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that half a continent has been turned into settlers who threatened to interfere with one vast game-preserve.
their absolute control over their territory, It has been the obvious interest of the the Company have prudently refrained from Hudson's Bay Company to keep civilized extreme courses. They have abstained from man far from the haunts of the valuable wild using the powers supposed to be granted by animals. Their policy required that agricul- their charter, and have resorted to safer and ture, if tolerated at all, should be limited to less direct means for getting rid of opposismall or distant establishments-that the na- tion. On the other hand, we cannot ascribe tives should be peaceful and well-disposed to to them the unprofitable virtues laid to their the Company, but dependent on the chase charge. If they freely make advances of for their chief support, kept entirely within food and necessaries to the Indians, which the power of the Company's officer's, and far are sometimes not paid for by the furs of removed from a competing market. It can the following season, they take care to mainbe no libel on the Company to say that they tain such a scale of prices as amply to cover have been successful in achieving the ends any loss on this head ; and in the meantime, which they doubtless have had constantly in they retain the native tribes in that state of view. They have been accused of cruelty and dependence which they find their interest oppression towards the Indian tribes--of un- to perpetuate. As for making sacrifices to just, if not fraudulent, dealings in the system promote the advance of civilization and the of barter by which their traffic is conducted teaching of Christianity, the less that is said -of corrupting the natives with ardent on that subject the better for the Company. spirits, and discouraging missionary efforts If we were to take an account of their annual for their improvement—and lastly, of vio- profits, which we believe have never fallen lence and persecution against those who short of ten per cent on the nominal capital bave attempted to trade in the natural pro- —to say nothing of the large portion which ductions of the country. On the other hand, has been carried to stock, making up more most of those who speak in the name of the than half of the capital of £500,000 which Company credit that body with profuse gen- stands against the names of the shareholders erosity towards the red man, with a readi- -and were to compare the entire ness to make all sorts of sacrifices to pro- amount of all that has ever been expended mote his advance towards a civilized and by them to promote education, to maintain settled life, to remove the dangerous tempta- Christian missionaries, or to teach their subtion of ardent spirits, and to favor the teach-jects any of civilized life, the result would ing of Christianity. The same witnesses certainly show the prudence of avoiding any even endeavor to show that the Company are further reference to so delicate a topic. ready to encourage settlers in their territory, With these drawbacks, however, there is and to facilitate the extension of trade in much that may be fairly commended in their every article except furs and spisits.
management. They seem to have used After reading all the evidence on each side, much care in the selection and promotion of though it is not easy to pick one's way their officers *-men placed in positions of through a great deal of it, we are disposed almost unchecked authority, which has rarely to question the, assertions of both parties. been abused. Their rules for dealing with Setting aside the occasional acts of men the Indian tribes are, if not over liberal, at using large powers at a distance from all least humane and prudent; and their great control, we do not believe that the adminis- authority has been successfully used to maintration of the Company has been marked by tain peace-except, indeed, in the south of unnecessary harshness.
The natives scem their territory, where they have found it less usually to have found at their hands humane troublesome and expensive to leave the and fair treatment-internal quarrels have Sioux and Blackfeet to carry on incessant been discountenanced and suppressed—ar- and bloody contentions amongst themselves, dent spirits have been withheld, whenever than to make any serious effort to quell the this could be done without interference with
* It seems probable that one source of success the profits of trade and some slight en- in the management of the Company has been the couragement has been given to missionary system of paying their chief officers by shares in
the annual profits, in place of fixed saláries. efforts. Lastly, in dealing with troublesome
savage propensities of those still powerful We suppose that the Government must have tribes. Our general conclusion, then, is that had this conclusion before them when they the rule of the Hudson's Bay Company is, proposed, early in the present year, the apon the whole, more favorable to the abori- pointment of the Committe of the House of gines than any other that is likely to be sub- Commons, whose labors have produced the stituted for it.
Blue-book of which we have spoken. The The question then arises-Why disturb a result was, on the whole, satisfactory. Mr. state of things that is working tolerably Edward Ellice, who appeared before the well? The answer is, that if the Hudson's Committee to represent the Company, in Bay territory has stood still, the rest of the which he is said to be a large siiareholder, world is not standing still-that, above all is a man of long political experience and other people, the British race and their undoubted sagacity. Instead of attempting descendants in the United States are rapidly a fruitless resistance, he at once admitted advancing over the continent of North that whatever districts are required for purAmerica, subduing to the use of man every poses of settlement must be given up to region fit for his habitation, and appropriat- Canada by the Company, and prudently coning whatever natural productions can con- tented himself with throwing cold water duce to convenience or profit. In advance upon the prospects of all who may be inof the regular army of settlers who attach duced to try their fortune in these new themselves to the soil, there are found rest- regions of the West. The Conimittee seem less and adventurous spirits—"pioneers of to have caught at this prospect of accommocivilization,” as our American cousins like to dation; and the substance of their Report, call them--who push on with axe and rifle so far as regards the territory at this side of into districts entirely new, and everywhere the Rocky Mountains, is that the Governfind the means of existence. The appear- ment of Canada should be permitted to ance of these men is the first ripple which annex the country fit for settlement, on conshows that the great wave of colonization is dition of undertaking the administration of approaching a new region. At the present the settled districts, while the exclusive privtime everything seems to show that the tide ileges of the Company should be maiutained is flowing towards the south part of the in the districts which seem permanently unterritory of the Hudson's Bay company. fitted for the habitation of civilized man. Both from the east and the south-from The whole efforts of the Company appear Canada and the United States—adventurers now to be turned to underrate the resources, are approaching, or have already found their the climate, and the capabilities of the country way; and we may be certain that more are from which they are about to retire. As this behind. The Canadian Legislature have is a matter of national interest, we shall on taken the matter up, and the Executive Gov- another occasion endeavor to ascertain what ernment of that colony have formally ques- conclusions should be drawn from the contioned the title of the Company, and put for- tradictory statements of opposing witnesses ; ward a claim to its territory as legally and in doing so we shall have the benefit of appertaining to Canada. On the other hand, some valuable information lately received in the Americans, though they have no color of this country. We shall also have something claim to territorial possession, are fast press to say respecting Vancouver's Island and the ing onward; and three months ago an adjoining territory, the importance of which American engineer was actually laying out is at last beginning to be recognized by the the site of a town on the very frontier, fifty British public. miles from the Red River Settlement. It is clear, then, that the time has come when the
From The Spectator.
RUSSIA IN THE PACIFIC. game preservers must retire. The claims of Canada are plainly founded in reason, if not
SOME years since Russia attracted notice in law, and they are sustained by every mo- by her encroachments upon the Southern tive of national policy; for if these great boundary of Siberia into Chinese TartaryWestern regions are not to cease to be Brit- encroachments long prepared and immediish, they must become Canadian, and that ately aided by the schemer of the local Sibe speedily.
rian Governors who speculated in obtaining the Imperial favor. The same power has | extension of territory, Russia acquired the more lately been extending her encroach- exclusive ownership of the Yablounoi Mounments and establishing them.
tains, said to surpass in mineral wealth anyA look at the map will show that the Sea thing that has yet been discovered in Califorof Okotsk receives the waters of one of the nia or Australia. noblest rivers of the Old World, and offers But what is still more important, Russia advantages as great and a position as im- has gained access to the Pacific Ocean within pregnable as will be afforded by the Baltic the range of a temperate climate, and by and Black Seas when their shores and out- means of a most magnificent river-now the lets shall have fallen under the dominion of most magnificent of Russian rivers deboucha single sovereign. Russia saw this long ago, ing into the open sea. The Amoor, which and a chain of posts has been gradually es- has a course of 2240 miles, is formed by a tablished on the islands, formerly belonging junction of two rivers, one of which rises in to Japan, which divide the Sea of Okotsk Mongolia, and the other has its source in the from the Ocean: Russia fortified the harbor Siberian province of Irkutsk, at no great disat the mouth of the Amoor (or Sagalin) tance from the Lake of Baikal, the waters of river; which fortification, when quite fin- which flow by the Yenisei into the Arctic ished, would equal Cronstadt, or Sebastopol Ocean. Thus, cannon and stores may be in the time of its strength, with incalculable sent from Cronstadt to the Pacific: in fact, superiority, in position, soil, and climate, over for the last three years troops have been coneither of those strongholds.
tinually carried down the Amoor in steamRussia's encroachments in this direction boats. date back to the middle of the seventeenth Great Britain until lately did not notice century, when Muscovite soldiers first built a these mighty encroachments; for there are few small forts in the valley of the Amoor. but few Englislı vessels going to those reThe Manchou rulers of China would not tol- gions, and the officers of her Majesty's Navy erate the intrusion; they treated with con- have been called upon to surrender their pritempt the ambassadors sent to Pekin by the vate journals into the safe keeping of the AdCzar Alexy. Michaelovitch; and they des- miralty as soon as they set foot on shore. The patched an army, in 1680, which destroyed only facts ever published by eye-witnesses the Russian forts and settlements, and car. are from the pen of Captain Bernard Whitried their inhabitants as prisoners to Pekin. tingham, R.E.; who accompanied Captain
Subsequently the Czars made frequent at- Elliot as his guest on board the frigate tempts to gain by diplomacy what had been Sybillie, during a cruise in the Pacifie in lost by arms.
But the embassies of Golovin 1855–6. Curiously enough, the captain of in 1685, of Isbrand Ives in 1692, and of Leff the frigate was sent to search for the RusVassilievitch Ismailoff in. 1719, turned out sians wise no more information as to the setperfectly useless ; Celestial astuteness prov- tlements, forces, and ships of the enemy, ing a match for Muscovite craft. Down to than he had been able to gather from an arthe year 1852, in spite of constant efforts, ticle which had appeared a year before in the Russians had only succeeded in effecting Fraser's Magazine! Now we have the facts some insignificant encroachments to the before us. South of the great Yablounoi range. In
In The war in the Crimea would by most that year, however, the Court of Pekin was statesmen have been considered the opporin a state of embarrassment with England, tunity for checking Russia's advance. It was and the Czar obtained a treaty yielding to used for no such purpose. Great Britain Russia the navigatian of the Amoor. This made no effort whatever to disturb the Czar's was the long-desired beginning. In less dominions on the Amoor ; and all the time than twelve months Russia converted that Russia kept on fortifying her recently-acpermission into absolute possession of the quired Pacific possessions. If the war had whole course of the river, together with an been but slightly prolonged, we might have enormous tract of country, above 1000 miles done something to hamper Russian commuin length and in some parts as much as 500 cations with the Further East ; but the war miles in breadth. And in addition to this was not prolonged. The treaty of peace was
silent on the subject even of Circassia. As overwhelming power of Russia, and yet they
1 usual, Russia only bided her time. No sooners are not substantive enough to be admitted was the war at an end than her efforts multi- direct into the European system. If they plied in every direction. During this very could have “conquered their own indeautumn of 1857, a squadron of men-of-war pendence,” or if Austria could have conhas been sent to the Pacific, passing the road- quered it once for all, a great deal of trouble stead of Copenhagen at the beginning of might be saved : as it is, the most difficult October. It consisted of the screw-corvettes problem of the Eastern question is proved to Wojewoda, Navik, Bojarin, Plastin, Dschigil, be the definitive settlement of the Principaliand Trelot, with the screw-frigate Askold, ties. the latter at the special disposition of Ad- It is the same with the Eider Duchies : miral Count Putiatin, the Russian Ambassa- under the dominion of Denmark, they belong dor. Before this squadron sailed from Cron- nationally to Germany, and have a local stadt, it was carefully inspected by the Grand traditionary semi-independence of their own Duke Constantine; and Captain Kusmetzoff, which makes them continually appeal dithe commander of the whole, received “the rectly to the German Powers, the European most extensive and careful” instructions with Powers; and their appeals even involve our a view to advance the knowledge of the coast own Government in lamentable inconsistenof the Pacific. Russia is becoming a Pacific cies, sustaining Hanoverianism against ConPower.
stitutionalism. If the Duchies were some Well, we do not fear her, even in the day found to have been abolished by an midst of our Australian Colonies, our Chi- earthquake, the sweep of a planet, a flood, nese stations, and our Indian Archipelago or any other non-political event, British stations. But she may occasion trouble. statesmen whose existence is painfully shared
between domestic politics and diplomacy,
From The Spectator. would heave a grand sigh of relief. HOW TO DISPOSE OF TROUBLESOME
There are other states in the world whose STATES.
condition is equally though differently anomSome of the American letters deny that alous. Mexico, for example, is under the Sir William Ousely, the new Plenipotenti-permanent government of General Comonary
for settling certain Central American af-fort, a rebellious officer; while its recognized fairs, has gone out on any diplomatic com- President is always taking flight with his mission : he has gone, they say, solely on young wite and embarking for England as private affairs. This is curious if true; since the preliminary to re-ascending the Repubkissing hands of the Queen at a formal au- lican throne. As an escape from this pecudience is not a usual preliminary to a purely liar form of government, the republic has private mission. Perhaps the report is not offered itself to the United States for annexmore true than another, that he has crossed ation ; but it is too large, too little republithe Atlantic to settle the affairs of the Dan-can, too alien, for that favorite Yankee proubian Principalities. To this view of the
Then there are the Bay Islands which case, indeed, we can give no countenance belong to Great Britain and Honduras both whatever ; the idea is in itself wild in the at once; and the five states of Central Amerlast degree, though we cannot deny to it ica which are confederated with each other some grain of sense as a matter of abstract in a permanent civil war, and have a Yankee reasoning.
President who is just now resident in the There are in Europe certain states whose United States. condition, and whose relation to the rest, are All these countries, and some others, are completely anomalous. The Danubian Prin- in a perfectly anomalous position with regard cipalities, for example, which are under the to their contiguous neighbors, and have litdominion of Turkey, under the influence of tle in common with the regions amid which Russia, and under the sway of a local and they lie, but have one condition in common traditional nationality, are rather too large with each other. They are all to a certain and inherently powerful to be ignored, too extent outcasts from their own system : strong to be easily governed by Turkey, and would it be possible to combine them ? too valuable to be conceded to the already) Why not let them be united in a great Fed
From The Economist.
eral Imperial Commonwealth ? Each might | Eastern Continent, and tell a few thousand elect representatives for a federal Parliament men that they must cow two hundred milto meet alternately in Paris, London, and lions,-rule them by the force of a higher Berlin. By this arrangement, the opposing character and intellect, and keep a whole interests of the several states thus federated race in subjection by natural superiority, and would compensate each other, and we should by the self-confidence which their own conrealize that grand object of diplomatic al- sciousness of this superiority engenders, and chemy a " balance of power.” Wild as the at the same time put them on a civil level in plan looks, it really is not more irrational in every respect with their inferiors ?” Such its principles, or even in the circumstances of language as this encourages a spirit more the case, than the present European “sys- likely to be fatal to our Indian Empire than tem,” as it is called. The arrangement any faint-hearted officialism or any blunderwould be completed according to the mod-ing red-tape. It appeals not to the right ern fashion, if at the head of the new Impe- pride of Englishmen, but to that haughty rial and Federal Commonwealth were placed and almost insolent inclination to "
a Foreign Prince selected from one of the inferior race to which we are all as Englishreigning dynasties."
men, from our high national position, in no
slight degree liable. And it appeals to it in THE ANGLO-INDIAN DOCTRINE OF
the worst way. For it is an argument not CASTE.
in favor of recognising boldly, what no one It is curious and painful to notice that the can ignore, the superiority of the English very same popular organs of English opinion character to the Oriental, but in favor of which have denounced caste most eagerly as stereotyping that superiority as an instituthe spring of all the miseries under which tion, and so repressing the rise of the native India is now suffering, are writing as eagerly caste beneath. in favor of the permanent recognition and
This is not a mere question of words and preservation of social and legal distinctions phrases. We all know that the use of this between Englishmen and natives, as they be- language has a definite practical meaning. fore wrote against the recognition and pre
An Act has long been before the Legislative servation of any such distinction between the Council in Calcutta, and would, but for the Brahmin or the Rajpoot and the Sudra. We mutiny, before this time have been made law, have been told how wrong it was to concede which will subject English and natives alike 80 much to high-caste prejudice in the Bengal to the jurisdiction of the same courts and the army, and thus foster the worst evil of Indian provisions of the same code. This the Engsociety—we have been warned to begin afresh lish settlers are wont to call the Black Act. and discourage resolutely this petrifying prin- At present, as we not long since explained to ciple of Hindooism, if only that it directly our readers, if a native of Bengal had been endangers our supremacy. And now the injured by a European, he could prosecute opposite lesson is preached to us as regards his ,injurer only by going with all his witour own relation to the Hindoos. “If you nesses to Calcutta, the Englishman being throw on the European body in India,” says exempt from the control of the local courts an influential contemporary, “all the respon
a condition practically prohibitive. It is, in sibilities, you must allow it some of the pri- fact, against the removal of this inequality in vileges of race. This handfull of men, as we the law—this caste-principle of one law for say, cannot stir a step without the impulse of Europeans, another for natives—that the rethis consciousness. Take away the inspiration marks we have quoted are aimed. Because of race, and they are spiritless at once, utter- the Europeans are by nature and inheritance hy prostrated by their task, every faculty is a stronger and higher race, they are to be benumbed, and nature gives way at the pro- legally confirmed in their position as an exspect of such odds. But if they are to feel clusive and privileged race. “ The Oriental the inspiration of natural superiority to the respects only where he fears,” says a still Hindoo, it is nonsense to expect that they fiercer advocate of the some theory of Eng. can submit to a reduction to a perfect level lish caste; and, therefore, we are to take civil and social with him. Now is it fair measures to inspire the fear, even though at to scatter a few Earopeans over the vast the expense of ceasing to deserve respect.