From The Athenæum.

| claws are of enormous strength; it lashes Gallery of the Masterpieces of German the air of fairyland with a lion's tail ; its vast

Woodcutting, in Fac-simile Copies.Gal- pinions would overshadow a church, and are erie der Meisterwerke, &c.]. With illustrative Remarks by Dr. Von Eye and of tremendous stretch. It tramples on an Jacob Falke. Part I. (Nuremberg,

Albert Dürer soil of dock-leaves and peb Schmid; London, Williams & Norgate.)

bles. Its body, lean and agile, swells with DR. EYE and Mr. Falke are both gentle

muscle. It is huge and ghastly as a monmen connected with the Nuremberg Museum.

ster of the Apocalypse. On his back rides This work is to contain fac-similes, obtained a sort of naked gladiator, crowned with launot by photography, but by some new pro- while a great winding scroll billows from his

rel, blowing on a strange garlanded horn, cess, of the finest old woodcuts of Cranach, Dürer, &c. German woodcutting, contempo

neck, as he puffs with earnest eyes and

swollen cheeks. raneous with the German Reformation, typi

“ Observe," as Mr. Ruskin fies the freedom, daring, and truthfulness of says ; the brawny limbs of the rider, how that great religious progress. The awkward securely he rides on the beast's shoulder, flapping-portfolio size of this work is the supported by the wing. Mark the creature's only drawback to its usefulness in tracing the threatening eyes, and its great mane of

feathers. Nothing is left to the fancy. The history, through its rise and

of this progress,

breadth has lines to imply it, and the sweep interesting and important branch of art.

of lines is eminently powerful and impressive. The first number of this periodical is published in the quaint old city of Nuremberg, careful study. We all know that Raphael

Dürer's colossal head of Christ deserves within sight of the blue, Franconian moun- declared that if he had lived among the tains. It contains “A Herald riding on a Griffin,” by Burghmann,-a colossal head of masterpieces of Art, he would have surChrist, by Dürer,-and “ The Apostles," by passed “ all of us." We know that he was Cranach :—all the size of the original, and the son of a Nuremberg goldsmith, who,

after travelling four years as an itinerant full of a strong, and almost brutal life, quite unattainable in these nervous and thinner- painter, returned home and married Agnes skinned days. The griffin and rider-plate Frey, a rich shrew. His wife was a manager, is from “ the triumph of the chivalrous and a dreadful virtue), and poor Albert worked

for his bread and had tears to salt it with. hot-headed Emperor Maximilian,” and is fine example of the art so characteristic of He died in misery in 1528. Protestantism

starved its great painter and gave him no the sixteenth century, in which it flourished, and worthy the strong hand of Hans," work, being too spiritual for such materialiwho, one would think, had not only seen but ties. Dürer, with the wonderful fertility of kept a griffin. At this time the German the old mind, was at once a sculptor, a copmind was awaking to freedom, to increased per and wood engraver, a mathematician, a sensitiveness, and firm earnestness. The

painter, and an engineer. This head is a German fancy and humor were at their disputed work, and sometimes · wants his climax; and the great struggle for the great monogram. It is full of grand dignity, right of conscience, that roused every man

and majestic suffering. It shows us both to the fullest exercise of his powers, had al-Christ the victim and Christ the judge of the ready begun. The nation was simple, pros- and finer than any Grecian Jupiter. Much

world. It is grander than the Phidian Jove perous, religious, and happy,—the four great necessities for great Art. Deep vital imag- partake of that type of all majesty possible

as all Christian representations of God must idation animates Burghmann's beast; every in man, its simple, earnest strength is of the limb ramps

with Titanic nerve and strength ; he has united a thousand strange elements sledge hammer force, not a superfluous line of fancy with one organic individuality:

not a line deficient. Every ring of the beard What do we see ? A huge beast with the

curls, erery thick nail of the thorns, erery wings of a vulture, the legs of a lion, and wave of the hair, is done at once and withthe claws of an eagle. It is twenty hands out feeble retouching. This wood-cutting is bigh at least, and fourteen feet long. It robust hand. There is healthy pleasure in

the play of a strong mind and a vigorous, bas wild boar's ears, and a bird's head; its this power ; no nervous straining or morbid


tip-toeing. Now for Cranach's Apostles. His works are full of quiet repose, simplicity, Lucas was, like Dürer, the son of a painter, and a child-like humor. Piety and religious and his own wood-cutter; he served the fervor always animate his power. These Elector of Saxony for fifty years. John and Apostles are taken from an illustrated history John Frederic he also faithfully ministered of relics preserved in Wittenberg Cathedral. to, and when nearly seventy shared the cap- Here is St. Paul with his sword, St. Matthew tivity of his master when taken prisoner with his square, St. Andrew with his cross, after the battle of Muhlberg. He eventually the keys, and another St. Paul with two

St. Thaddæus with his club, St. Peter with died working in their service. Cranach was swords. The figures, though coarse and Mayor of Wittenberg and a friend of Luther sometimes approaching the ruffianly, look and Melancthon, whose portraits he painted. real apostles, capable of doing and suffering.


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An English lady rescued from Lucknow, and Then all arose, and there rang out from a thouwho got away before the place was again in- sand lips a great sound of joy which resounded vested, writes from Calcutta a vivid account of far and wide, and lent new vigor to that the scene just before the successful entrance of the Queen,” they replied by the well known

blessed pibroch. To our cheer of

God save Havelock's force. She says the officers and en- strain that moves every Scot to tears, “Should gineers had announced that no human skill auld acquaintance be forgt,” &c. After that could avert their fato for twenty-four hours nothing else made any impression on me. longer, and they must all prepare to die together. The women were engaged in the light It would have been strange indeed if the litduties which had been assigned them of carry- erary activity of the land of professors had left ing orders to the batteries, and supplying the unexplored the history of its own Universities. men with food and coffee. Suddenly a young Nor can Germany be reproached with any such. Scotch woman, wife of a corporal, who had neglect; but her University history is, to a great been helpless from fear and excitement, and lay extent, the history of separate localities. There down on the ground exhausted, jumped up with is still room for works which, disregarding the a wild, unearthly scream, and a look of intense minuter shades of difference, shall give a gendelight, exclaiming, “Dinna ye hear it? dinna eral picture of the state of the higher educaye hear it? Ay, I'm no dreamin,” its the slo- tional institutions at different periods. M. gan o' the Highlanders! We're saved, we're Zarncke has turned his attention to their condisaved ! Then Ainging herself on her knees, tion during the Middle Ages. He has already she thanked God with passionate fervor.

edited a series of documents illustrative of the All other ears in the garrison failed to hear history of the University of Leipzig* during the anything but the roar of cannon and the rattle first 150 years of its existence; and he proposes, of musketry for some time, and gradually after if the work before us obtains a favorable receplistening a while, gave way to a murmur of bit- tion, to publish a number of volumes, each conter disappointment among the men and wailing taining matter calculated to throw light on the among the women. Presently the young wo

Universities of Germany in general, and on that men sprang to her feet and cried, in a voice so of Leipzig in particular. Among the most cuclear and piercing that it was heard along the rious contents of this volume is the “Manuale whole line—“Will ye no believe it noo? D’ye

Scholarium - the product of an age when hear, d’ye hear ?" At that moment we seemed Latin was still used for all University purposes, indeed to hear the voice of God in the distance, and considered as a language which had special when the pibroch of the Highlanders brought us and almost magical virtues, the peculiar gift of tidings of deliverance, for now there was no Heaven to all who cultivated science and literalonger any doubt of the fact. That shrill, pen

ture. The “Manuale is

arranged somewhat etrating, ceaseless sound, which rose above all on the plan of the handbooks of travel-talk of other sonnds, could come neither from the ad- the present day, and contains dinlogues on all vance of the enemy, nor from the work of the sorts of subjects likely to engage the attention Sappers. No, it was indeed the blast of the of a freshman, whose tongue was more accusScottish bagpipes, now shrill and harsh, as tomed to the dialect of his native village than threatening vengeance on the foe, then in softer to that of the learned. It may easily be imagtoncs seeming to promise succor to their friends ined how admirably calculated such a composia in need. Never surely was there such a scene tion is to disclose to us the life of the times in as that which followed. Not a heart in the which it was used. It instructs us alike by its residency of Lucknow but bowed itself before contents and its omissions.—Saturday Review. God. All by one simultaneous impulse, fell * Die Deutschen Universitäten im Mittelalter. upon their knees, and nothing was heard but Leipzig: T. 0. Weigel. London: Williams and bursting sobs and the murmured voice of prayer. I Norgate. 1857.


7 6



LOLLARD, ORIGIN OF THE TERM. Lollards employed themselves in travelling It will tend to elucidate this subject some

about from place to place singing psalms

and hymns. what, if it can be ascertained with any degree

Oihers, much to the same purpose, derive of certainty what was the family name of " Lolhard,—lullhard, lollert, lullert (as it was Walter Lollard, the founder of the sect written by the ancient Germans) from the called “Lollards.". With this view I have old German word Lallen, lollen or lullen, selected the testimony of various writers who and the -hard with which many of the High have given accounts of Lollard and his fol- Dutch words end. Lollen signifies “ to sing lowers. In a Brief View of Ecclesiastical with a low voice,' and therefore · Lollard' is History, published at Dublin about thirty the vulgar tongue of the Germans it denotes

a singer, or one who frequently sings, and in Jears since, I find him spoken of as

a person who is continually' praising God “Walter Raynard, sometimes called Lol- with a song, or singing hymns to his honor. lard, at first a Franciscan, afterwards having The Alexians or Cellites were called • Lolembraced the doctrine of the Waldenses, lards,' because they were public singers who preached the Gospel, and was burnt at made it their business to inter those who Cologne in 1322. He disseminated his opin- died of the plague, and sang a dirge over ions among the English.”

them in a mournful and indistinct tone as I put this account first as giving fair they carried them to the grave. The name ground for the inference that Lollard was a was afterwards assumed by persons that dis

honored it. sobriquet,” rather than a family name. lowers of Wickliffe were called Lollards' by

In England the folHowever, in a former number of “N. & Q.

way of reproach, from some affinity there (for Mar. 27, 1852), one of your correspond- was between some of their tenets, though ents, “ J. B. McC.,” in an inquiry .“ Where others are of opinion that the English LolLollard was buried, and what becaise of his lards came from Germany." bones,” quoting from Heda, mentions a

Webster favors the derivation from lallen “ Matthæus Lollaert" therein referred to “as lollen,to prate or sing, deriving “ loll” from the founder of the sect of the Lollards," and the same source, which last idea is more he suggests that “ the form of the name Lol- strikingly given by Dr. Johnson, who states Laert would make it more probable that Lol- under "Loll,”— lard was a Dutchman, which agrees very

well with the account that he preached in Ger- perhaps it might be contemptuously derived

“Of this word thc etymology is unknown : many.” In the Dict. Univ. of Paris his from Lollard, a name of great reproach bename is given “ Lollard or Lolhard," and his fore the Reformation, of whom one tenet followers are called “Lollardistes.” In a was that all trades not necessary to life were note on the “ Lowlardes' Tower” in Stowe, unlawful.reference is made to the derivation from

Bailey, after alluding to Walter Lollard, Loliun, and the occurrence of “ Loller ” in quaintly adds, “ others" (derive the name) Chaucer, going on to say," while in Zie- from lolium, cockel or darnel, is being tares mann's ó Mittel-nach Deutsches Worterbuch,' among the Lord's wheat,” the origin of we find Lol-bruoder, Lolhart, a lay brother.” which is quoted in Lyttleton (Hist. Eng.), -Survey of London, W. J. Thoms' edit., who

says : 1842. p. 138.

" Whence the appellation of Lollards In the Encycl. Britann., art. “ Lollards,"

a matter of doubt. Perhaps the it is stated, after the mention of the current words of Gregory XI. may furnish a clue opinion that the sect derived its name from that will lead us to the origin of the name. Walter Lollard

In one of his bulls against Wichliffe he cen" Others think that Lollard was no sur- nel to spring up among the wheat, and

sures the clergy for suffering Lolium or darname, but merely il term of reproach ap- urges them to aim at the extirpation of this plied to all heretics who concealed the poi-lolium.son of error under the appearance of piety. Abelly says, the word Lollard signi

He afterwards adverts to the more reasonfies “praising God,' from the German • loben,' able opinion that the Wicklsfites derived the to praise, and Herr,' Lord; because the name of “Lollards” from their resemblance

• The misprinting of " buried” for burned in this ar- to the sect founded by Walter Lollard. The ticle tends rather to obscure the sense of the writer, who learned Dean of Westminster in his Study evidently alludes to the current belief tbat Lollard was buzzed (not buried) alive at Cologne.

of Words, classes the term with those of

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cagot, roundhead, &c., suggesting, however, to attribute its application to the Wickliffites that it may have been derived from Walter as a term of reproach, according to the tenor Lollard. The queries I would wish to put of Pope Gregory's bull ? are these :

I see one of the publications of the Cam1. Was the real name of Walter Lollard, den Society has reference to this question.Raynard, as given in the above extract ? Notes and Queries.

2. When did the term arise, and are we

The WIND OF PROJECTILES.—The fact exercise such a force, the passage of a projectile that a cannon-ball passing close by a living close to a living subject will only produce an insubject exercises a lateral pressure on the air significant effect, which cannot amount to s suficient to produce contusion has often been contusion. asserted, and as often denied. On this disputed matter M. E. Pelikan, of St. Petersburgh, has

The Royal Society is contemplating a Catajust presented a paper to the Academy of Sci- logue of all the papers on mathematics and ences of Paris, giving an account of certain physics which are scattered through the Transesperiments instituted with a view to set the actions of scientific Societies and the periodical question at rest. Having obtained the concur-journals. Such a thing is wanted more than rence of the Russian government, M. Pelikan the bulk of our readers can easily conceive. It caused a cylinder of sheet iron, one foot in di- is past the power of any man to know what has ameter, to be constructed, with a piston moving been written in his own subject. To wade easily inside. The pistonrod was provided at through the volumes is impossible: to look its outer extremity with a black lead pencil to through their contents, though difficult and remark the recoil on a slip of paper. The whole pulsive is still practicable, if those contents can apparatus was firmly fixed on a strong, wooden bc tabulated in one volume. The whole subframe. The piston and piston-rod weighed 81b., ject of indexing is in a most unsatisfactory and a force of i 1-2lb. was requisite to make state. The piles of literature accumulate, and the piston recoil an inch. At four metres' dis- the means of knowing what they contain become tance from the frame a wooden screen was relatively worse and worse every year. No erected, in order to ascertain the distance of the publisher can safely undertake works of referprojectile from the piston at the moment of its ence, even if the manuscript were presented passage. Although the experiments instituted gratis : and the work is of the kind which is not in 1813 and 1844 in the arsenal of Washington, done for love by one man of research out of fire by Major Mordecay proved that at the distance hundred. The time of those who wish to be acof 48 feet the gases emanating from the power curate is wasted, and there is no one who venhave no effect upon the balistic pendulum, a tures to exhaust a subject as he thinks, but finds second screen was placed before the other, at 5 something material which it vexes him to have metres' distance from the apparatus, in order to omitted before the sheets have been bound toprotect it, if necessary, from the action of these gether. What will this cud in? Either an algases. A 40lb. howitzer was then placed at a most total abandonment of complete works on distance of 14 metres from the first screen, the any subject, or an ander Society. But no such charge of powder being 4lb.; the velocity of society will ever exisy until there is such a feelthe projectile at that distance was cqual to that ing on the subject that the afluent part of the of a bombshell projected with a 716. charge community are prepared to support it with adcviz., 956 feet per second. The results obtained quate liberality. There are hundreds, if not showed,-1, that at a distance of 3 inches, the thousands, of men in the country, cach of whom piston remained immovable ; 2, that even when would take one volume per annum on a subject the projectile broke off a part of the wooden he thoroughly knows, and furnish a minute inframe supporting the cylinder the piston gave dex of its contents gratis, if there existed a cenno indication of motion ; 3, but that if the pro- tral body on whom he could rely for the proper jectile just grazed the surface of the piston, a junction of all the contributions, supported by recoil of 2 inches was obtained ; 4, if, on the the thousands whose great work of reference, other hand, a fragment of the frame hit the the banker's book, shows columns of very difcylinder, the piston, instead of moving back- ferent amounts. The time will come when the wards, would move forwards about 3 1-2 lines; importance of this subject begins to be esti5, if the cylinder, instead of being placed paral- mated. In the meantime, the Royal Society lell to the screens, was placed obliquely, a re- will be encouraged, we hope to face a scientific coil would take place of from one quarter to evil which is severely felt. A Committee has onc-half of an inch. Hence M. Pelikan con- reported on the basis of taking for granted that cludes that, since the piston required a force of a quarter of a million of titles of papers should 1 1-2 lbs. in order to be moved an inch, and the be counted on, from all kinds of serial works.wind of a cannon-ball can never be expected to Athenæum.


SIMPLE PEOPLE AND THEIR IN- are not losses to the public. It has been the VESTMENTS.

boast of the Scottish banking-system that THERE is so much truth, sagacity, and every bank truly founded on it has paid 20s. practical usefulness in the following little in the pound to every note-holder, and 10 article of the Scotsman newspaper of Nov- every depositor ; but how has this been acember 17th, that we believe we must be con- shareholders. And the shareholder, is he

complished ? By the ruin of whole tribes of ferring a public benefit in helping to extend not a man and a brother-is not the shareits circulation :

holder often in the position of a helpless sisAbout joint-stock companies there lurk ter ? If a hundred poor depositors have many obstinate and mischievous prejudices their savings restored to them, is it nothing

that a hundred in the human mind, confusing the relations

shareholders have lost all


their humble investments ? of debtor and creditor, When a merchant

There seems in the meantime no remedy possessed of just five thousand pounds in- for risks and disasters, such as we have been vests it all in boxes of indigo, and sells them referring to, but individual prudence. In the at a tempting price to a buyer, who fails to first place, let humble investors eschew large pay him, he goes into the Gazette, of course, and tempting profits or percentages, for these and the result is counted in the natural order are the sure concomitants of risks. But furof things, for he had his eyes open, and must ther, they ought to be assured about the have known that he ran some risk. He is to they embark their capital, as if they were

business of the joint-stock company in which some extent, in fact, a gambler—he tables his embarking it in business entirely of their stake, and be pays the loser's forfeit. But own. They cannot, of course, make themthe retired helf-pay officer, the widow, the selves acquainted with the several transacslenderly endowed old maid, do not perceive tions of the company, but they should know that they may be doing precisely the same thing that it does not speculate in fluctuating sales

-like an eminent bank which speculated in when they lay out their £500 in the shares

indigo, an article liable to great oscillations of a joint-stock company. They do not in value-and that it does not advance money speak of trading—they say they are invest-on insufficient or tainted security. It is hard, ing. If the joint-stock company sell to un- perhaps, for those who are not men of busisound purchasers, or lend to precarious ness to assure themselves on these points, debtors, they risk the individual partners' but unless they know them either through money as much as if he did the same thing whom they can trust

, they must keep in

their own skill or the assurance of adepts with it. And yet how many people, who mind that in buying shares they do not invest would not entertain for a moment the notion their money—they speculate with it. The of risking their money in trade, or of lending vast enlightened enterprise-the great prosit to some private borrower who proposes to perity of the company-will be no effective do so, will, without hesitation, hand it over substitute for such a knowledge, for the bold to a joint-stock company to be gambled with operations which are likely to bring it to as the managers may please. Nor is there ruin will readily invest it with these charac

teristics. . When the humble sceker of generally, in times when all runs smooth, the

an investment sees the names of capitalist slightest anxiety about the soundness of the potentates in a list of directors, he should "investment,” or any curiosity to know what remember that these are men who can afford those who have taken the pittance into their to gamble for great prizes at the risk of clutches are doing with it; but there is a losses, and he may be none the worse off child-like reliance not only on their honesty, keeping in recollection the story of the giant but on the extreme prudence of men gerer- tle. Even the new arrangements for estab

and the dwarf who went out together to batally of a class who being cver ready to risk

lishing companies on limited responsibility, their own wealth on the chances of extrava- capable as they no doubt are of very benefi, gant profits, cannot be expected to resist the cial results, must not supercedle individual temptation of throwing other people's money prudence and inquiry. Let the natural limiinto the game, especially when they are iation of the word " limited” be duly reneither controlled nor even watched. membered. It does not exclude the sub

Individual thrift makes public wealth, and scribed capital from loss. He who subscribes individual losses make public calamities. It £500 to such a company is warranted against surely tends to support the hallucination further loss, tnt he may lose that £500, and which causes these calamities, that in mercan- if it be, as it may be, all that he possesses, lile nomenclature the losses of shareholders the limitation will be of small service to him.

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