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of all students and connoisseurs of art. Her Majesty, with her usual kindness and liberality, has been pleased to grant a pension of 801. per annum to Mrs. Woodward. It is hoped, however, that many will gladly hail an opportunity of manifesting their sympathy with his bereaved family, and of contributing to alleviate in some measure the privations which Mr. Woodward's sudden death has necessarily entailed upon those who were nearest and dearest to him. William Smith, Esq., of No. 9, Southwick Street, Cambridge Square, W., who has consented to act as Honorary Treasurer and Secretary, will be happy to receive subscriptions which may be forwarded to him; cheques to be crossed "Coutts and Co.," or paid to his account (Woodward Fund) at that Bank.
DEATH OF Alexander Herzen. -This well-known Russian exile, socialist, and journalist, the editor of the Kolokol, and author of many political works, died in Paris on Friday the 21st instant, in the fifty-third year of his age, after a short attack of inflammation of the lungs.
NOT content with their endeavours to throw open the Reading Room of the British Museum, and so by the introduction of lights endangering the safety of our magnificent National Library, the enthusiastic advocates of that perilous scheme have advanced a step further, and are now agitating for the opening of the Public Record Office for literary inquiries in the evening; and it was recently announced that Mr. Lowe had visited that establishment for the purpose of considering how the scheme could be carried out. We are happy to be able to contradict the report. The Master of the Rolls is too sensible of the value of the Historical Records of which he is the Custos to expose them to any such risk; and the Chancellor of the Exchequer is neither disposed to support the measure nor to find the funds for carrying it into effect.
THE GOLD-HEADED CANE OF LORD LOVAT.—This cane, with a massive chased gold top-the identical cane handed by Lord Lovat, on the scaffold to his cousin, William Fraser-was sold by auction, on Saturday, by Messrs. Sotheby, Wilkinson, and Hodge, and realised
THE next Exhibition by the Burlington Fine Arts Club will be devoted to the works of Michael Angelo and Raffaelle, when, in addition to some fine original drawings, a large collection of engravings and photolitho-. graphs from the works of these great masters will be exhibited.
AN edition of the Moria Encomium of Erasmus, with the Illustrations by Holbein, printed from the original plates, is announced by MESSRS. REEVE & TURNER.
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MODERN INVENTIONS. That great invention the "Chronograph," which times all the principal events of the day, and has superseded the old-fashioned"Stop-watch," seems likely to be eclipsed in fame by that still more useful invention the "Keyless Watch." The fact of no key being required renders these Watches indispensable to the traveller. the nervous, and invalids. The enormous number sent even by post to all parts of the world, is a convincing proof of their great utility. The prices range from 5 to 100 guineas. Thousands of them are manufactured by Mr. J. W. BENSON, of Old Bond Street, and of the Steam Faetory, Ludgate Hill, London, who sends post free for 2d. a most interesting historical pamphlet upon watch-making.
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having satisfied himself that nearly the whole of the pedigrees hitherto published are fictitious that the whole of the pedigrees contained in the Heralds' Visitations, which were made between the reigns of Henry VIII. and Charles II., are either fictitious inventions or the erroneous result of tradition, and can only be relied upon as to the then living and two preceding generations, and having long ago discovered that the genealogical manuscripts in the British Museum, from which so many pedigrees have been made up, are simply trash, and, after a careful examination of the public and other records, has satisfied himself that pedigrees can only be compiled correctly from the Common Plens Rolls, called the Coram Rege, De Banco, Quo Warranto, Recovery. and Common Rolls, extending from the 5th of Richard I.-rolls, the examination of which has occupied the advertiser a great many years, having hitherto remained a sealed book from their immensity, and out of which he has extracted the most valuable collection of genealogical and historical information in existence, which enables him to offer his services as above; because, if a man bears coat armour without being able to show his descent from the original owner thereof, he is an impostor, and if he has not got a pedigree to show such descent, the presumption is that
"His ancient and ignoble blood
JAMES PHILIPPE, 48, Bedford Row.
LONDON, SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 5, 1870.
NOTES:-Junius: "Whittle," 139-The Legionary Tablet found at Bridgeness, Linlithgowshire, 140-Original Letter of Robert Earl of Somerset to John, afterwards Sir John Hay, of Baro, Nov. 20, 1624, 141-Cocker's Farewell to Brandy, 142- Humphrey Wanley: Autograph Notices of his Family, Ib.- Designation of Chief Justices: the Word "Lord," 143- Bell Literature and Archæology. Ib. -Statues on Easter Island - Sutherland Peerage Case, 1771-The Peel Castle Seal -"Otium cum Dignitate" The Guillotine, 144.
QUERIES: MSS. of Robert of Gloucester's Chronicle, 145-Ali, Dey-Early Alto-rilievo- John Asgill-Catholic Version of 2 Chron. xxxii. 22- Changing the First Lesson in the Church Service - Clan Tartans-Drury and Calthorpe-Colloquies of Erasmus- Statue of James II. Martin Luther "Madame de Malquet" Mount -John Nicholl, D.D.-Oaten Pipes, &c. Proverb Sir Edward Richardson-The Sangreal, or Hols Greal -"Screw"-Snap, or Nape, as a Termination - Stoles on Altars, &c., 145.
QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:
Shakespeare and Donne Squire Trelooby" Prime Minister - Twickenham Park and Kneller Hall-Bishop Jeremy Taylor, 148. REPLIES: Garrison Chapel, Portsmouth, 149 Bally, 150-Torture at Nuremberg and Munich: the Kiss of the Maiden, 151 - Arms of Slaughter, 152-Ebenezer
Jones, 164- Charles Dibdin's MSS., Ib. -Date of Entry
and First Publication of Works by Daniel Defoe, 155Boggarts, Feorin, &c., 156 Beza's New Testament Carnac Belive-Position of Creed, &c., in Churches The Bible known to Ancient Heathenism-"The Sisters" The too Courteous Knight," &c., 157.
Notes on Books, &c.
Some months since, the meaning of the word whittle was discussed in the pages of "N. & Q." I am about to give two examples of the use of the word, which it may not be undesirable to put on record as bearing, in however slight a degree, on the Junius question. On January 21, 1767, the Duke of Grafton wrote to the Earl of Chatham, enclosing a note which George III. had written to the duke under the date of January 17 of the same year, in the following words :
"Duke of Grafton,
"I am greatly mortified that Lord Chatham is prevented by a severe fit of the gout from coming to town at a time when his assistance would have been of so much consequence. I desire you will let him know how sincerely I feel also for what his mind, as well as his body, suffers at this time. I am too thoroughly convinced that you agree with me in the caution that must be used, that the East India affair be not whittled to a mere nothing, that I need not on this untoward event recommend any additional circumspection to you. "GEORGE R." The italics in the above are mine. If I am right in supposing that the word whittle, employed as a verb in this way, was at the date in question of rare occurrence, except perhaps among rustics (upon this point some of your readers may be able to speak authoritatively), Lord Chatham must have been struck by the king's use of it. The word is so remarkable that, if it had been
used even by the Duke of Grafton, it must, one would suppose, have attracted attention; but used by the king it was likely to impress itself upon Lord Chatham's recollection, and, as happens in such cases, would probably recur to him whenever the same idea was presented in another form of words.
On January 14, 1772, Junius, in a private letter to the Earl of Chatham, enclosing a proof of the former's letter to Lord Mansfield, subsequently published in the Public Advertiser under the date of January 21, 1772, wrote as follows:
"I am so clearly satisfied that Lord Mansfield has done an act not warranted by law, and that the enclosed argument is not to be answered (besides that, I find the lawyers concur with me), that I am inclined to expect he may himself acknowledge it as an oversight, and endeavour to whittle it away to nothing."
Again I have marked the passage, to which I wish attention to be directed, in italics. Assuming Chatham to be Junius, which I confess is at present the tendency of my guesses (one cannot venture to speak more decisively, even conjecturally, on a question so beset with difficulties as the authorship of the famous Letters), we may account for his use of whittle by the impression made upon him when he saw it in the king's letter. If however Junius was not Chatham, it is noteworthy that a word of such rare occurrence (in writing at any rate) should have been used by two persons in epistolary correspondence about the same period.
Leaving that point, I may observe that if Lord Chatham were Junius, and had reason at that particular moment to fear that circumstances would direct suspicion so strongly against himself that it would be necessary for him to do something to avert it, what better means of effecting that purpose could he possibly have than a letter from "the great boar of the forest" addressed to himself, commencing with this passage:
Confiding implicitly in your lordship's honour, I take the liberty of submitting to you the enclosed paper before it be given to the public."
And closing with this:
"I will not presume to trouble your lordship with any assurances, however sincere, of my respect and esteem for your character and admiration of your abilities. Retired and unknown, I live in the shade, and have only a speculative ambition. In the warmth of my imagination, I sometimes conceive that, when Junius exerts his utmost faculties in the service of his country, he approaches in theory to that exalted character which Lord Chatham alone fills up and uniformly supports in action."
Only one remark upon this extract. One would imagine that Junius, writing to Chatham, would take care to write at least as well as usual; but if Chatham were actually writing a letter to himself which might never be seen by any other person, he would not be very particular as regards style, and might, therefore, leave such an unsatisfactory
"There is a thing to mention to you in great confidence. I expect your assistance, and rely upon your secrecy. There is a long paper, ready for publication, but which must not appear until the morning of the meeting of Parliament, nor be announced in any shape whatever. Much depends on its appearing unexpectedly. If you receive it on the 8th or 9th inst., can you, in a day or two, have it composed and two proof sheets struck off and sent me; and can you keep the press standing ready for the Public Advertiser of the 21st? and can all this be done with such secrecy that none of your people shall know what is going forward except the composer, and can you rely on his fidelity? Consider of it, and if it be possible say YES in your paper tomorrow. I think it will take four full columns, at the least; but I undertake it shall sell. It is essential that I should have a proof sheet, and correct it myself."
It is remarkable that this should have been the only occasion on which Junius, in his correspondence with Woodfall, expressed any wish to see a proof of what he wrote before it was published. (He saw proofs, we know, of the first two sheets of the Letters when they were about to be published collectively.) Assuming Junius and Chatham to be one, it was necessary that he should ask Woodfall to let him have two proofs; because if he had obtained one only-which is all that a printer is accustomed to send to an author-and had not returned it, the circumstance would have surprised Woodfall, and have imposed upon Junius the necessity of explanations which would have
I take for granted (I am unable to refer to the paper) that Woodfall in the Public Advertiser answered "YES"; but he seems not to have kept his word, for on Saturday, January 11, Junius
writes to Woodfall in a tone of vexation:
"Your failing to send me the proofs, as you engaged to do, disappoints and distresses me extremely. It is not merely to correct the press (though even that is of consequence), but for another most material purpose. This will be entirely defeated if you do not let me have the two proofs on Monday morning. The paper itself is, in my opinion, of the highest style of JUNIUS, and cannot fail to sell. My reason for not announcing it was, that the party might have no time to concert his measures with the ministry. But upon reflection, I think it may answer better (in order to excite attention) to advertise it the day before Junius to Lord Chief Justice Mansfield tomorrow.' If you have any regard for me or the cause, let nothing hinder you sending the proofs on Monday."
If the opinion of those who maintain that Dunning was Junius were well founded, the use of the word "party" for "person," in the above All the italics are Junius's.
extract, might be excusable in a lawyer; but if not, it was a vulgarism in Junius.
After all, there was nothing in the letter to Lord Mansfield to make it a matter of importance that Lord Chatham should see it before it appeared in the Public Advertiser. It was merely a repetition of the proposition which Junius had previously laid down in a letter to Lord Mansfield, dated November 2, 1771. This proposition was more fully and ably stated in the second letter, and supported by authorities; but if Junius had thought it material that Lord Chatham should see those authorities before the expected discussion, he could have copied and sent them to him. At length Junius got the much-wished-for proofs, as appears from a letter to Woodfall, dated January 16, 1772:
HADRI . ANTONINO
i. e. "Imperatori Cæsari Tito Elio Hadriano Antonino Augusto Pio Patri Patria Legio Secunda Augusta per millia passuum IIIDCLII (4652) fecit."
AVG • PIO AVG PER
TITO • AELIO
The only peculiarity in this inscription, as compared with others of the same kind found on the line of the wall, is the position of FEC, i. e. fecit. Here it comes at the end; commonly it is found before per or the number of paces. The complete formula of such inscriptions was, the names and titles of the emperor, and the number and titles of the legion or other body, followed by "" opus valli fecit per M. P. "; but this is usually abridged. See Britanno-Roman Inscriptions, pp. 229-236. On the right (heraldic), a horseman is represented galloping over four naked and prostrate Caledonians. Similar representations are often found on the gravestones of auxiliary cavalry-soldiers; and in Horsley's (No. III.) Scotland, on a tablet also of the second legion Augusta, which was found on the line of the same wall, a scene is carved of a similar character; differing, however, in some particulars. On the left, a sacrificial scene is represented, indicating, as I think, the completion of the work. There are six figures of men, and three of victims for sacrifice, viz. a bull, a ram, and a boar-pig. It is plain, then, that a celebration of the Suovetaurilia is represented. One of the men, the principal figure, is pouring out a libation on an altar, and may, with some reason, be regarded as intended for Lollius Urbicus. The figure with the two pipes represents the tibicen, who usually played on a pair of tibi during the sacrifice. Thus Cicero (Agr. ii. 34), "immolare hostias majores ad præconem et tibicinem"; and Virgil (Georg. ii. 193) —
"Inflavit quum pinguis ebur Tyrrhenus ad aras." The figure sitting down may be the præco or popa; and of the remaining three, one may be the sacerdos, another the harusper or the legatus legionis secundæ, and the third, in the background, a signifer of the legion. But, however the figures may be identified, there can, I think, be but little doubt that the scene represents the celebration of the Suovetaurilia on the completion of the work; at which time also there was probably a lustratio, or review, of the second legion. On this subject it may be sufficient to adduce the following citations:-Marini (Atti Arvali, p. clxvii.), "Operis perfecti causa lustrum missum Suovetaurilibus majoribus"; Livy (i. 44), "Censu perfecto. exercitum omnem Suovetaurilibus lustravit." The date of the cutting of the stone was, probably, 139 or 140 A.D. J. McC.
ORIGINAL LETTER OF ROBERT EARL OF SOMERSET TO JOHN, AFTERWARDS SIR JOHN HAY, OF BARO, Nov. 20, 1624.
The following letter is interesting, not only on account of the reference to the dealings between the powerful favourite of James, whose fall was as unexpected as his rise, and George Heriot, but because it indicates that, after his conviction and sentence, Somerset was not so much depressed in his fortunes as has been supposed. This autograph letter is a beautiful specimen of calligraphy, and has a fine impression of the earl's arms in
Hay, the individual to whom it is addressed, was one of the contributors to the Muse's welcome to King James upon his visit to Edinburgh in 1617. He was at one time Town Clerk, and afterwards Provost of Edinburgh. He became Lord Clerk Register, and afterwards, January 8, 1633, an Extraordinary Lord of Session.
On the promotion of Sir Robert Spottiswood Ordinary Lord of Session January 7, 1644. He to the Presidency, Hay succeeded to him as an incurred the dislike of his countrymen by advocating the introduction of the service book. This obliged him to give up his situation and take refuge in England. He received an order for 5000l. sterling on the Exchequer as a compensation, and was knighted by Charles I., to whose fortunes he remained faithful, and very nearly lost his head for his loyalty. He, however, saved himself by bribing that worthy Saint the Earl of Lanark. He died at Duddingston, near Edinburgh, November 20, 1654. Sir James Balfour, a fierce Presbyterian, calls him " wickedness and villainie" (see Annals, ii. 193): – one corrupt, full of "Sir,
"I am to make knowen to you that there is some Controversie likely to grow betwixt the Executors of Mr George Heryot, his Maiesties late Jeweller deceased, and myselfe, about a piece of worke which I did some years since intreate him to make for me, which in his life tyme I did earnestly desire to get out of his hands, & to come to an accompt with him for, and spent a. great time in solliciting him for that purpose, euer intending to give him all reasonable satisfactioun of whatsoever should upon a just accompt betwixt vs, remaine long sicknes, & partly vpon some other cause now too due vnto him. But it being (partly by reason of his long to be related) from time to time deleyed, I am fallen into the hands of his executors, vnto whom I make this just and reasonable offer. Mr Heryot had of me for the making up of the sword, which I bespake of him, so goe neare to finish it; yet he added therevnto some stones many diamonds, and so much gold, as I conceived would of his owne, which, with the workmanship he euer told me, he thought would come to about 400 or 500: Now in the accompt which he giveth me in of the sword, he valued his stones and workmanshipp at 890, a proportion doubly ever understood from him they exceeding that which were likely to amount vnto. I am readie to setesfie vnto Mr Heryot's Executors the full value of the things, but herein it is not fitt that he himselfe or I should be our owne judges: I doe therefore make this offer, that the