proves that worthy Allan was mistaken in stating in his title-page that the poems were "wrote by the ingenious poet before 1600." But this was a mistake which all the world lay under at that time; and I believe that the mistake applies to "Hardyknute" only. Take it for all in all, The Evergreen is the best collection in existence of old poetry, and in my opinion a collection of the best old poems in our language. Considering how many learned and ingenious men have given themselves to kindred tasks, it is surprising that these most curious and interesting volumes should to this day be left as bare of explanation or illustration as when they first appeared in 1724. If such a man as MR. MAIDMENT would take the task in hand, giving us a new edition, he would confer an immense favour on the lovers of old literature. A new edition ought to give a short biography of Dunbar, Fleming, Robert Henryson Semple, Henry Steward Kennedy, and the other ingenious persons whose names appear at the end of these poems. I confess that I think the ancient spelling might be got rid of with advantage. Certainly the peculiar Scotch spelling need not be retained. There is nothing gained by using the letter z in the place of the letter y, or in writing quhat for what, quhen for when, sche for she, and such-like Scotticisms. But my desire is only to suggest a new edition. I am far from thinking myself competent to advise the editor. I am sensible that there are matters in the book which in the present day would not be deemed fit for publication; but the class of persons who would read the books would neither be demoralised nor seriously shocked by them; such passages are not numerous; and while Prior is republished with "Paulo Purganti," &c., I confess that I think old Allan's book ought not to be mutilated.

Worthy Allan had neither the learning nor the taste of Dr. Percy; but The Evergreen contains more good poetry than Percy's Reliques; and if Allan's collection were given to the world with such a setting as Percy gave to his Reliques, Sir Walter Scott to his Minstrelsy, or Maidment to his Ballads, Ramsay's Evergreen would take its true place in literature, which hitherto it has not done. J. H. C.


THE APPLICABILITY OF THE WORD "PIRATE." I happen to be thoroughly acquainted with the scene and the circumstances of the case of the Caroline, the steamer in which certain citizens of the United States, who called themselves " pathizers" with the "patriots" (as the insurgents termed themselves) of Canada, were crossing from the shore of the United States to Navy Island-a British possession in the Niagara River-and which, by the order of Sir F. B. Head, was cut adrift from her moorings at Schlosser's Landing, and

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Probably this secondary meaning was given in order to make the word pirate applicable to the Alabama; at all events it suits that vessel as regarded by the United States.

At the same time it virtually suits the Caroline, for the omission in her case of "the purpose of plundering other vessels" must surely, as well as the fact that her operations were prosecuted on a river and not "on the high seas," be viewed as an accidental and immaterial circumstance.

The fact is that (to waive the case of the Alabama, which was directly in the service of insurgents) we need a word that would exactly suit the Caroline, the Enosis (the Greek vessel that helped the Cretan insurgents against the Porte), and, say, any vessel in which " sympathizers" of the United States might, on some future occasion, aid and abet the Fenians in Canada or elsewhere. Daniel Webster, while protesting against the application of the word pirate to such vessels, says that it would rest with the government risen against how it should treat the crew of such a vessel as the Caroline. A crew liable to the treatment commonly allotted to pirates would care little whether the vessel were termed a pirate or not. Can we do otherwise than employ, for such cases, the word pirate in a secondary sense, unless we adopt some such compound as "rebel-helper"?

JOHN HOSKYNS-ABRAHALL. Combe Vicarage, near Woodstock.

A PANEGYRIC ON THE LADIES.-The following jeu-d'esprit may be worth preserving in "N. & Q. I never saw it in print, and only met it lately in MS. after nearly half a century. My mother gave me a copy of it when I was at school, but

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"killed a camelopardis or giraffe (Dion. 1. lxxii. p. 1211), the tallest, the most gentle, and the most useless of the large quadrupeds. This singular animal (says Gibbon) a native only of the interior parts of Africa, has not been seen in Europe since the revival of letters; and though M. de Buffon has endeavoured to describe, he has not

ventured to delineate the giraffe."

Upon this Dean Milman observes: "Gibbon is mistaken, as a giraffe was presented to Lorenzo de' Medici either by the Sultan of Egypt or the King of Tunis"; and the authority he quotes is confirmed by an extract from a contemporary MS. in the Memoirs of Pandolfo Collenuccio by W. M. Tartt (p. 224), of which one of the few copies printed is in the library of the British Museum.

"1487 (says the chronicler) a dì 11 Nov., entrò in Firenze uno animale detto la giraffa con 1o leone e altri animali mandati dal Soldano di Babilonia al commune di Firenze."

But Mr. Gilbert, in his Life of Lucrezia Borgia, ii. 65 (and he generally writes upon good authority), says that a giraffe, "the first seen in Europe in modern times," was brought to Ferrara by the

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GARDEROBE.-A friend who was travelling in Norway last summer had his attention drawn by a companion to a quantity of winter clothing, principally furs, arranged as if exposed for sale, in the spacious cloaca of the inn at which they were spending the night. A similar exhibition at the next establishment induced him to examine more closely, when he found that the articles were the half-worn winter clothing of the family, suspended there for preservation, by means of the smell, from the attacks of moths. This observation is of interest to the archeologist and also to the philologist; to the former, because it indicates why such large rooms, even special towers in some of the medieval castles, were devoted to latrinal purposes; and to the latter, because it explains the origin of the name garderobe, whence our modern wardrobe. J. W.

SUNDAY FISHING, 1484: LORD KILMAURS.Sir Alexander Cunningham, Lord Kilmaurs, upon October 19, 1484, was prosecuted by Sir John Cuke, chaplain of the New Werk of Finlayston, for 51. 5s. (Scots ?) of arrears for three terms of stipend and for the wrongous detention from the reverend gentleman of the profit of the "Poundars tyde of the Zair of Finlastoun, with men, bait, and net."

In modern parlance the clergyman's name was Cook. Priests in 1484, and for some time afterwards, were uniformly styled "Domini,"-Pope's Knights, as the reformers called them. A clergyman fishing on a Sunday, by "men, bait, and nets," would astonish good folks now-a-days.

The noble defender was cast in the action

brought against him, and the Pope's knight vanquished the Scotish knight. The reverend gentleman was also allowed to prove his piscatory loss, and Lord Kilmaurs was ordained to pay the amount when ascertained.

Lord Kilmaurs was one of the few adherents of

James III. of Scotland, who made him Earl of Glencairn. When the rebel lords triumphed, and the defeated monarch was murdered by an unknown assassin in Sauchie in June 1488, Kilmaurs was despoiled of his earldom, in the same manner as the Earl of Crawford was deprived of his dukedom of Montrose.

James IV. restored the earldom by a new creation to Cuthbert, the grandson of Sir Alexander. J. M. The title is at present a dormant one.

*Zar or Gair. A small enclosure built in a semi

circular form near the sea. At high water the salmon come within it, and at low water can be easily taken, as there is no way to escape.

self had brought in the New Year. But the especial cause of my note is to request the opinion of your readers skilled in folk-lore to the following difficulty. Desiring that everything should be properly en règle, I inquired who had brought the new year into my present habitation last Saturday; and I am informed that it was carried in simultaneously by the gardener and the cat. Now, the gardener, though masculine, is grey and has been sandy; the cat, though feminine, is black. How, then, will my fortunes for 1870 distribute INSCRIPTION AT EXETER CATHEDRAL.-On the themselves? for good, according to the colour of west wall of the south transept, which, with the the cat and the gender of the gardener ? or for corresponding one, is formed by the lower part of evil, according to the gender of the cat and the Romanesque towers of an earlier building, is in- colour of the gardener? I am sure you percised the following inscription in Lombardic cha-ceive the practical importance of this grave ques






WEATHER SAYINGS.-As "N. & Q." appears to be a receptacle for weather sayings, the following may be worthy a corner:

An old gentleman informed me that he had made it a constant practice for the last fifty years, during a frost, to watch a mole-hill, and had always found that if the mole threw up fresh earth, within forty-eight hours the frost would be gone. He was advised to do this by his father. DE MORAVIA,

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The whole is quite clear with the exception of two letters in the first line, where the word is probably DEVS or IHVS. The allusion is no doubt

to the first and second Adam, but the construction is curious. QVERE, I presume, is for QVA RE. I add that three consecration crosses remay


main on the exterior of the south wall of the south aisle of the nave, two of them close togeVEBNA. ORIGIN OF THE BASQUES.-Who can venture to give an account of that mystery the Basque language without at least raising the question whether the old world may not after all have been colonised from the new, and whether the Basque inhabitants of the Pyrenees, and the Iberians who went before them, may not have been originally a little nest of wanderers who had drifted across the Atlantic Ocean ?


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burial-place of this Prince of Wales known-the only child of King Richard III.? He was born in 1473 at Middleham Castle, in Wensleydale, which had become the property of his father, then Duke of Gloucester, owing to his marriage with the Lady Anne Neville, the daughter of the king-maker, the Earl of Warwick. He also died

there in 1484. There is no monumental record to

be found in the church of Middleham of his interment, which was made collegiate by his father, and who regarded it with special favour. The castle of Middleham was also at one time the chief residence of King Richard III., most likely either on account of early reminiscences, or on account of the beauty of its situation, commanding as it does one of the finest prospects in Wensleydale. Prima facie one would imagine that Edward Plantagenet found a grave within the walls of the antique church of Middleham, which is close to the castle; still, on the other hand, there is neither record of such a fact either in the way of monument or local tradition; nor, as far as can be ascertained, is Middleham ever mentioned as his sepulchre by the many writers on the antiquities and scenery of Wensleydale.



BRINGING IN THE NEW YEAR. -This is a subject which has been several times noticed in "N. & Q.," and the fact seems fully established that anything light-haired or feminine bodes evil. I heard an amusing anecdote on the point a few days since. A farmer in the North of England, having occasion to visit a town at some distance on the last day of the year, was benighted, and did not reach home until two o'clock in the morning of New Year's day. Having succeeded in arousing his sleeping household, his eldest daugh- and so on. Who, pray, was this "Irish lady"?


ter put her head out of the window, and inquired who was there. "It's me," said her father. "Well then," quoth she, "you mun go back to where you came from, I'm none going to let you in to-day!" And the unfortunate man actually had to return, until somebody blacker than him

Bolton Percy, near Tadcaster. LORD BYRON'S "IRISH LADY."-In the progress of Lord Byron's description of Haidee he says:

"There was an Irish lady, to whose bust
I ne'er saw justice done, and yet she was
A frequent model ".

Underwood Cottage, Paisley.


- Can any of your readers give me information respecting Colonel Chester, an English officer in Walcheren, who, according to Froude (xi. 16), in 1573, on the free use and

promise of Spanish gold by Alva, undertook for thirty thousand crowns to introduce the Spaniards into that island? The authority for this assertion is a letter in the archives of Simancas from Antonio de Guaras, the Spanish factor in London, to Philip II. Is there any proof that Chester's offer was either accepted or performed? May he not have intended to accept Alva's bribe and then deceive him? The man who could offer to betray one side for money, would as likely be false to his engagement with the other. Who was Thomas Chester the poet, a translator of French romances, in the reign of Henry VI., mentioned in Warton's History of English Poetry, section vi.? Was he related to Richard Chester, one of the envoys of Henry VI. to the court of Rome, and friend and correspondent of Bishop Bekynton? Was this Richard Chester a member of the Chester family which-tempore Elizabeth-was settled at Chicheley in Buckinghamshire ? B. W. G.


WILLIAM COMBE'S HANDWRITING.-I am very desirous of seeing a specimen of the handwriting of William Combe about the year 1770, or even as late as 1779, when he was publishing the Royal Register; and shall be greatly obliged by references to any letters of his of about that date. T. COTTLE FAMILY.-Will any Devon or Dorset correspondent be kind enough to let me know the parentage, &c., of William Cottle, Mayor of Lyme Regis in 1667, or give any information relating to the Cottell or Cottle family of Devon and Somer

set between 1600 and 1700?


12, Upper Camden Place, Bath. DAGTALE BELL.-Will any of your correspondents kindly inform me the origin of the following custom :-A small bell, about nine inches high, called the "Dagtale Bell," was a few years since hung outside the tower of Frodsham church, in Cheshire, about the height of the belfry. On Sundays and other holidays, after the bells had ceased ringing, a man used to look outside the tower, and when he saw the vicar coming instantly rang the little bell. Perhaps other churches were similarly furnished, but the origin of the word "dagtail" appears to me very obscure.


FRENCH COFFINS. I should be much obliged if any reader of "N. & Q." in France would favour me by post with the usual proportions, admeasurements in inches, and design of a French coffin for an adult. I believe the cover is not flat but coped, and that the sides are not nearly so deep as is the case with ours.


Yaxley Vicarage, Suffolk. GROVIER AND STOW FAMILIES.-Wanted, information respecting Priscilla Grovier, wife of

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"Among the keenness of antiquarian research, though too frequently descending to trifles, which distinguishes this generation, would that some antiquarian friend of the Modern Athens would some day lay his hand upon a collection of holograph letters of the famed Lion of the North' Gustavus Adolphus, written to Donald Mackay, the first Lord Reay, lent by the father of the deceased admiral to an individual of eminence in Edinburgh, but, probably by mere accident, never returned subsequently to that gentleman's sudden decease. It is understood

that those letters were of a deeply interesting kind, elucidating the true principles and character of that eminent prince, as well as those of his Scottish auxiliary and associate in warfare, whom Gustavus honoured with his unreserved confidence and intimate personal friendship. The representative havers of such interesting memorials can surely not be any way profited by prolonging their custody of them."

I would like to know where these letters now are, and if there is any likelihood of their being published either in whole or in part. Sir Donald Mackay, first Lord Reay, was one of the most active supporters of Gustavus Adolphus, and his memoirs would form a fitting companion volume to those of Kirkaldy of Grange and Sir John Hepburn. JOHN MACKAY.


MRS. HERVEY.-Can any of your correspondents give me any information as to Mrs. Hervey, the quasi wife of the "great law lion " Thurlow? Campbell, in his ill-written and cynical Life of Lord Thurlow, of whose natural and legal abilities the late lord was, in my opinion, very envious, says very little about her. Had she been of low origin or vicious character, doubtless the late ex

Chief Justice and Chancellor would have noticed such being the case-for he has most industriously narrated everything to the disadvantage of all judges not Scotchmen. Mrs. H. and her Chancellor lived happily together; all their daughters married well; and even Campbell is forced to admit that Thurlow was a good father.

CAMDEN. HOMER.-I have a volume with the title"Homeri Poeta clarissimi Odyssea, Andrea Diuo Justinopolitano interprete, ad verbum translata. Eivsdem Batrachomyomachia, id est, Ranarum & murium

* The Hon. George Mackay of Skibo.

pugna, Aldo Manutio Romano interprete. Eivsdem Hymni Deorum xxxii. Georgio Dartona Cretense interprete. Excudebatur Lugduni Anno domini MDXXXVIII."

I do not find it in Brunet. Is it rare ?

W. F.



A JUNQUR-A few days since I chanced to be in the shop of a shell-fishmonger in Fleet Street, when a man, having the appearance of a respectable farmer, entered and inquired for a "junqur." "A what?" said the shopman. "A junqur," replied the other. "I don't know what you mean. Why, a junqur," was the rejoinder, given with some asperity, as if surprised at the other's stupidity-a junqur," he repeated, "one of them things there," pointing to a number of crabs. Not distinctly catching the word he used, I asked him what it was. He at once repeated it, and then slowly spelt it out to me-junqur. "Where do they use that word for a crab?" I asked, for he spoke with a strong provincial accent which I did not recognise."Why, all round the Kentish coast." "Indeed; I pride myself on being a 'man of Kent,' yet never remember to have heard it before." 66 Ah, you go to Ramsgate and ask for a crab, and they'll tell you it is poison." I shall be glad, sir, if any reader of "N. & Q" can give me some information about this word junqur, and also why the people of Ramsgate consider a crab poisonous. J. D.

ROYAL DESCENT OF THE MACDUFFS. I have always understood, but I do not recollect ever seeing such a statement in any author, that the ancient family of Macduff, Thanes and Earls of Fife, descended from the old Scottish kings. Various writers mention Duff, son of Malcolm I., and the arms of Macduff are-"Or, a lion rampant, gu." the royal arms of Scotland, which also Occupy a prominent place in the coats of the various families claiming descent from the Macduffs. I shall feel obliged if some reader.of "N. & Q." will inform me whether the royal derivation of the Macduffs is mentioned by any writer, or whether there are any grounds, besides those to which I have referred, for presuming it. A. M. S. THE NAME MASEY.-The interesting replies to the inquiry as to the origin of the name of Gough induce me to solicit information as to the meaning, &c., of the name Masey. In Ireland its form is Massey; in France and Italy, Massé and Massi.


MANES.-There are many conjectures as to the derivation of this word-the assumed name of Cabricus, if not the real founder, the great apostle and promulgator of the Manichæan heresy. Cyril traces it to a Persian word meaning speech or eloquence. Epiphanius would claim for it a Babylonian origin, but also hints at the Greek

uavla madness. Professor Lassen is quite decided in his opinion that it comes from the old Persian word manich, signifying "spirit."

I am no polyglottist, but doubtless there are such among the numerous contributors to "N. & Q.," and therefore I do not despair of obtaining a satisfactory reply.

Whatever be its source, we may reasonably presume that the name was adopted with an intentional and direct reference to some of the more prominent tenets of the sect.

EDMUND TEW, M.A. MOTTO.-Whose motto originally was the following, "All things happen to those who wait," Talleyrand's or Napoleon's ?

ETHEL. NEGROES IN AMERICA.-Dr. Smiles states at p. 289 of Self Help, popular edition, that about the time of the American War of Independence, "little slave commuMr. David Barclay had a nity transported to one of the free American States, where they settled down and prospered." I should be glad to ascertain the name of the place where this incident happened, and if the blacks in question have remained an unbroken community till the present day. A. H. POEM.-Can you tell me where I may find the rest of the following poem ?.

"The mountain sheep were sweeter,
But the valley sheep were fatter,
And so we deemed it meeter
To carry off the latter."


church of St. Alphage, Canterbury, is a stone bearing the following inscription:


"Here lyeth the body of the late Revd Mr Le Suer, at first chaplain to the Earl of Lifford's regt: afterwards to a regt called the Portuguese Foot; & lastly, minister to a French Epi'oal Chapel in this city." He died in 1746. Which was the Portuguese Foot? And which was the Earl of Lifford's regiment? GEORGE BEDO.

6, Pulross Road, Brixton. RALEIGH FAMILY.-I have in my possession on a scrap of paper the following copy of a receipt from the above family:

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"Decimo Septimo die Februarii Año 1616.-Received the day & yeare above written in part payment of a greater sum for a certeyne tenemet wth the appurtenance lyinge in Micham in the county of Surrey from Thomas Plummer Esquire the sum of six hundred pounds of lawfull English moneye.' "Witness our hands

"W. Raleigh E. Raleigh W. Raleigh

£ vj. oo."

Can you or any of your readers kindly inform me from what work this copy of receipt was most likely extracted? Whilst I am writing on the

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