other. And there with alle thei ben so l that he knew alle the state of the Coproude, that thei knowen not how to ben mounes also, be his Messangeres, that he clothed; now long, now schort, now' sente to alle Londes, in manere as thei streyt, now large, now swerded, now weren Marchauntes of precyous Stones, daggered, and in alle manere gyses. of Clothes of Gold and of othere thinges; Thei scholden ben synıple, meke and for to knowen the manere of every Contrewe, and fulle of Almes dede, as Jhesu tree amonges Cristene men. And tha2 was, in whom thei trowe: but thei ben he leet clepe in alle the Lordes, that he alle the contrarie, and evere enclyned to made voyden first out of his Chambre; the Evylle, and to don evylle. And thei and there he schewed me 4, that weren ben so coveytous, that for a lytylle Syl- grete Lordes in the Contree, that tolden ver, thei sellen here Doughtres, here me of my Contree, and of many othere Sustres and here owne Wyfes, to putten Cristene Contrees, als wel as thei had hem to Leccherie. And on with draw. ben of the same Contree : and thei spak ethe the Wif of another : and non of Frensche righte wel; and the Sowdan hem holdethe Feythe to another : but also, where of I had gret Marvaylle. thei defoulen here Lawe, that Jhesu Crist Allas! that it is gret sclaundre to oure betook hem to kepe, for here Salvacioun. Feythe and to oure Lawe, whan folk that And thus for here Synnes, han thei lost ben with outen Lawe, schulle repreven alle this Lond, that wee holden. For, us and undernemen us of oure Synnes. for hire Synnes here God hathe taken And thei that scholden ben converted to hem in to oure Hondes, noghte only be Crist and to the Lawe of Jhesu, be oure Strengthe of our self, but for here Synnes. gode Ensamples and be oure acceptable For wee knowen wel in verry sothe, that Lif to God, and so converted to the Lawe whan zee serve God, God wil helpe zou : of Jhesu Crist, ben thorghe oure Wykand whan he is with zou, no man may kednesse and evylle lyvynge, fer fro us be azenst you. And that knowe we wel, and Straungeres fro the holy and verry be oure Prophecyes, that Cristene men Beleeve, schulle thus appelen us and schulle wynnen azen this Lond out of holden us for wykkede Lyveres and oure Hondes, whan thei serven God cursed. And treuly thei sey sothe. For more devoutly. But als longe als thei the Sarazines ben gode and feythfulle. ben of foule and of unclene Lyvynge, (as for thei kepen entierly the Comaundethei ben now) wee bave no drede of ment of the Holy Book Alkaron, that God hem, in no kynde : for here God wil not sente hem be his Messager Machomet ; helpen hem in no wise, And than I to the whiche, as thei seyne, seynt Gaasked him, how he knew the State of brielle the Aungel often tyme tolde the Cristene men. And he answerde me, wille of God.

17. Wicliffe, A.D. 1324-1384 (Manual, p. 55).

MATTHEW's GOSPEL, CHAP. VIII. Forsothe when Jhesus hadde comen mentid. And Jhesus saith to hym, I doun fro the hil, many cumpanyes fole- shal cume, and shal hele hym. And widen hym. And loo ! a leprouse man centurio answerynge saith to hym, Lord, cummynge worshipide hym, sayinge; I am not worthi, that thou entre vndir Lord, gif thou wolt, thou maist make my roof; but oonly say bi word, and me clene. And Jhesus holdynge forthe my child shall be helid. For whi and I the hond, touchide hym sayinge, I wole; am a man ordeynd vnder power, hauynge be thou maad clene. And anoon the vndir me knigtis; and I say to this, lepre of hym was clensid. And Jhesus Go, and he goth; and to an other, Come saith to hym; See, say thou to no man; thou, and he cometh ; and to my serbut go, shewe thee to prestis, and offre uaunt, Do thou this thing, and he doth. that gifte that Moyses comaundide, into Sothely Jhesus, heerynge these thingis, witnessing to hem. Sothely when he wondride, and saide to men suynge hym: hadde entride in to Capharnaum, cen- Trewly I saye to you I fond nat so grete turio neigide to hym preyinge hym, And feith in Yrael. Sothely Y say to you, said, Lori, my child lyeth in the hous that manye shulen come fro the est and sike on the palsie, and is yuel tour- west, and shulen rest with Abraham

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and Ysaac and Jacob in the kyngdam that the litil ship was hilid with wawis; of heuenes; forsothe the sonys of the but he slepte. And his disciplis camen rewme shulen be cast out into vttremest nig to hym, and raysiden hym, sayinge, derknessis; there shal be weepynge, and Lord, saue vs : we perishen. And beetynge togidre of teeth. And Jhesus Jhesus seith to hem, What ben yee of saide to centurio, Go; and as thou hast litil feith agast? Thanne he rysynge bileeued be it don to thee. And the comaundide to the wyndis and the see, child was helid fro that houre. And and a grete pesiblenesse is maad. Forwhen Jhesus hadde comen in to the hous sothe men wondreden, sayinge : What of Symond Petre, he say his wyues mo. manere man is he this, for the wyndis der liggynge, and shakun with feueris. and the see obeishen to hym. And And he touchide hir hond, and the feuer whan Jhesus hadde comen over the lefte hir : and she roose, and seruyde water in to the cuntre of men of Gena. hem. Sothely whan the euenyng was zereth twey men hauynge deuelis runmaad, thei brougte to hym many hau- nen to hym, goynge out fro birielis, ful ynge deuelys : and he castide out spiritis feerse, or wickid, so that no man migte by word, and helide alle hauynge yuel; passe by that wey. And loo! thei that it shulde be fulfillid, that thing crieden, sayinge, What to vs and to that was said by Ysaie, the prophete, thee, Jhesu the sone of God ? hast thou sayinge, He toke oure infirmytees, and comen hidir before the tyme for to tourbere oure sykenessis.

Sothely Jbesus mente vs ? Sothely a floc, or droue, of seeynge many cumpanyes about hyin, many hoggis lesewynge was nat fer from bad his disciplis go ouer the water. hem, But the deuelis preyeden him, And oo scribe, or a man of lawe, com- seyinge, gif thon castist out vs hennes, mynge to, saide to hym, Maistre, I shal sende vs in to the droue of hoggiz. And sue thee whidir euer thou shalt go. And he saith to hem, Go yee. And thei Jhesus said to hym, Foxis han dichis, goynge out wente in to the hoggis; and or borowis, and briddis of the eir han loo! in a greet bire al the droue wente nestis; but mannes sone hath nat wher heedlynge in to the see, and thei ben he reste his heued. Sotheli an other of dead in watris. Forsothe the hirdes his disciplis saide to hym, Lord, suffre fledden awey, and cummynge in to the me go first and birye my fadir. For- citee, tolden alle these thingis; and of sothe Jhesus saide to hym, Sue thou me, hein that hadden the fendis. And loo ! and late dede men birye her dead men. al the citee wente ageinis Jhesu, metynge And Jhesu steyinge vp in to a litel ship, hym; and hym seen, thei preiden hym, his disciplis sueden him. And loo ! a that he shulde pass fro her coostis. grete steryng was made in the sec, so



A.D. 1400-1558.


18. James 1. 1394-1437. (Manual, p. 57.)

From the King's Quair (Quire or Book).

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The lungè dayès and the nightès eke,
I would bewail my fortune in this wise,
For which, again 1 distress comfort to seek
My custom was, on mornès, for to rise
Early as day : 0 happy exercise !
By thee come I to joy out of torment;
But now to purpose of my first intent.
Bewailing in my chamber, thus alone,
Despaired of all joy and remedy,
For-tired of my thought, and woe begone ;
And to the window gan I walk in hye,
To see the world and folk that went forby ;
As for the time (though I of mirthis food
Might have no more) to look it did me good.
Now was there made fast by the touris wall
A garden fair ; and in the corners set
An herbere 8 green; with wandis long and small
Railed about and so with treeis set
Was all the place, and hawthorn hedges knet,
That life was none (a) walking there forby
That might within scarce any wight espy.


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1. 6

1 Against.

2 Haste.

3 Herbary, or garden of simple


In fret wise couched with pearlis white,
And greatè balas o lemyng as the fire;
With many an emerant and faire sapphìre,
And on her head a chaplet fresh of hue,
Of plumys parted red and white and blue.
About her neck, white as the fyr amaille,"
A goodly chain of small orfevyrie,
Whereby there hang a ruby without fail
Like to a heart yshapen verily,
That as a spark of lowe o so wantonly

Seemèd burnyng upon her whitè throat;
Now gif there was good parly God it wote.
And for to walk that freshè mayè's morrow,
An hook she had upon her tissue white,
That goodlier had not been seen toforrow,
As I suppose, and girt she was a lyte 11
Thus halfling 12 loose for haste ; to such delight
It was to see her youth in goodlihead,
That for rudeness to speak thereof I dread.
In her was youth, beauty with humble port,
Bounty, richess, and womanly feature :
(God better wote than my pen can report)
Wisdom largèss, estate and cunning sure,
In word in deed, in shape and countenance,

That nature might no more her childe avance. 5 Rubies. 6 Burning. 7 Mr. Ellis conjectures that this is an error, for fair email, i. e. enamel. 8 Goldsmith's work,

9 Fire. 10 Heretofore. 11 A little. 12 Half.


19. William Dunbar, about 1465-1520. (Manual, p. 58.)

From the Dance of the Seven Deadly Sins.

And first of all in dance was Pryd,
With hair wyld bak, bonet on side,

Like to mak vaistie wainis ;
And round about him, as a quheill,3
Hang all in rumpilis to the heill, *

His kethat for the nanis. 5

I With bair combed back (and) bonnet to one side. 2 Likely to make wasteful wants. 3 Like a wheel. 4 Hung all in rumples to the heel. 5 His cassock for the nonce.


Mony proud trompour with him trippit,
Throw skaldan fyre ay as they skippit,?

They girnd with hyddous granis.
Then Ire cam in with sturt and strife,
His hand was ay upon his knyfe,

He brandeist lyk a beir ;
Bostaris, braggaris, and burganeris,
After him passit into pairis,

All bodin in feir of weir.3
In jakkis stryppis and bonnettis of steil,
Thair leggis were chenyiet to the heill,

Frawart was thair affeir.
Sum upon uder with brands beft,7
Some jaggit uthers to the heft 8

With knyves that scherp coud scheir.'
Next in the dance followit Invy, 10
ild full of feid and fellony,"

Hid malice and dispyte,
For privy baterit that tratour trymlet ; 12
Him followit mony freik dissymlit, 19

With fenyiet wordis quhyte.14
And flattereris into menis faces, 15
And backbyteris of sundry races

To ley that had delyte, 17
With rownaris of false lesingis;
Allace, that courtis of noble kingis 19

Of thame can nevir be quyte.20 6 Many a proud impostor with him tripped. ? Through scalding fire as they skipt. 8 They grinned with hideous groans. 9 Then Ire came with trouble and strife. i Boasters, braggarts, and bullies. ? After him passed in pairs. 3 All arrayed in feature of war. 4 In coats of armour and bonnets of steel. 5 Their legs were chained to the heel. (Probably it means covered with iron net-work.) 6 Froward was their aspect. * Some struck upon others with brands. 8 Some stuck others to the hilt. 9 With knives that sharply could mangle. 10 Followed Envy. 11 Filled full of quarrel and felony. 12 For privy hatred that traitor trembled. 13 Him followed many a dissembling renegado. 14 With feigned words fair or white. 15 And flatterers to men's

faces. 16 And backbiters of sundry races. 17 To lie that had delight. 18 With spreaders of false lies. 19 Alas that courts of noble kings. 20 of them can never be rid.



20. Sir David Lyndsay. 1490-1557. (Manual, p. 68.) MELDRUM'S DUEL WITH THE ENGLISH CHAMPION TÅLBART.

Then clariouns and trumpets blew,
And weiriours many hither drew;

On eviry side come? mony man
To behald wha the battel wan.


1 Warriors.

2 Came

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