortun- in progress, and after its appearance a conate King Theodore of Corsica, finishing his troversy arose as to its merits in comparison strange career as a prisoner for debt in the with the previous translations of Jarvis and Fleet. In spite of the villany of his hero, Motteux. Recent authorities, we believe, Smollett, overcome at last, as it might seem, award to Smollett's version that most quesby some fund of softness in his constitution, tionable of all merits in a translation, the does not bring Fathom to the gallows, but merit of " preserving the spirit of the origicrushes the vice out of him by a closing nal" at the expense of literal accuracy. accumulation of miseries, and then remits Such as it was, the translation had cost

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Smollett many months of severe labor; and turn from Scotland, Smollett entered on a as soon as it was off his hands, he found new period of his career. It had been dehimself much in need of relaxation. He termined by the booksellers, or, at all events accordingly took the opportunity of paying by Baldwin of Paternoster Row, to start a a visit to Scotland, from which he had been literary journal in opposition to the “ Monthabsent sixteen years. One of his first rest- ly Review,” which had been in possession of ing places after crossing the border was at the field since 1749. The new organ which Scotston in Peeblesshire, the property of his was also to be published monthly, was to sister's husband, Mr. Telfer. His old mother bear the name of the “ Critical Review," and was staying there ; and Smollett, who was was to be conducted by “a society of gentlenow her only surviving son (his elder bro- men;" in other words, by five persons more ther having been drowned off the coast of or less known in London literary circles, of America,) was introduced to her by Mr. Tel- whom Smollett was one. The first number fer's connivance as a gentleman from the was published in January, 1756, and though West Indies. “ The better to support his the words“ by a society of gentlemen ”apassumed character," says Dr. Moore, “he peared on the title-page, it was immediately endeavored to preserve a

serious counte- assumed by the public that Smollet was the nance; but while his mother's eyes were responsible editor. riveted on him, he could not refrain from The first four years of the existence of the smiling ; on which she immediately sprang

“ Critical Review” coincide with a very imfrom her chair, and, throwing, her arms portant period in the history of Britain. round his neck, exclaimed, ' Ah my son! my After the death of Mr. Pelham, in 1754 the son! I have found you at last!” She af- government had been carried on by a conterwards told him that if he had kept his tinuation of the same ministry under Pelaustere looks and continued to gloom, he ham's brother, the Duke of Newcastle. might have escaped detection some time From this ministry Pitt was dismissed in longer ; your old roguish smile," added 1755. Suddenly, in the midst of altercashe, “betrayed you at once.” From Scots- tions between Newcastle in power, and Pitt ton he went to other places, and among in opposition, there came the European tuthem to Glasgow, where he spent a day or mult of the Seven Years' War (1756), in two very pleasantly with his friend Dr. which Britain leagued herself with FredMoore. The changes in the city since he erick the Great of Prussia against France, had left it were all for the better. His old Austria, and their adherents. As usual, master was now no longer a surgeon, but a Britain made but an awkward outset. The physician of high repute. One or two of French became masters of Hanover ; and in the old University professors, including the the Mediterranean there occurred the naval mathematician Simson, were still in their mishap at Minorca, which led to the recall places; and among the successors of those and execution of Admiral Byng. In the who were gone were some of whom Glasgow midst of a tempest of public clamor, the might well be proud. The Greek chair was Ministry of Newcastle resigned (November filled by Mr. James Moor, a scholar of no 1756), and for seven months the country tas mean mark; Cullen, not yet removed to without a settled Government. At length, Edinburgh, filled one of the medical chairs, (June, 1757) Pitt became Premier, with and Joseph Black, the chemist, another ; Newcastle and Fox as his chief subordinates, and Hutcheson's post as Professor of Moral and under his magnanimous sway the counPhilosophy had fallen to Adam Smith. try entered on that astonishing career of Among these men the author of “Roderick victory which includes within so small a Random ” was sure of a welcome none the space of time so much of what is most heless hearty that they could claim him as an roic in the annals of British action. Hanoalumnus of their college ; and, if he re- ver was recovered; the coasts of France mained in Glasgow over a Saturday, it was were blockaded, and her navy all but annihihard if he escaped dining with them and lated ; the French colonies in Africa were others on “hen broth" at the famous Ander- seized : Canada and other parts of America ston Club.

were wrested from the French by a series of 1756—1760 (ætat. 35—39.) On his re- military exploits, in the last of which Wolfe

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