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other things, that I would willingly write, and must therefore refer you to my letters to my other correspondents in Scotland; particularly, Mr. M'Laurin, Mr. Robe, Mr. M'Culloch, and Mr. Erskine. To some of them, I have sent a particular account of my present circumstances, and of things which have lately passed, relating to them. I would only say in general, that I have had a call to settle in Stockbridge, a place in the western borders of New-England, next to the province of New-York, about thirty-six miles from Albany, and about forty miles from Northampton, the place where Mr. Sergeant was minister and missionary to the Indians. I am both called by the church here, constituted partly of Indians and partly of English, and am appointed missionary to the Indians, by the Commissioners of Indian affairs, in Boston ; agreeably to what you suggest in your letter, as though you had been able to foresee future events, when you say,"Perhaps you are to be employed, where the Gospel has been little understood, or attended to.” pose this place will, for the future, be the place of my ordinary abode, though it will be some months before I can remove my family. I have no leisure, at present, to write on the subject you speak of, viz. impressions, and supposed immediate redelations, though I own the vast importance of the subject. I had begun to write something against the Arminians, before the late controversy ; and now lately, Mr. Williams has written a book, in answer to mine on that subject; which I think myself obliged to answer, if God give me opportunity.
“ I have much to teach me to behave like a pilgrim and stranger in the earth. But in the midst of troubles and difficulties, I receive many mercies. Partiularly, I have great reason, with abundant thankfulness, to take notice of the great kindness of my friends in Scotland. Blessed be God, who never forsakes those, that trust in him; and never wants instruments, for the conveyance of his goodness and liberality to those, who suffer in his cause !
“I shall take care, that there be conveyed, with this letter, to you, one of my Farewell Sermons, and the Result of the Council, that sat at Northampton the last May. Remember me, dear Sir, at the throne of grace, with regard to all my trials; and with regard to my new circumstances, and the important service I lave undertaken in this place—and please, in your next, to inform me, what family you have, and of their state.
“I am, dear Sir, your most
The following letter of Mr. Edwards to the Rev. Isaac Hollis, the patron of one of the Indian schools at Stockbridge, will explain some of the difficulties, to which they were subjected.
* To Mr. Hollis.
Stockbridge, July 2, 1751. « Rev. AND HONOURED SIR,
“Having seen your late letter to Mr. Prince of Boston, and another to Capt. Kellogg, received this summer, and having lately been appointed Missionary to the Indians in this place, I thought myself obliged to take the first opportunity to write to you, who have exerted yourself, in so extraordinary a manner, to promote our interests here, to serve which I am now devoted; partly to offer you my thanks for what you have done, and have lately offered to do, with so fervent and enlarged a heart, and bountiful a hand, for the advancement and enlargement of Christ's kingdom of grace among this poor people, and the eternal welfare of their souls; which may well excite the joy and admiration of all good christians, the thanks of all who make the interests of Zion their own, and especially of him who has the souls of the Indians committed to his own more immediate care.
“I write, also, partly to inform you of what I have had opportunity to observe, of the state of things here, relating to the affair of the instruction of the Indians, which you have a right to know; it being an affair in which you have been pleased so greatly to interest yourself, and which depends so much on the effects of your most generous christian beneficence. I have had considerable opportunity to observe the state of things; for though it is but about a month since I came here, after I had undertaken the work of the ministry here, as the stated Missionary, yet I had been here before, two months in the winter, and then spent much time with the Indians, particularly with the Mohawks under the care of Capt. Kellogg.
“There are here two schools for the instruction of Indian children: one under the care of Mr. Timothy Woodbridge, which began soon after Mr. Sergeant began to preach to these Indians,—this school consists wholly of the proper Housatonnuck Indians; the other, under the care of Capt. Kellogg, which he began with the Housatonnucks, on the plan which Mr. Sergeant projected; but, in the changeable unsettled state, in which things have been since Mr. Sergeant's death, it has been altered from that form, and the Housatonnuck boys have left it, and it now consists wholly of Mohawk children, which have been brought down hither by their parents, from their own proper country, about eighty miles, to this end, that they might be taught to read, and write, and be instructed in the christian religion.
“ There are some things, which give a hopeful prospect with regard to these Mohawk Indians ; particularly the forward inclination of the children and their aptness to learn. But that, which has evidently been the greatest defect from the beginning in the method of instruction here, is, that no more proper and effectual measures have been taken, to_bring the children that are here, to the knowledge of the English tongue. For want of this, all the labour and cost, which have been expended in schools here, for about fourteen years, have been consequently to but little effect or benefit. When the children are taught to read, many of them, for want of the English language know nothing of what they read; their books being all in English. They merely learn to make such and such sounds, on the sight of such and such marks, but know not the meaning of the words, and so have neither profit nor pleasure in reading, and will therefore be apt soon to lose even what they have learned, having no benefit or entertainment in the use of it.
“It is on many other accounts of great importance, that they should be brought to know the English language. This would greatly tend to forward their instruction; their own barbarous languages being exceedingly barren, and very unfit to express moral and divine things. It would likewise open their minds, and, by means of their acquaintance and conversation with the English, would tend to advance them in knowledge and civilization. Some pains has been taken to teach the children the English tongue, but nothing very considerable has been accomplished. And I can think of but two ways in which it can be effected :-either by introducing a number of English children into the schools, to learn with them, and be their mates; or by distributing the Indian children into English families, to live there a year or two, where they must be allowed to speak the English and nothing else, and then return into the Indian schools, to perfect them in reading and writing, and the knowledge of the principles of religion, and all other useful knowledge. The latter, if their parents can be persuaded to consent to it, as probably they may, will be much the most effectual.
"I would therefore, Sir, humbly propose, that some such method should be taken with regard to the children, who have the benefit of your liberality; and that part of your benefaction should be expended in this way, under the care of prudent and faithful Trustees; for, in order to the business being managed thoroughly in future, a great deal of care and activity will be necessary, vastly more than the schoolmaster can have leisure for. There are many things, pertaining to the regulation of the affairs of the instruction of the Indian children, which seem greatly to require the care of a number of persons, who shall be entrusted to dispose things according to the best of their discretion; sending from time to time, a particular and exact account of the manner, in which they have laid out your money.
“I thought myself obliged to give you these intimations ; you being at a great distance, and not capable of knowing the exact state of things, any otherwise, than by the information of those who are
on the spot; and it being fit that you should know those circumstances, which are of so much importance to the affair, that, without a proper regard to them, the great expense, which you incur, is liable to be in a great measure in vain.
“I humbly request your prayers to the Fountain of all light and grace, for his guidance and assistance in this important service, which I have lately undertaken in this place.
“I am, Honoured Sir,
“ JONATHAN EDWARDS.
A conference was appointed, to be held at Albany, the last week in June, 1751, between the Commissioners of the governments of Massachusetts, Connecticut and New-York, and the Chiefs of the Iroquois, or Six Nations, for the purpose of making a treaty. The Commissioners of Massachusetts were directed to pass through Stockbridge, on their way to Albany, for the purpose of conferring with the Mohawks, already there, about their settlement in NewEngland. On their arrival, they found that Hendrick, and almost all the heads of families, on account of their disgust at the neglect of their children, on the part of Capt. Kellogg, had returned to their own country. In consequence of this, they requested Mr. Edwards to go to Albany, and be present at the conference ; whither he accordingly went, the first week in July. In an interview with Hendrick and Nicholas, he endeavoured to persuade them, to influence as many of the Mohawk Chiefs, as possible, to go to Stockbridge, and there treat of their removal to New-England. This being urged upon them afterwards, by the Commissioners of Massachusetts, was agreed to by them and the other Chiefs; and a conference appointed, to be held at Stockbridge, in August
. Mr. Edwards then returned to Stockbridge, and, in the latter part of July, to his family in Northampton.
The first week in August, he removed his family and effects from Northampton to Stockbridge; and on Thursday, Aug. 8th, was regularly installed as the minister of the congregation in that place, and inducted into the office of Missionary, to the Indians residing in its vicinity. His salary was derived from three sources: from the parish of Stockbridge; from the Society in London, for propagating the Gospel in New-England, and the parts adjacent, whose missionary he was, through their Commissioners at Boston; and from the Legislat:ire of the Colony, as a part of the annual fund devoted to the civilization of the Indians. This latter sum was paid, of course, to the individual, who held the office of minister and missionary at Stockbridge, although the government had no voice in his appointment.
On Tuesday, Aug. 13th, the Chiefs of the Mohawks came from
their two principal settlements, to Stockbridge, and met the Commissioners of the province. The Chiefs expressed a very strong desire, that their children might be instructed; but objected to the removal to Stockbridge, on the ground, that the affairs of the Mohawks there were left in the utmost confusion, that no regular school was established, and no thorough means taken for the education of their children. After reminding the Commissioners, how often the English had failed to fulfil their promises, and disappointed the hopes, which they had encouraged them to entertain, they requestthem to promise nothing, but what the government would certainly perform. The Commissioners agreed among themselves, that, in consequence of the utter incompetency of Capt. Kellogg, another instructer, a man of learning and skill
, must be procured for the Mohawk school; and promised the Chiefs, that a regular school should be established for their children, and a competent instructer speedily procured. After this, the Chiefs declared their aceeptance of the proposals made to them, of sending their children to Stockbridge for instruction, and of coming, a number of them, to reside there; and tendered a belt of wampum to the Commissioners, in confirmation of the agreement, which was accepted. On Thursday, Aug. 22, the Council was dissolved, and the Chiefs went home.
The Mohawks, at this time, discovered a very strong desire to promote the education of their children, and an unusual willingness to receive religious instruction; as did also a part of the tribe of the Oneiyutas, or Oneidas, residing at Onohohquauga, or Onohquauga, a settlement on the Susquehannah. The French, having been apprised of the efforts making by the English, in behalf of the Mohawks, were busily occupied in seducing them, and the other tribes of the Iroquois, to emigrate into Canada; and were actually erecting a chain of forts, extending from Canada, through New-York, Pennsylvania, and the wilderness beyond, to the Mississippi. Mr. Edwards, believing that, if the utmost good faith was not kept with the Mohawks, the whole plan of instructing them would be defeated; and regarding the period, as a most critical one for the welfare of the British Colonies; addressed a letter, on the subject of the Indians, to the Hon. Thomas Hubbard, Speaker of the House of Assembly. In this letter, he gave an account of the Council held with the Chiefs of the Mohawks, at Stockbridge, and their agreement to encourage the education of their children at that place; mentioned the interest felt in the subject by the Mohawks and the Oneiyutas, and by some of the Tuscaroras; stated the vast importance of the existing crisis, for securing the friendship of the Six Nations; recited the machinations of the French, to seduce them from the English interest, and their hostile movements in the west ; pointed out the religious and literary instruction of the Indians, as the only means of securing their attachment to the British cause ;