in the island of Gothland, also of the same meaning, correspond to the second form. In Dutch there is spalten, and in German spalten, dialectically spellen, to split; and the French épeler, to spell, springs probably from the same root. In Danish the word is unknown.


CARNAC (4th S. iv. 283.)-May I suggest that it would be well if contributors to "N. & Q." on local subjects should state if they are personally acquainted with the spots; and if not, on whose authority they describe and discuss them? If I did not know Carnac from my own observation, I should fancy from C. W.'s remarks that the stones "stand upon their smaller ends in rows, circles, and semicircles." Who ever found stones in Brittany on their smaller ends? or who knows to what a depth any of the lower ends are buried? and on what authority does C. W. speak of them as circles? I am quite aware that there are many fancy views of Carnac-one in Leisure Hour some years ago was the worst that I ever saw; and there, I think, the stones were made to stand on their smaller ends, but even there not in circles. LÆLIUS.


SIR BRIAN TUKE (4th S. iv. 313, 489; v. 24.) My note does not say that Sir Brian Tuke died in 1536, but only that it is so stated in Stow. My accuracy therefore is not affected, whether in fact Sir Brian died in 1536, as Stow says, or in 1545, as MR. PIGGOT says, or in 1547, as MR. NEWSOME implies. I observe that Nichols says he died on Oct. 26, 1536. (Literary Anecdotes, ix. 163.) I hope that MR. NEWSOME will clear up all doubts by sending an abstract of Sir Brian's will to "N. & Q."

TEWARS. Sir Brian could not have died in 1536, as Stow states; for in February 1540, Henry VIII. granted him the manor of South Weald, Essex, and the Irectory for the sum of 8837. 6s. 8d., to hold in capite by the twentieth part of a knight's fee. He had three sons, Maximilian, Charles, George; and three daughters, Elizabeth (wife of Sir R. Scott), Alianor (wife of John Maynard of London), and Mary (wife of George Touchet, Lord Audley). Maximilian and Charles, according to Morant, both died without issue-the latter, March 29, 1547. George, the third son, then twenty-three years old, succeeded, and married Margaret, daughter of W. Morice, of Chipping Ongar. JOHN PIGGOT, JUN.


ANN ASKEW (4th S. iv. 453, 571.)-I am rather surprised to find Foxe referred to as 'the authority," having believed that, unconfirmed, he was no authority whatever. I have not taken this view on my own investigations, so I quote an opinion and a fact::

"The learned Dean (Dr. Hook in the Lives of the Archbishops) informs us, that some years ago he had occasion to consult the late Dr. Maitland as to the amount of credit due to Foxe the martyrologist. Dr. Maitland answered: You must not believe him when speaking of an opponent. Foxe forgot, if he ever knew, who was the father of lies.""-Saturday Review, Feb. 15, 1868, p. 208.

I have omitted a few words which do not bear upon this matter.

"Prick, a clergyman, in preaching a sermon, recited the following story out of Foxe's Martyrology; namely, that one Greenwood, being a perjured person and a great persecutor, had great plagues inflicted on him, and was killed by the hand of God. An action having been brought by Greenwood, who was present at the sermon, it was ruled by Wray, Ch. J., before whom the case was tried, that as the words had only been recited as a story, Prick was not guilty of publishing them maliciously, and he was found not guilty. The opinion of Wray, Ch. J., was afterwards affirmed to be good law, and judgment was given for the defendant."-Prick's Case, Cro. Jac. 21; vii. Bacon's Abridgment, 282, ed. 1832.

Foxe wrote when accuracy was almost unknown and truth little cared for. Was he much worse than other polemical historians?

H. B. C.

Cuyler of Uitenhage, in the Cape Colony, within a few miles of Port Elisabeth, is preserved with great care a very interesting relic, namely, the portraits of the general's parents, painted by Major André while he was a prisoner at Albany, N.Y., of which city General Cuyler's father, an American lay artist, had been mayor. It is recorded in his Life that he drew his own portrait (engraved in Sparke's Life and Treason of André) on the morning originally intended for his execution.

H. H.


MAJOR ANDRÉ (4th S. iv. 387, 543.)-As anything in connection with Major André must be of interest, few perhaps of your readers are aware that, in the family of the late Major-General

CARDINAL RICHELIEU (4th S. v. 15.) — A READER will find a detailed, perhaps a somewhat embellished account of the Cardinal's fantastic appearance before Anne of Austria, the Duchess de Chevreuse, &c., in the first vol. of Louis XIV. et son Siècle, par Alexandre Dumas, p. 41. The book includes the reigns of Louis XIV., the Regent Louis XV., and Louis XVI., and consists of sixteen small volumes-not perhaps a high historical authority, but very amusing. It will, at all events, supply what your correspondent A READER wants.

C. H. C.

POSITION OF THE CREED, ETC., IN CHURCHES (4th S. v. 31.)-In reply to MR. KIRKPATRICK'S query, may not the existence of the creed on the west wall of the nave of West Hoathly church be accounted for on the supposition that at the time of the Reformation the communion-table was placed in the very opposite position to that previously occupied by the altar, in order the more

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By a geometrical and analytical investigation the author has arrived at the following result (p. 181): "The equatorial diameter of all atoms is the same; namely, 2000000th part of an inch." To understand this author thoroughly, the reader must master pp. 121-190; and I think he will agree with me that the result is more important even than Dalton's theory of definite proportions. T. J. BUCKTON.

ARTHUR BARNARDISTON (4th S. iv. 337, 492.) It turns out that I was right in doubting whether Arthur Barnardiston, who married at Westminster Abbey in 1671-2, could be the Master in Chancery of 1655; for it has been found that the Master's will is dated Nov. 10, 1655, and was

proved in the Prerogative Court on Dec. 19 in the same year. The testator mentions his brother Sir Nathaniel, and must therefore have been the son of Sir Thomas Barnardiston of Witham, who, in his will dated July 29, 1610, speaks of "my second son Arthur." I observe that all the Baronetages make him younger than his brother Thomas; but his father must have known best whether Arthur

was his second or third son; and his filiation is correctly stated in Mr Almack's interesting account of the family in the 4th vol. of the Suffolk Archæologia.

TEWARS. CROMWELL AND MILTON: "BELGICUS POETA" (4th S. ii. 606.)-Although it is an awkward task to explain one or two isolated lines of poetry, I give you the translation as near as I possibly can:

"Does any one amongst you mean to say that devil and hell is there? Yes, to throw oil in the fire, to do injustice, and to murder is considered right there."

I do not know the name of the "Belgicus Poeta," but the spelling shows that he lived in a northern province of the Netherlands.


"THERE WERE THREE LADIES PLAYING AT BALL" (1st S. vi. 53; 2nd S. v. 171; 4th S. iv. 396, 517; v. 23.)-Will Vox allow me to draw his attention to the ballad of "The Cruel Sister" in the Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border, iii. 287, edition 1861, and also printed at 387 et seq. of that finely illustrated volume The Book of British Ballads, edited by S. C. Hall. The body of the younger sister, who had been drowned by her rival, the elder sister, in the "bonny mill-dams of Binnorie," is discovered by a famous harper. He makes a harp of her breast-bone, with strings of her yellow hair; and before the assembled court the harp, untouched by human hand, begins sad strains of melancholy music:

"But the last tune that the harp played then,
Binnorie, O Binnorie!
Was 'Woe to my sister, false Helen!
By the bonny mill-dams of Binnorie.""

What a fine illustration of spiritualism!
Bolton Percy, near Tadcaster.

METROPOLITAN (4th S. iv. 572.) - Lyndwood "Dicitur archiepiscopus re(de Panis) says:spectu episcoporum quorum princeps et summus est; metropolitanus verò dicitur respectu civitatum "The city in in quibus constituuntur episcopatus. which is an archiepiscopal see is the metropolis; hence we speak of the metropolitical churches of York and Canterbury. The Bishop of London is only dean of the college of bishops in the province of Canterbury. So Frances (de Cathedralibus) says:-"Inter Christianos metropolitanæ civitates appellantur quæ habent archiepiscopum," pro (P. 61). The learned Beveridge affirms ". certo autem habemus ex explorato Doroberniam sive Cantuariam Anglorum metropoliticam perpetuo fuisse ecclesiam, ex quo illi ad fidem Christianam conversi sunt." He confirms his position by the absurd argument of Gilbert, bishop of London, who claimed for his see the title of metropolis because the archflamens once resided in it; and, alluding to the apparent contradiction, “quòd eadem hodiè non sit ecclesiæ atque regni metropolis, sed hujus quidem Londinum, illius autem Cantuaria," solves it by the fact that at the coming of St. Augustine, Canterbury and not London was the civil metropolis. (Works, vol. xii. c. v.) The modern use of "metropolitan " in some of the colonial sees has its apt parallel in the sublime ignorance which created "honorary



In a word, London is the civil metropolis of the realm, and Canterbury the ecclesiastical metropolis of its larger and southern province; but the Bishop of London is not bishop of the metropolis, although his see is in the capital (prima civitas) of England. It is the old story of the gold and silver shield.



APPARITION OF OLD BOOTY AT STROMBOLI (4th S. v. 31.)-I thought that I had laid Booty's ghost in "N. & Q." (1st S. iii. 170), but he still I do not know what is meant by "the King's Bench records." What and where are they? If any one will tell me I will go to ¡look at them. I know what the record in a cause is, and am confident that none was made up in Booty's case, because none could be-" actio personalis moritur cum persona. 99 An executrix, by the English law, never could maintain an action for slander of her testator. I may also remark that the position of the attorney who arrested and held to bail a defendant in a suit for unliquidated damages would have been unpleasant if brought before the court. H. B. C.

U. U. Club.

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NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. Some Account of Gothic Architecture in Spain, by George Edmund Street, A.R.A., Honorary Member of the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts, Vienna. Second Edition. (Murray.)

It may be doubted whether Mr. Street has conferred greater obligations upon his professional brethren or upon all students of the history of Christian art, by the publication of the handsome and instructive volume of which the second edition is now before us. The book is the result of the author's feeling that part of the duty which every artist owes to his mother art is to study its developments wherever they are to be seen and whenever they can find the opportunity. Acting upon this feeling, Mr. Street has devoted considerable labour, and made several long journeys to Spain for the purpose of studying on the spot the development of Gothic architecture in that country during the artistic impulse which wrought such wonders all over Europe in the twelfth, thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries. Regarding the interest of the subject as threefold-first, artistic and archæological; secondly, historical; and lastly, personal-Mr. Street has arranged the notes of his several journeys in the form of one continuous tour; he then furnishes a general résumé of the history of architecture in Spain; and lastly, gives us some account of the men who as architects and builders furnished him with the materials for his work. An appendix, containing catalogues of dated examples, and of Spanish architects and builders, and documents illustrative of the construction and mode of payment for construction of some of the more important buildings, gives completeness to a volume, which not only dispels the ignorance which has hitherto prevailed in this country as to the true history and nature of Gothic architecture

in Spain, but furnishes, we have reason to believe, a fuller and more accurate account of it than is to be found in any Spanish work upon the subject.

The Roxburghe Ballads. With short Notes by William Chappell, Esq., F.S.A., Author of "Popular Music of the Olden Time," &c.; and Copies of the Original Woodcuts, drawn by Mr. Rudolph Blind and Mr. W. H. Hooper, and engraved by Mr. E. F. Rimbault and Mr. W. H. Hooper. Vol. I., Part I. (Printed for the Ballad Society.)

It is with unfeigned satisfaction that we congratulate the subscribers to the Ballad Society on the publication of the book before us. We do so, not only because it affords evidence that better counsels are prevailing in the management of the Society, but also because the book is exactly such a book as the Society was established for the purpose of printing. Of the value and interest of the well-known collection of Roxburghe Ballads there can be no question, and that their careful republication will be a good service to literature is equally evident. Nor is it less evident, from the specimen before us, that Mr. Chappell will accomplish this desirable object. The Part now issued contains no less than forty-four ballads, very varied in their character and merits, but all valuable as

illustrations of old manners, customs, feelings, and modes of thought. They are severally introduced by literary notices; for the most part brief, but to the point, and containing just the information which the reader expects to receive from a judicious editor, which Mr. Chappell has proved himself to be. Nor ought the fac-similes of the woodcuts to be passed over without notice. They are capitally executed, and add to the interest and value of a book, which is alike creditable to the editor and to the Society, and will, we should think, be the means of securing many new names to the list of its members.

The Academy announces the discovery, by Mr. Thomas Wright, in the Library of Corpus Christi, of an alphabetical Vocabulary with Anglo-Saxon explanations, which Mr. Wright considers of the eighth century, and to have been originally composed for the use of the clergy of Canterbury Cathedral. It will be printed in the second volume of Mr. Wright's Collection of Vocabularies.

An attempt is being made to renew the agitation for throwing open the Reading Room of the British Museum in the evening, and the influence of Parliament is to be evoked in furtherance of the scheme. We hope Parliament, the Government, and the Museum authorities, will well consider the dangers which would attend such a proceeding, and how utterly would be the loss which a fire would entail upon the great National Library. If any attempt is to be made to supply students in London with an evening reading-room, it should be in an establishment distinct and separate from the British Museum; but to the formation of which the Museum might be called to contribute all books of general interest of which there are duplicates in the National Collection.

Calendar of the Clarendon State Papers preserved in the Bodleian Library, Vol. II., from the Death of Charles I. 1649, to the end of the Year 1654. Edited by the Rev. W. Dunn Macray, M.A., under the direction of the Rev. H. O. Coxe, M.A., Bodley's Librarian. (Clarendon Press.)

Although the second volume in point of arrangement, this is the first issued, and the editor very naturally and properly reserves his account of the growth of the collection of papers here calendared, and how it came into the possession of the University of Oxford, for the preface to his first volume. Mr. Macray, who has prepared his calendar in general accordance with the Calendars of State Papers published under the direction of the Master

of the Rolls, explains how much time has been occupied in the arrangement and incorporation of a large mass of unsorted, and in many instances undated papers, but adds, that it is chiefly among these hitherto unexamined papers that new matter of general interest occurs. For instance, amongst these are some very interesting letters showing how, in spite of a promise of non-interference which she had given the King, Henrietta Maria was endeavouring to force the Duke of Gloucester into a Jesuit College, and to effect his conversion to the Church of Rome. This is only one of the many curious points illustrated in the present volume. There can be little doubt of the great value which Mr. Macray's judiciously executed Calendar, with its ample index, will prove, when completed, to all historical students.

BOOKS RECEIVED.-Vestiges of the Historic AngloHebrews in East Anglia, with Appendices and an Apropos Essay by the Rev. M. Margoliouth, LL.D. &c. (Longmans.) A curious essay on a bronze vessel of great antiquity, with Hebrew inscriptions, which the author contends was used for the collection of alms.

The Garroche Party; being literary Estimates of Political France, by Blanchard Jerrold (Hotten), consists of a series of sketches of the methods and forms of political contention among our neighbours, written with freedom and ability.


Examination of Conscience upon special Subjects, translated and abridged from the French of Trouson, edited by the Rev. Orby Shipley, M.A. (Rivington), is a new volume of The Ascetic Library." The author was Superior of the Seminary of St.-Sulpice; and the translation has been considerably abridged in substance, and wholly re-arranged in form, to make it more practically useful to English churchmen.

The second part of MR. MACLEAN's "Parochial History of Cornwall," "The Deanery of Minver," is nearly completed, and will very soon be delivered to the subscribers.

A Translation of Bibliophile Jacob's (Paul Lacroix) well-known work on "The Arts of the Middle Ages and of the Renaissance Period," illustrated with chromolithographs and numerous woodcuts, is announced by MESSRS. CHAPMAN & HALL.

LONDON AND MIDDLESEX ARCHEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. The series of evening meetings for the present year commenced on Monday last at University College, Gower Street, and will subsequently be held, as heretofore, on the second Monday in each month. Among the papers for the sessions the following promises have already been received: ·1 "The last Ten Years of Halliwell Priory," by the Rev. T. Hugo; "Sir William Harper, Mayor, 1561," by Mr. J. Gough Nichols; "On Ancient Musical Instruments," Mr. J. Sachs; "The Holbourne," Mr. J. G. Waller; "Remarks on the Conduits of Old London," Mr. A. White; "St. Benet's Church, Gracechurch Street," Mr. T. Milbourn, Hon. Sec.; "An Account of the Aldermen of the various Wards of the City of London, from 1275 to the present Time," Mr. B. B. Orridge; "Some Particulars of the Public Career of Alderman Sir Roger Martin, Master of the Mint," Mr. B. B. Orridge; "Tavern Signs and Signboards," Mr. W. H. Overall; "Memorials of the Great Fire of London," Mr. J. E. Price.

CURIOSITIES OF THE "POST OFFICE LONDON DIRECTORY."-In the Commercial Department of the new Post Office London Directory, which has just been published, and is 2,364 pages in extent, besides 300 more of advertisements, the family of Brown or Browne reaches about 800; the Joneses appear to be a little in excess_even of that number; while the Smiths, Smyths, and Smythes muster, at least, 1,600 strong. There are at least 450

Whites and about 350 Greens to only 24 Blacks and 21 Greys, though the other variety of that colour can produce a roll of about 100 names. The "Knights" and the "Days" occupy a little under two columns each; and the Johnsons, Johnstons, and Johnstones, together a little over six columns; there are nearly four columns of Robertses, four columns of Robinsons, and nearly five more of Thompsons and Tomsons; the Turners occupy nearly four columns, the Wards upwards of three, and the Woods another four. The list of names in letter Z reaches a column; but these are nearly all foreigners. In the "Court" Directory, of course, these proportions are not kept up in a corresponding degree, though even there there are six columns of Smiths-in other words, a total of 600.

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"Man cannot live without my first." appeared in our 3rd S. vi. 497, but without eliciting the answer. The answer to the other riddle inquired after is very gross.

OMICRON. The passage commencing

"See from the brake the whirring pheasant springs," is from Pope's Windsor Forest, line 111, et seq.

JUNIUS AGAIN! (antè, p. 7.) Owing to some error in the transcript of the very judicious critical remarks of the late Mr. Dodwell on the claim of Sir P. Francis to the authorship of The Letters of Junius, the two following important passages were so obscure, that the shortest and best way to correct them will be to print them entire. They are as follows in Mr. Browne's Note Book:

"I have doubts whether the most ardent friendship could place Francis so high as mediocrity; but quite sure I am that he never doubled that Cape. In all heats, tempests, and affrays during his long parliamentary career, not a spark of fire dropped from him that could be associated with ordinary genius, much less with this superlative meteor."

"When insulted by the Leviathan of India, Francis had drawn his sword and overcome; in his place wary Junius, &c."

COCKADES. There is no law regulating the use of Cockades, but the Black Cockade, the badge of the Hanoverian House, is generally worn by the servants of officers in the Army and Navy, of members of the Royal Household, and of all those who hold the Queen's commission.

SIGMA. Henry Scougal, author of The Life of God in the Soul of Man, was the second son of Patrick Scougal, Bishop of Aberdeen.. For an explanation of the phrase" the gift of the gab," see "N. & Q." 3rd S. xi. 337.

C. H. N. The question whether St. Luke was a painter himself, or only commemorated as a patron of painters, has been ably discussed in "N. & Q." 3rd S. iii. 188, 234, 274, 287; iv. 220, 336.

E. S. The weather legend of St. Bibiana is noticed in "N. & Q." 3rd S. viii. 453, 508.

G. MILES (Bingham) has not forwarded the title of his "old book," 1493.

A Reading Case for holding the weekly numbers of "N. & Q." is now ready, and may be had of all Booksellers and Newsmen, price 1s. Gd.; or, free by post, direct from the Publisher, for Is. 8d.

**Cases for binding the Volumes of "N. & Q." may be had of the Publisher, and of all Booksellers and Newsmen.

"NOTES AND QUERIES" is published at noon on FRIDAY, and is also issued in MONTHLY PARTS. The Subscription for STAMPED COPIES for Six Months forwarded direct from the Publisher (including the Halfyearly INDEX) is 11s. 4d.. which may be paid by Post Office Order, payable at the Strand Post Office, in favour of WILLIAM G. SMITH, 43, WELLINGTON STREET, STRAND, W.C., where also all COMUNICATIONS FOR THE EDITOR should be addressed.

MODERN INVENTIONS. That great invention the "Chronograph," which times all the principal events of the day, and has superseded the old-fashioned" Stop-watch,' that still more useful invention the "Keyless Watch." The fact of no seems likely to be eclipsed in fame by key being required renders these Watches indispensable to the traveller, the nervous, and invalids. The enormous number sent even by post to all parts of the world, is a convincing proof of their great utility. The prices range from 5 to 100 guineas. Thousands of them are manufactured by Mr. J. W. BENSON, of Old Bond Street, and of the Steam Factory, Ludgate Hill, London, who sends post free for 2d. a most interesting historical pamphlet upon watch-making.

"NOTES & QUERIES" is registered for transmission abroad.

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NOTE PAPER, Cream or Blue, 3s., 4s., 58., and 68. per ream.
ENVELOPES, Cream or Blue, 4s. 6d., 58. 6d., and 6s. 6d. per 1,000.
THE TEMPLE ENVELOPE, with High Inner Flap, 18. per 100.
STRAW PAPER-Improved quality, 2s. 6d. per ream.
FOOLSCAP, Hand-made Outsides, 8s. 6d. per ream.
BLACK-BORDERED NOTE, 4s. and 68. 6d. per ream.
BLACK-BORDERED ENVELOPES, 18. per 100-Super thick quality.
TINTED LINED NOTE, for Home or Foreign Correspondence (five
colours), 5 quires for 1s. 6d.

COLOURED STAMPING (Relief), reduced to 48. 6d. per ream, or 83. 6d. per 1,000. Polished Steel Crest Dies engraved from 5s. Monograms, two letters, from 58.; three letters, from 78. Business or Address Dies, from 38. SERMON PAPER, plain, 4s. per ream; Ruled ditto, 4s. 6d. SCHOOL STATIONERY supplied on the most liberal terms.

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allowed by upwards of 200 Medical Gentlemen to be the most effective invention in the curative treatment of HERNIA. The use of a steel spring, so hurtful in its effects, is here avoided; a soft bandage being worn round the body, while the requisite resisting power is supplied by the MOC-MAIN PAD and PATENT LEVER fitting with so much ease and closeness that it cannot be detected, and may be worn during sleep. A descriptive circular may be had, and the Truss (which cannot fail to fit) forwarded by post on the circumference of the body, two inches below the hips, being sent to the Manufacturer.


Price of a Single Truss, 16s., 218., 268. 6d., and 31s. 6d. Postage Is.
Double Truss, 31s. 6d., 42s., and 52s. 6d. Postage 1s. 8d.
An Umbilical Truss, 428. and 52s. 6d. Postage 1s. 10d.


Post Office orders to be made payable to JOHN WHITE, Piccadilly.

VARICOSE VEINS, and all cases of WEAKNESS and SWELLING of the LEGS, SPRAINS, &c. They are porous, light in texture, and inexpensive, and are drawn on like an ordinary stocking. Price from 4s. 6d., 78. 6d., 108., to 168. each. Postage 6d. JOHN WHITE, MANUFACTURER, 228, PICCADILLY, London

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