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the shortening days and foggy atmosphere, the human system will certainly be more or less deranged, and notably these invaluable Pills exert a greater and more beneficial influence over loss of appetite. dyspepsia, bilious errors, irregularity of the bowels, and nervous disorders, than any other medicine. Their mode of action is thoroughly Consonant with reason. They completely purify the blood, relieve both head and stomach of all faulty functions, and expel all oppressive accumulations from the bowels. With the blood purified, and all poisons purged from the system, regularity must prevail throughout the body, aches and pains must cease, healthful energy must supply weariness, and the shaky nerves must regain their wholesome tone,
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WATSON'S OLD PALE SHERRY.
Amontillado character, pure, very soft, and unbrandied, recommended with confidence. Per dozen, 31s.; bottles and cases 38. per dozen extra (if not returned). Three dozen, railway carriage paid to all England and Wales. Per Cetave-14 galls. (cask included) equal to 7 dozen, 117. 48. A saving of 28. per dozen. Railway carriage paid to all England and Wales. Per Quarter Cask-3 galls. (cask included), equal to 14 dozen, 217. 14s. A saving of 3s. per dozen. Railway carriage paid to all England and Wales.
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At 36s., 428., 48s., and 60s. Hochheimer, Marcobrunner, Rudesheimer, Steinberg, Liebfraumilch. 60s.; Johannisberger and Steinberger, 72s., Sis., to 120s.; Braunberger, Granhausen, and Scharzberg, 483. to 84s.; sparkling Moselle, 485., 605., 66s., 78s.; very choice Champagne, 66s., 788.; fine old Sack, Malmsey, Frontignac, Vermuth, Constantia, Lachryma Christi, Imperial Tokay, and other rare wines. Fine old Pale Cognac Brandy, 60s. and 72s. per dozen. Foreign Liqueurs of every description.
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NOTES:-An Unpublished Page in the Life of Lauder, 83
LONDON, SATURDAY, JANUARY 22, 1870.
REPLIES:- The Battle at Terouenne, 93 Forests, 91-Hanging or Marrying, 95- Bibliography of Punctuation, 96-First-born Son, 97-Sir William Roger, Knight, Ib.- Crests, 98-Duke of Schomberg's Monu ment, 100 James Bissett "Snakes conspicuous by their absence" - An unnoticed Fragment by Dean Swift The Dunmow Flitch-Guild of Masons at Faversham
Abbey-Portrait of Dr. Watts-"The Forest School Magazine" Marriage in a Presbyterian Church-Satyre, 1595-"Three Dialogues on the Amusements of Clergymen -The Laureate's Motto, &c., 101. Notes on Books, &c.
AN UNPUBLISHED PAGE IN THE LIFE OF LAUDER.
In the year 1751 the literary world of London was disturbed by a publication bearing the name of William Lauder, in which the authenticity of the poem of Paradise Lost was challenged. This William Lauder was a Scotch schoolmaster, and seems to have combined (in emulation of another literary charlatan, Macpherson, of "Ossian" notoriety) ingenuity and effrontery in pretty equal proportion; for so eloquently did he plead for truth, and so powerfully represent the immortal author of Paradise Lost as a plagiarist, that after convincing nine-tenths of the former believers in John Milton that the great poet was no poet at all, but a rhapsodist, a stringer of borrowed pearls, a writer of "centos," he actually induced the scrupulous Dr. Samuel Johnson himself to write a preface to this Scotch farrago, which amounted in effect to an exposure of the literary dishonesty of the man whose name alone is permitted to be coupled with that of William Shakespeare. This preface was a crowning device. The fact that the most respectable authority and the oracle of his day had endorsed Lauder's pamphlet caused the greatest confusion; for when Johnson roared, the other animals had learned to hold their peace. Unfortunately for the learned doctor's sententiousness, matters speedily took a
turn which proved the fallibility of the oracle and the impositions of its priest. The unworthy pedagogue was detected, and punished in proportion to the enormity of the fraud. The Rev. John Douglas (then rector of Eaton-Constantine, in Shropshire, and afterwards Lord Bishop of Salisbury, to whom Goldsmith alludes in his "Retaliation," as "the scourge of impostors, the terror of quacks") came out in indignation against Lauder in a conclusive pamphlet (1751) entitled
"Milton vindicated from the Charge of Plagiarism brought against him by Mr. Lauder, and Lauder himself convicted of several Forgeries and gross Impositions on the Public, in a Letter humbly addressed to the Right Honorable the Earl of Bath."
Dr. Douglas was successful in his attack against and exposure of Lauder's interpolations, and so confounded the impostor that an apology, also written by Johnson, who must have felt himself not a little compromised in the matter, was published, and addressed to the worthy rector, in which Lauder confesses to the interpolations, though he gives no satisfactory reason for the fraud. He pleads a species of insanity diverted into deception, while he repudiates all vindictiveness against Milton's poetical or political fame. The whole apology is remarkably lame, and has none of that strength and firmness of tone which characterises Johnson's writings. Sir John Hawkins owns that he cannot reconcile the two contra
dictory opinions uttered by Johnson upon Milton's character and works, and it must be confessed that, prima facie, the learned doctor stands convicted of inconsistency. But we must refer our readers to the account of this remarkable episode as it is given in Boswell's Life of Johnson (edit. Malone), and to Johnson's Philological and Miscellaneous Tracts, where preface and apology are printed side by side. This exposure had the desired effect. His friends disgusted, and the literary world incensed, Lauder was compelled to quit his country, and after some wandering he sought shelter in the island of Barbados-a spot famous as a refuge for many important (as well as unimportant) offenders. Victims of political persecution in the matter of the Jacobite cause escaped and were exiled thither continually, till, as Carlyle has it, the name of the place and the denomination of the punishment became identical; for the phrase of warning to offenders was, "We will Barbados them."
To return, however, to Lauder: this worthy at first opened a grammar-school, but either failing in this speculation, or with the desire to dismiss any association with his former life, he took a huckster's shop in the "Roebuck," which he conducted with the aid of an African woman whom he had purchased, and by whom he had one daughter, Rachel, afterwards celebrated as "Hostess Palgreen" of the Royal Naval Hotel.
Lauder's conduct to his offspring was what might have been expected from the debasing effects produced on the mind by the power given to us over our fellow-creatures by holding them in bondage. The ties of blood were forgotten in the authority of the master, and in his daughter Lauder only recognised the slave. The girl, however, to her honour be it spoken, repulsed his unnatural advances so successfully, that Lauder, enraged at her insubordination, ordered his unhappy daughter into the hands of one of the mercenary "whippers"-a class now long extinct-with instructions to administer castigation. Rachel was already awaiting the first blow, tied up outside the shop-door, when, to the glory of romance, an officer of the British navy who was passing at the moment rushed upon the relentless executioner, tore the whip from his hands, and carried off bodily the rescued victim.
The officer in question, this "Deus ex machinâ," was no other than Captain Pringle of H.M.'s ship Centaur, who, not many years afterwards, was himself almost miraculously saved from shipwreck. Lauder, irritated and provoked that his victim had thus escaped, and viewing her now merely as a slave, sought redress of the captain by causing him to be arrested under the "Detinue Act.' But eventually our hero purchased Rachel from her father at an exorbitant price, and manumitted her. Nor did his protection of the interesting young girl end here; he established her in a small house at the lower end of the town, which by her industry was afterwards enlarged, and it ultimately became the celebrated hotel of which we have made mention, and the temporary residence of a prince who succeeded to the throne of Great Britain and Ireland under the style and title of "William the Fourth." Certain buoyant traits in this distinguished personage's habits relating to our heroine Rachel will be recorded in their place. Soon after her establishment in business some peccadillo, of which she was the prime agent, so incensed Captain Pringle that he broke off any further intercourse with his protégée, and shortly sailed for Jamaica; and it was when homeward bound from that island that the Centaur foundered at sea, and her commander, with eight or nine of the surviving crew, after enduring unparalleled sufferings in the long-boat, reached England in safety.
Rachel, however, did not refuse to be comforted because of her lover's desertion, but surrendered at discretion to the Deputy-ProvostMarshal Palgreen, who bestowed that addition to her name by which she was ever afterwards known-Rachel Pringle Palgreen. She now began to give symptoms of that embonpoint which progressively ballooned to those dimensions which in due time filled the great arm-chair at the door of her hotel.
Hostess Palgreen was in her glory when the Pegasus frigate with Prince William on board anchored, on November 24, 1786, in Carlisle Bay. Barbados is a very loyal island, and it has been a favourite spot for cruising princes to take their ease in. At the time of which we write there was more wealth with which to give substantial expression to loyalty than in these free-trade days. Not, however, to enter upon comparisons between the halcyon and the degenerate days of Barbados, we will go on to say that the cheerful lieutenant was received uproariously. Balls, dinners, entertainments, fêtes public and private, perpetually succeeded each other, and the proverbial West Indian profusion was to be seen in perfection. Hostess Palgreen was in the highest degree important at this season, and expected some of the crumbs of the royal favour to be thrown to her as hotel-keeper. Her turn came in due course. His Royal Highness had on one particular occasion dined with the mess of the 49th regiment then on the station, and returning to the hotel in the evening rather more than "half seas over," and accompanied by certain choice spirits of both services, commenced a royal frolic by breaking the furniture, and, by the cooperation of his boon companions, carried on the intellectual sport with such activity that in a couple of hours every article was completely demolished; the very beds were cut open, and their contents ejected into the street, after the fashion of a mimic snowstorm. Crack went pier-glasses, chandeliers, and lamps; smash went decanters, goblets, and crockery-all perished in the havoc; while the sly impassive Rachel, like a female Marius, sat amid the ruins of her hotel, smiling at grief and counting the damages. One after another her servants came running to her to announce some new outrage, but our stoical hostess moved not. As each communication was made, she would smile grimly and answer-"Go 'long, man! aint he king's son? if he no do what he like, I like for know who can do 'em! let he 'lone, let he 'muse heself-dauna king's sonbless he heart!" with many other like expressions of indifference coupled with loyalty. It was, however, now time for the prince to return on board, and as he was almost sated with his princely sport and had literally "cleared the decks," he began to think of taking his departure, when he encountered Rachel still sitting, as we have described, at the door of her dismantled hotel. The temptation was too much for the prince in his then condition of bilarity; so, as a crowning joke, he upset her and her chair together and ran off, leaving her unwieldy body prone at her own threshold, to the ineffable amusement of the surrounding crowds.
"Woden and Thor, each tottering in his shrine, Fell broken and defaced at his own door."
Nevertheless, our fat hostess evinced no sign of anger even at this last escapade, but called after the prince in her lustiest tones" Massa William Prince, you come back to-morrow see what mischief you bin do!" and then, after much floundering, she was reinstated.
The morning came, and Rachel heard that the Pegasus was to sail in the afternoon for St. Vincent. Instantly she collected her friends together, and directed them to take an inventory of the breakages, reserving to herself the privilege of assessing the damages; and before the sun was over the foreyard of the frigate, one of the satellites of the hotel was on board with a full, true (?), and particular account of the loss, &c. with a humble petition for indemnity, the damages being appraised at the trifling sum of seven hundred pounds sterling. The generous prince made no question of the correctness of the document, but sent her an order for the full valuation, which was duly paid, and Rachel was thereby enabled to furnish the Royal Naval Hotel with more splendour than ever. William Lauder died very miserably in Barbados in the year 1771. R. REECE.
THE DOLPHIN ON A ROMAN ALTAR.
Two dolphins are sculptured on the capital of a fine Roman altar, dedicated to the god Silvanus, which was recently found near Stanhope, in the county of Durham, and was described at the last meeting of the Newcastle Society of Antiquaries. The altar having been dedicated by the præfect Aurelius Quirinus, who was in Weardale in the reign of the Emperor Gordian, it may be taken to have been sculptured between 238 and 244 A.D. It is, perhaps, worthy of remark (although not material to the subject of the present note), that another altar, dedicated to the same divinity, was also discovered at Stanhope. This altar, which was found on the moors near that place in 1749, was dedicated by another Roman præfect the killing a very large boar." If a dolphin occurred also on this altar, some connection of that animal with the god Silvanus would be suggested.* It occurs, however, on two other altars not dedicated to him. One of them was found at Housesteads, and is now in the Museum
of the Society of Antiquaries at Newcastle; and the other is mentioned by Horsley to have been found at the adjacent station of Caervoran. So that the dolphin appears to have a significance, whether connected with Silvanus or not.
In describing the altar to Silvanus recently found at Stanhope, Dr. Bruce did not offer any elucidation as to the meaning of the dolphin, and merely said he had no doubt it was "symbolic of some article of faith or of some sentiment"; and he referred to its occurrence upon Etruscan cinerary urns, as (for example) on one in the Museum at Volterra. He suggested that, when used on a sepulchral urn, it may have "6 expressed the fleeting nature of human life." The dolphin might certainly well stand as an emblem of fleetness, for, according to Pliny, it is the swiftest of animals; but it can hardly, when used on a votive altar, have had the significance suggested.
But although there is not any apparent connection between the dolphin and the god of woods and boundaries, may not the following considerations elucidate its occurrence upon an altar dedicated to that divinity? To Silvanus the Tyrrhenian Pelasgians are said to have dedicated, in the earliest times, a grove and a festival; and the dolphin was actually called Tyrrhenus piscis, in consequence, as it would seem, of the fable about Dionysus and the pirates.f Possibly, therefore, in the dedication of this altar to Silvanus, and the delineation of a dolphin upon it, we see the vitality of a Tyrrhenian tradition fact that Greek traditions fell into oblivion after among the Romans of the Empire. The Tyrrhenia became subject to Rome (which it did five centuries before this altar was dedicated) has no great weight in an opposite direction, for the Tyrrheni undoubtedly exercised great influence on the Romans, their modern rivals.
But, apart from Pelasgian tradition, the dolphin is singularly enough brought into connection with Silvanus by the fact that the god of woods and flocks is described as being fond of music; for the dolphin became an emblem of Apollo, the god of music and all the arts, by reason of the god having, as it was fabled, once assumed the form of a dolphin. It is remarkable, too, that it was believed, as Pliny tells us in his Natural History, that the dolphin is pleased by music. Again, as the dolphin was the common symbol of
* Eneid, viii. 600:
"Silvano fama est veteres sacrasse Pelasgos, Arvorum pecorisque Deo," &c.
The descendants of the Pelasgian Tyrrhenians, coming from the Egean Sea, brought (it is to be remembered) purely Greek religion and institutions to Etruria.
The dolphin of the Pelasgi may possibly have some connection with Dagon, the fish-god of the Philistine idolatry.
Book IX. ch. viii.
"Dî pia facta vident. Astris Delphina recepit Jupiter, et stellas jussit habere novem." Hence (as a noble and accomplished friend has suggested to me) the dolphin on these Roman altars may possibly indicate that they were dedicated under the influence of the constellation Delphinus.
The dolphin was commonly the symbol of the waters. In Greece it was therefore taken by the early navigators for their emblem, as the tunny was by the Phoenicians. In the oldest mystic symbolism, fish were the natural emblems of the productive power of the waters, being more prolific than any other creatures. On Greek coins the bull is placed sometimes between two dolphins, and in some instances upon a dolphin, while in other cases the Minotaur, or a more humanised representation of the god, occurs within a scroll meant to represent the waters. So, perhaps the dolphin on the altar found at Stanhope may be an emblem of the adjacent river, and indicate that its waters were frequented by sea-fish.
The dolphin was frequently introduced in ancient architecture and sculpture. According to Pausanias, the daughter of Ceres by Neptune was represented, in a cave of Phigalè, in Arcadia, holding on one hand a dolphin, and on the other a dove-both creatures of mystic symbolism. The Medicean Venus, just rising from the sea, is supported by a dolphin. From ancient times it has
* As protector of the limits of land, Silvanus is addressed by Horace in the second epode
"Qua muneratur te, Priape, et te, Pater Sylvane, tutor finium."
This god occurs more than once in Horace. The offerings made to him were according to the season and to the need for his assistance. Thus, for increase of grain they offered ears of corn; for fruitful vintage they made an offering of grapes; and for a blessing on their flocks they offered milk.
been, as it still is, a favourite ornament of fountains. The columns of the Flaminian Circus in Rome were wreathed with dolphins, as we learn from Juvenal * :
"Consulit ante phalas delphinorumque columnas." It has been said † that the dolphin signified Vesamong the Romans dispatch in business. pasian, we are told, ordered a dolphin twisting about an anchor to be represented on some of his coins, "importing thereby both tarditas and festinatio." Whatever may have been its origin, this symbol (of the dolphin and the anchor) has become a very familiar one.
The dolphin, when it occurs on sepulchral urns or monuments, seems to have quite another emblematic meaning. In a tomb in the cemetery of Perugia is a disk with solar rays and a large dolphin in relief-a representation, apparently, of the sun rising from the waves, and an apt emblem of resurrection. The dolphin is a common ornament in Etruscan sepulchres, and is supposed to have a symbolic reference to a double life. Mr. Dennis, however, says that it has also been taken as emblematic of the maritime power of the Etruscans, and as marking a city which had a port, as it does on the coins of Volterra.
It is worthy of remark that the dolphin occurs on some of the sculptured stones of Scotlandthose ancient monuments of the Caledonians, probably a kindred Indo-European race. The dolphin so constantly meets us in Christian art and sculpture that it must have acquired, at an early period, a sacred symbolism. It was accounted the holy fish, perhaps from its legendary connection with Apollo; but it acquired a holier signification in the art of the Catacombs if the dolphin was the ixeùs that stood for the name of the Saviour.§ WM. SIDNEY GIBSON.
believe, that published in Glasgow in the year The last edition of Allan Ramsay's Evergreen is, edition of 1764, which does not profess to be other 1824. It is, I believe, simply a reprint of the than a reprint of the original edition of 1724. The edition of 1824 has a glossary, but all the editions
The fact that
are without note or comment. Hardyknute appears in the second volume
*Sat. vi. 589.
scribing the altar found at Caervoran, on which the + Horsley, Brit. Rom. p. 231, refers to this in dedolphin occurs.
Instances at Upper Manbean, in Elgin, and at Monifieth may be seen in the engravings given in the Spalding Club books.
+ Fasti, book ii. 1. 78, and end of the tale.
§ This ancient anagram became symbolical of Christ, because, as is well known, the letters composing it are
† As cited in Knight's Essay on the Symbolic Language | the first letters of the words 1ΗΣΟΥΣ ΧΡΙΣΤΟΣ ΘΕΟΥ of Ancient Art, &c.