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There never was a time at which it was atrocities which we have lately beheld in more essential for us—more obligatory on us India. —to make up our minds concerning the re- If we want to secure the repetition of such lative duties of Anglo-Indians and their na-calamities at some future day, we can secure tire fellow-subjects than at present. To it with absolute certainty, by engraving still punish the guilty, and to punish them sharply more indelibly on the native mind that sense -to use unflinching severity for the restora- of abject inferiority which is the true education of order where unflinching severity is tion for an unnatural and brutal nse of temneedful—is no doubt our first duty. But all porary power. If we rule the Ilindoos by that work of necessary justice would be fear alone, as we rule the brute creation, then thrown away, if we did not make it felt if that yoke of fear is for a moment taken throughout India that we had inflicted this off, we shall find that they act like the brute punishment in the strictest spirit of justice creation. That we have not done so hitherto for the past, and without any intention to has been our only claim to rule India at all. make the emergency an excuse for riveting a We have shared with them our privileges. new and oppressive caste-yoke upon India - We have not treated them as the Southern a yoke as irritating and far more heavy than American Planters treat their slaves. We any imposed by their own faith. It is a mere have spread education among them. We mockery to say that we hold India in trust have taught them science and art,—and, for the people of India if we are to establish better than all, we have taught them order ourselves permanently there as a superior and justice, and tried to teach them freedom. and privileged caste, subject to different laws, If the sense of power has had an intoxicating not liable to the ordinary tribunals, enforcing effect on the most ignorant part of a still igagainst them penalties which they cannot en- norant community,—the frenzy it has excited force against us, and making them sensible has not been the result of too much moral that the line of demarcation between us and freedom and legal privilege, but of too much them is a line we can never permit them to visible physical power without any such pass. For this is the one oppressive evil humane discipline in moral freedom and legal about these caste-conversatisms, that they privilege. We may depend upon it that the shut out hope and emulation,—that they do strong hand of English authority will do not merely recognise the natural distinctions nothing for India without some preparation between the powerful and the feeble, but turn to bridge the gulf between the native races those distinctions into an iron fate, and con- and their masters. It would be the maddest tract all the scale of life to the scope of the insolence of English pride and resentment limits thus imposed. We have caste enough, to use this mutiny as the excuse for enlarging and too much, even in England. But we the exclusive legal privileges of Anglo-Indihave little of this hopeless and petrified sort. ans as Anglo-Indians, and reducing the naThere is a constant circulation of life between tive races to a state of deeper and more the

upper and lower limits of society. There hopeless inequality. If we wish to uproot, is no member of any class who may not find the doctrine of caste in them, we must not, himself rising almost imperceptibly into the start with a proclamation of our own devout rank above him. There is no member of belief in its truth and wisdom,-in short with any class that may not find himself sinking manifestoes of the sacredness of mere race, very perceptibly into the classes below. and of the doctrine of government by fear, Wherever a stereotyped and impassable chasm such as “Zelotes” and his party have reis fixed in human society, and men find them-cently advocated in the columns of the Times. selves on the one hand irresponsible demi- We are not advocating all the special progods, on the other hand responsible only as visions of what the English settlers in India subjects, without any remedy for the irre-term the Black Act. But we are strongly sponsible actions of their superiors, there you advocating, and we believe also most seasonhare, and must have, all the seeds of the ably advocating, its grand principle, that worst sort of revolution. It is abject subser- Hindoos should be made to feel that Engviency, and abject subserviency only, which, lishmen have not one law for themselves and when it finds itself with arms in its hands, another for their subjects. We may be sure will be guilty of the sickening and awful that the better class of Englishmen will gain instead of lose in native estimation by their | terwards. We believe that this is just the amenability to the jurisdiction of the same most effective measure for doing away with local courts. English energy and restless that superiority altogether. By fortifying ness under wrong, Englishmen's tenacity of them in an insolent and irresponsible posipurpose in pursuing their rights to the tion, it would sap their natural justice and utmost, will inspire the Hindoos with far uprightness of character. By giving them more- respect and admiration when they no the artificial shield of privilege, it would delonger see them armed with unfair and un- prive them of the respect which their energy, equal privileges. We want to enlarge the on a fair field, would be certain to win. We field of our moral influence over the Hindoos, must guard against the Oriental vice of denot to contract it. We shall do so most ef- siring to govern by physical fear, if we would fectually, by giving up all the partiality and inspire the Oriental races with the virtues of favoritism which hedges us in with physical the West. And we earnestly trust that the advantages, and so prevents them from re- stern severity with which the recent crimes garding our superiority as natural and moral, of our revolted army ought to be punished, and consequently prevents them also from will not be allowed to initiate in India an araiming at a similar standard.

bitrary Oriental policy so vulgar and shortThere is a wide and fundamental distinc- stghted as that for which some of the Anglotion between the absurdity of ignoring actual In rian community are now savagelv crying inferiority of race, and the duty of rendering out. Should we ever establish designedly an that inferiority as light and transient as it English caste in India,—in other words, may be by refusing to condense it into an should we ever systematically attempt to institution. This legalization and petrifac- rule the people through the worst part of tion of the Hindoo inferiority of mind is their nature by adopting that worst nature what the rabid Anglo-Indian party wish to for ourselves,—we should sign the doom of accomplish. They want to have their moral our Indian Empire; and no manly Englishsuperiority both ways,—in their own energy man could in his own heart wish to see that and rectitude first, and in legal privilege af- doom delayed.

Frenc VIEW OF TUE MANCHESTER Ex-paintings; all these galleries took to the railway HIBITION.—“We consider ourselves to be an and went by themselves to the Crystal Palace, essentially artistic people, almost as much so as where places were prepared for them. Not á the Italians, and a thousand times more so than lord, or a baronet, or an esquire, who did not the Englishı; yet it never came into the head of make it an act of pleasure to contribute to the the manufacturers of Saint-Quentin, of Mul- adornment of the Manchester Exhibition. Never hausen, or any other great industrial centre, to was such a collection of chefs-d'auvre seen. organize an exhibition of paintings. Even let What extraordinary things there were in that us suppose them capable of such a fancy. exlibition! First extraordinary thing—the ide Where will you find a proprietor of pictures of an exhibition of paintings originating in the willing to lend such for an exhibition at Saint-head of the city of Manchester. Second extraQuentin, at Mulhausen, or at Rive de Gier? ordinary thing—that everybody should accept, Not one amateur would consent to part with a the idea, and lend all the pictures that it may single canvass. Whether he is in the right or want to the town of Manchester. Third extrathe wrong I do not stop to inquire; that which ordinary thing—that people should go to see is certain is that he would keep his pictures at the exhibition. lIow many persons would you home, and lie would show the door, with greater find in France who would put themselves out of or less politeness, to the commissioners who the way to go and seo an exhibition of olu might come to ask him in the name of the paintings at Mulhansen ? Who would pay a founders of the exhibition. In England, on the franc for admission ? Not a thousand; not five contrary, every body has lent himself with the hundred ; two or three hundred, perhaps, at the greatest delight to the fancy of Manchester. It most.”-French Almanack, quoted in Bentley's is known that England is one of the richest Miscellany, countries in Europe in galleries of valuable

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1. Scottish Ballads, by the poet Alexander Smith, Edinburgh Essays,

65 2. The Face at the Window,

Taiť's Magazine,

81 3. The Tea-Table, by Hartley Coleridge,

Fraser's Magazine,

86 4. Life of John Banim, the Irish Novelist, Athenæum,

89 5. The New Colonists of Norfolk Island,

Household Words,

92 6. Explorations in North America, by Mr. Palliser, Athenæum, 7. Mind's Mirror-Poetical Sketches,

96 8. Nature's Greatness in Small Things,

Household Words,

97 9. French Justice in Algeria,

Chambers' Journal,

- 100 10. Marie Courtenay,

Household Words,

- 104 11. The Nun of Kent-The Reformation,

Chambers' Journal,

- 107 12. Debtor and Creditor-Fashionable Infancy, Household Words,

114 13. Science and Arts for November,

Chambers' Journal,

118 14. The Hudson's Bay Company,

Saturday Revier,

120 15. Russia in the Pacific,

Spectator,

- 122 16. How to Dispose of Troublesome States,

124 17. Anglo-Indian Doctrine of Caste,

Economist,

• 125 POETRY.-I live for those who love me, 80. Tea-Table, 86. King of Denmark's Ride, 88. Domestic Bliss, 88.

SHORT ARTICLES.—Seymour and his Friends, 80. The Court at Biarritz, 91. Numbers and Deuteronomy, 91. Bossuet, 93. Dubufe's Adam and Eve, 93. Atlantic Monthly, 95. Disinterment of the Medici, 95. Public Record Office, 99. Conversion of Wood by Machinery, 113. Hippopotamus, 113. French View of the Manchester Exhibition, 127.

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LITTELL’S LIVING AGE.

WASHINGTON, 27 Dec., 1845. Of all the Periodical Journals devoted to literature and science which abound in Europe, and in this country, this bas appeared to me the most useful. It contains indeed the exposition only of the current literature of the English Language; but this, by its immense extent and comprehension, includes a portraiture of the human mind, in the utmost expansion of the present age.

J. Q. ADAMS. This work is made up of the elaborate and stately essays of the Edinburgh, Quarterly, Westminster, North British, British Quarterly, New Quarterly, London Quarterly, Christian Remembrancer, and other Reviews; and Blackwood's noble criticisms on oetry, his keen politi Commentaries, highly wrought Tales, and vivid descriptions of rural and mountain Scenery; and contributions to Literature, History and Common Life, by the sagacious Spectator, the sparkling Examiner, the judicious Athenpum, the busy and industrious Literary Gazette, the learned and sedate Saturday Review, the studious and practical Economist, the keen tory Press, the sober and respectable Christian Observer; these are intermixed with the Military and Naval reminiscences of the United Service, and with the best articles of the Dublin University, New Monthly, Fraser's, Tait's, Ainsworth's, Hood's and Sporting Magazines, and of Chambers' admirable Journal, and Dickens' Household Words. We do not consider it beneath our dig. nity to borrow wit and wisdom from Punch; and, when we think it good enough, make use of the thunder of The Times. We shall increase our variety by importations from the continent of Europe, and from the new growth of the British colonies.

Published every Saturday, by LITTELL, SON & COMPANY, Boston. Price 124 cents a number, or six dollar a year. Remittances for any period will be thankfully received and promptly attended to.

Wo will send the Living Age, postage free, to all subscribers within the United States, who remit in advance, directly to the office of publication, the sum of six dollars; thus placiug our distant subscribers on the same footing as those nearer to us, and making the wbole country our neighborhood.

Complete sets, handsomely bound, packed in neat boxes, and delivered in all the principal cities, free of expense of freight, are for sale at two dollars a volume.

ANY VOLUME may be had separately, at two dollars, bound, or a dollar and a half in numbers.

ANY NUMBER may be had for 12 cents; and it may be worth while for subscribers or purchasers to complete any broken volumes they may have, and thus greatly enhance their value.

LITTELL'S LIVING AGE.-No. 713.-16 JANUARY, 1858.

, .

From The British Quarterly Review. name of the magiciar-was not less remarkHemorials, Scientific and Literary, of An- able in the eyes of men of science in the

drew Crosse, the Electrician. London: nineteenth century than he would have been Longmans and Co. 1857.

to a Somersetshire peasant in the days of the Not far from the town of Taunton there Plantagenets. Many a distinguished, philosrecently dwelt a man who would have been opher listened eagerly, and with unfeigned regarded as a kind of enchanter had he lived astonishment, to the accounts of his rein a less intelligent age. The superstitious searches ; and those who visited his mansion peasant would have quickened his step as he of Thunder—for such it might be called passed along the road, overarched with sol- gazed with surprise on his gigantic apparatus emn trees, which ran not far from the man- for gathering the electric fluid from the atsion of the magician; or if he had stopped, mosphere, and watched him with no little it would have been to direct your eye to the dread whilst he operated on the lightnings poles fastened to the summits of the tallest which lay coiled up in his Leyden jars. trees, and to tell you in a whisper that these True, his name is not extensively known exwere the wands by which the sorcerer cept amongst the followers of science, for conjured.up storms, or controlled them, at Crosse was a modest, unpresuming man, a pleasure. You would be informed that this diligent student of nature, who was more wonderful being could draw fire from mist, bent upon exploring her secrets than on and extract streams of sparks from the drift- blowing the trumpet of his own exploits.. ing fog. He could entice the lightnings But careless as he was of public attention from heaven, and put them into his phials, or whilst living, it is the more necessary that use them to make sport for his nds. He justice should be rendered to his labors now played with thunderbolts as if they were that he is dead; and therefore it is with no harmless toys, and handled the red shafts of small pleasure that we refer our readers to the tempest as if he had forged them him- the volume, in which his widow. has collected self. And this man too, it was said, had some memorials of his life and researches. learnt many secrets of nature, and could tell Brief and disjointed these certainly are ; but how she made her crystals, and slowly formed the writer lays claim to no literary merit in her minerals in the caverns of the earth— the execution of her work ; and considering nay, it was rumored that he could beat her how difficult it is for relatives to wield the at her own tvork, and had actually fashioned biographical pen with discretion, we say much divers substances the like of which had never when we say that she has produced a judiyet been discovered in the ground. But cious and unpretending book. stranger than all, it was believed that this Andrew Crosse was born in 1784. He great enchanter could produce creeping was the descendant of a respectable family things that had life in them, by means of his long established at Fyne Court, in the manor mystic arts, for had he not thrown his electri- of Broomfield. It is of little moment to say cal spells over dead minerals and poisonous that the head of the race is supposed to have liquids, and constrained them to bring forth come over with the Conqueror. Whọse foreinsects which were perfect in all their parts, fathers did not, we should like to know? and as vigorous as if they had been hatched The quantity of ancestral gentlemen who acwithout any magical compulsion ?

companied the Norman marauder appears to Much more, too, you would have heard have been prodigious; and if William could respecting the deeds of this mighty wizard, hare foreseen that he was founding pedigrees all expressed in muffled tones, and doubtless by the thousand, he would assuredly have with sundry embellishments such as the pop- been proud of his genealogical achievements. ular fancy loves to employ when it approaches Young Crosse received a soniewhat rambling the dim region of the supernatural. But in education. He was taken to France for a good sooth Andrew Crosse—that was the time, and learned to speak French fluently as

LIVING AGE. VOL. II. 9

DOCXII.

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a child, but totally forgot it as a mán. He cian. The reader will scarcely see how, for
was taught Greek before he studied Latin, there are thousands of boys equally endowed
and could write in the language of Hellas with gastric energy, who never rise to emin-
before he could even scrawl in his own mother ence in any thing. The explanation, how-
tongue. For a period of more than nine ever, is this :—the drawing-master lived at
years he was. sent to Seyer's school, at the some distance from Seyer's establishment,
Fort, Bristol, where Eagles, the's Sketcher" of and not far from his residence there stood a
Blackwood, Broderip, the naturalist, Jenkyns, tavern where joints of beef, beautifully
Master of Balliol, and others of subsequent boiled and beautifully roasted, were exhibited
note, were his schoolfellows. There, as he in the window in alluring array. To a boy
says, he was caned, on an average, not less with a lively appetite, who was fed on vile
than three times a day for seven years, black potatoes, mutton conglomerate, and
thought never once formally flogged. An- other boarding-school atrocities, the vision of
drew was a wild laughing lad, passionately such dainties, all in a state of orthodox cook-
fond of a frolic, and doubtless entitled to a ery, was peculiarly impressivc. But to taste
little scourging occasionally; but Seyer deall them was bliss; that bliss he thought he
out his blows with undistinguishing liberality. might frequently enjoy if he could obtain
For, once, when the boy was rehearsing his leave to accompany his companions on their
Virgil, the pedagogue happened to look at excursions to the artist's house. Professing
the book, and found that a large portion was to be smitten with the love of the fine arts,
torn out, his pupil having repeated his lessons he procured the requisite permission, and
day after day from memory alone. Instead I commenced a series of studies in boiled and
of expressing any surprise at the feat, the roast. Whilst thus engaged on one occasion,
master inflicted a caning, though the leaves his eye was attracted by a syllabus of certain
had been removed by a malicious school-lectures to be delivered on Natural Philoso-
mate; and whenever his temper was particu- phy. These he resolved to attend. The
larly awry, the equitable Seyer would ask to second course was on Electricity; and such
look at the Virgil, and administer a dose of i was the fascination this subject. exercised,
castigation as if the offence were perfectly that his future pursuits, as he says, were at
new and unliquidated. During these nine once decided. We have no doubt that the
years, too, Andrew never had enough to eat: liking for electrometers and voltaic batteries
the mistress compelled him to feed on “vile would have been excited by other means,
black potatoes," and a conglomerate of fatty even if the tavern in question had never dis-
refuse which was dignified by the name of played a single joint, or produced a single
“ bashed mutton.” One little retaliatory act drop of gravy; but we cannot deny that the
on the part of the boy is worthy of mention, rampant appetite of the youth, and the cruel
because it shows that his taste for mischief cuisine of the mistress, contributed to hasten
had something of a scientific turn. Seyer the result,
detected him one day in the process of man- Nor was it long before Andrew introduced
ufacturing rocket powder, and having carried some of the wonders of electricity to the no-
off the inflammable mixture, it was placed on tice of his schoolfellows. To one so full of
the window-sill of a room, and locked up for fun the painful surprises of the Leyden phial
the time. To recapture it was impossible, must have opened out a source of exquisite
but it' occurred to the bereaved youth that he enjoyment. The younger lads, as might be
might perhaps fire the compound by means expected, were freely victimized. A large
of a burning-glass. A lens was procured; box, without door, was set on one end in the
the sun was shining; its rays were speedily hall, and at the back there appeared a trans-
concentrated, and to the infinite delight of parency representing a place which is said to
thic lad a brilliant explosion ensued. " It have a peculiar sort of pavement, very excel
was well,” said he, “ that the house was not lent, but very unsubstantial. A horrible ob-
set on fire; as for me, I was reckless of all ject, with a pitchfork in hand, hovered in
consequences.”

front of the view, whilst on one side there Mr. Crosse always attributed his scientific stood a figure dressed like a witch, and a tendencies to an amusing cause: he had a tended by a familiar spirit of a somewhat good appetite, and this made him an electri- I corporeal cast. The patient was either

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